Higher Education and the State in Latin America: Private Challenges to Public Dominance
by Daniel C. Levy
University of Chicago Press, 1986
Cloth: 978-0-226-47608-7

ABOUT THIS BOOK | TOC
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Latin America higher education has undergone an astonishing transformation in recent years, highlighted by the private sector's growth from 3 to 34 percent of the region's total enrollment. In this provocative work Daniel Levy examines the sources, characteristics, and consequences of the development and considers the privatization of higher education within the broader context of state-society relationships.

Levy shows how specific national circumstances cause variations and identifies three basic private-public patterns: one in which the private and public sectors are relatively similar and those in which one sector or the other is dominant. These patterns are analyzed in depth in case studies of Chile, Mexico, and Brazil. For each sector, Levy investigates origins and growth, and then who pays, who rules, and whose interests are served.

In addition to providing a wealth of information, Levy offers incisive analyses of the nature of public and private institutions. Finally, he explores the implications of his findings for concepts such as autonomy, corporatism, and privatization. His multifaceted study is a major contribution to the literature on Latin American studies, comparative politics, and higher education.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
    List of Tables
    List of Abbreviations
    Acknowledgments
    1. Issues and Concepts
    Issues
    Introduction and Themes
    Private Challenges to Public Dominance
    Private-Public Policy Debates
    The Literature
    Concepts
    The State
    Private and Public
    U.S. and European Models
    Overview of Chapters
    2. Private versus Public Growth
    Analytical Categories
    The Genesis of Public and Private Sectors
    Private/Public Fusion
    Private-Public Separation: Public Monopoly
    The Catholic Reaction: Wave I
    Public Sector Evolution: Toward Perceived "Failure"
    Traditional Public Sector Exclusiveness
    Public Sector Growth
    Institutional Proliferation
    From Public Failures to Private Alternatives
    Social-Class Failure: Declining Elitism
    Political Failure: Politicization
    Economic Failure: Modernization and Dependency
    The Wave II Backlash to Wave I
    State Support for Private Alternatives
    Nonelite Private Alternatives: Wave III
    Entrée
    3. Private-Public Homogeneity: Chile
    The Context
    Evolution
    Estado Docente
    Dual Sectors and Homogenization (1888-1973)
    Proliferation and Retrenchment (1973-1983)
    Finance
    A Public System
    Pushing Dual Sector Privatization
    Governance
    The National University as State Regulator
    Institutional Governance
    Authoritarian Control and U.S. Models
    Function
    Religious Orientations
    Partisan Political Orientations
    Field and Job-Market Orientations
    Clientele and Social Class
    Quality
    Conclusion
    4. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Mexico
    The Context
    Evolution
    From Private-Public to Mostly Public
    The Rise of Private Alternatives
    Finance
    Tuition
    The Nonprofit/For-Profit Connection
    Governance
    Profiles of Private Power
    State Licensing
    Comparing Private to Public Governance
    Function
    Values: Religious, Political, and Nationalist
    Fields of Study
    Employment: Private Enterprise or the State?
    Quality
    Conclusion
    5. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Brazil
    The Context
    Evolution
    Retarded Public Sector Development
    Creating the Private Sector
    Private versus Public Growth
    Finance
    The Private Sector
    The Public Sector
    Governance
    Students and the State
    Institutions and the State
    Public Sector Reform
    Function
    Religious Orientations
    Field and Job-Market Orientations
    Quality
    Implications
    6. Overview of Latin America
    Case Study Frameworks
    Finance
    The Public Sector
    The Catholic Subsector
    The Secular Elite Subsector
    The Demand-Absorbing Subsector
    Governance
    The Public Sector: Autonomy and State Control
    The Public Sector: Institutional Decentralization
    The Private Sector: Autonomy from State Control
    The Private Sector: Institutional Centralization
    Function
    Religious Missions
    Political Ideologies
    Economic Orientations: Field of Study
    Economic Orientations: The Job Market
    Quality and Prestige
    Conclusion
    7. The Consequences of Privatization: Reconceptualizing
    Rationale
    Private Versus Public
    Sector Versus Sector
    Stereotypes, Foreign Models, and Comparative Perspectives
    Privateness versus Publicness
    Evaluating Privatization
    The Success Story
    The Negative Side
    Freedom, Choice, Equity, and Effectiveness
    The State and Higher Education
    Serving the State
    Corporatism?
    Privatization
    Conclusion
    Appendixes A-J
    Notes
    Select Bibliography
    Index



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