Higher Education and the State in Latin America: Private Challenges to Public Dominance
by Daniel C. Levy
University of Chicago Press, 1986 Cloth: 978-0-226-47608-7
ABOUT THIS BOOK | TOC
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Latin America higher education has undergone an astonishing transformation in recent years, highlighted by the private sector's growth from 3 to 34 percent of the region's total enrollment. In this provocative work Daniel Levy examines the sources, characteristics, and consequences of the development and considers the privatization of higher education within the broader context of state-society relationships.
Levy shows how specific national circumstances cause variations and identifies three basic private-public patterns: one in which the private and public sectors are relatively similar and those in which one sector or the other is dominant. These patterns are analyzed in depth in case studies of Chile, Mexico, and Brazil. For each sector, Levy investigates origins and growth, and then who pays, who rules, and whose interests are served.
In addition to providing a wealth of information, Levy offers incisive analyses of the nature of public and private institutions. Finally, he explores the implications of his findings for concepts such as autonomy, corporatism, and privatization. His multifaceted study is a major contribution to the literature on Latin American studies, comparative politics, and higher education.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables List of Abbreviations Acknowledgments 1. Issues and Concepts Issues Introduction and Themes Private Challenges to Public Dominance Private-Public Policy Debates The Literature Concepts The State Private and Public U.S. and European Models Overview of Chapters 2. Private versus Public Growth Analytical Categories The Genesis of Public and Private Sectors Private/Public Fusion Private-Public Separation: Public Monopoly The Catholic Reaction: Wave I Public Sector Evolution: Toward Perceived "Failure" Traditional Public Sector Exclusiveness Public Sector Growth Institutional Proliferation From Public Failures to Private Alternatives Social-Class Failure: Declining Elitism Political Failure: Politicization Economic Failure: Modernization and Dependency The Wave II Backlash to Wave I State Support for Private Alternatives Nonelite Private Alternatives: Wave III Entrée 3. Private-Public Homogeneity: Chile The Context Evolution Estado Docente Dual Sectors and Homogenization (1888-1973) Proliferation and Retrenchment (1973-1983) Finance A Public System Pushing Dual Sector Privatization Governance The National University as State Regulator Institutional Governance Authoritarian Control and U.S. Models Function Religious Orientations Partisan Political Orientations Field and Job-Market Orientations Clientele and Social Class Quality Conclusion 4. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Mexico The Context Evolution From Private-Public to Mostly Public The Rise of Private Alternatives Finance Tuition The Nonprofit/For-Profit Connection Governance Profiles of Private Power State Licensing Comparing Private to Public Governance Function Values: Religious, Political, and Nationalist Fields of Study Employment: Private Enterprise or the State? Quality Conclusion 5. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Brazil The Context Evolution Retarded Public Sector Development Creating the Private Sector Private versus Public Growth Finance The Private Sector The Public Sector Governance Students and the State Institutions and the State Public Sector Reform Function Religious Orientations Field and Job-Market Orientations Quality Implications 6. Overview of Latin America Case Study Frameworks Finance The Public Sector The Catholic Subsector The Secular Elite Subsector The Demand-Absorbing Subsector Governance The Public Sector: Autonomy and State Control The Public Sector: Institutional Decentralization The Private Sector: Autonomy from State Control The Private Sector: Institutional Centralization Function Religious Missions Political Ideologies Economic Orientations: Field of Study Economic Orientations: The Job Market Quality and Prestige Conclusion 7. The Consequences of Privatization: Reconceptualizing Rationale Private Versus Public Sector Versus Sector Stereotypes, Foreign Models, and Comparative Perspectives Privateness versus Publicness Evaluating Privatization The Success Story The Negative Side Freedom, Choice, Equity, and Effectiveness The State and Higher Education Serving the State Corporatism? Privatization Conclusion Appendixes A-J Notes Select Bibliography Index