cover of book

Foundations of Ecology: Classic Papers with Commentaries
edited by Leslie A. Real and James H. Brown
University of Chicago Press, 1991
Cloth: 978-0-226-70593-4 | Paper: 978-0-226-70594-1 | eISBN: 978-0-226-18210-0
Library of Congress Classification QH541.145.F68 1991
Dewey Decimal Classification 574.5

Assembled here for the first time in one volume are forty classic papers that have laid the foundations of modern ecology. Whether by posing new problems, demonstrating important effects, or stimulating new research, these papers have made substantial contributions to an understanding of ecological processes, and they continue to influence the field today.

The papers span nearly nine decades of ecological research, from 1887 on, and are organized in six sections: foundational papers, theoretical advances, synthetic statements, methodological developments, field studies, and ecological experiments. Selections range from Connell's elegant account of experiments with barnacles to Watt's encyclopedic natural history, from a visionary exposition by Grinnell of the concept of niche to a seminal essay by Hutchinson on diversity.

Six original essays by contemporary ecologists and a historian of ecology place the selections in context and discuss their continued relevance to current research. This combination of classic papers and fresh commentaries makes Foundations of Ecology both a convenient reference to papers often cited today and an essential guide to the intellectual and conceptual roots of the field.

Published with the Ecological Society of America.
    Part One - Foundational Papers
    Defining Ecology as a Science
    Sharon E. Kingsland

    1. Stephen A. Forbes (1887)
    The Lake as a Microcosm
    (Bulletin of the Peoria Scientific Association, pp. 77-87. Reprinted in the Bulletin of the Illinois State Natural History Survey 15 (1925): 537-50

    2. Henry Chandler Cowles (1899)
    The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan
    The Botanical Gazette 27 : 97-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361-91

    3. Frederic E. Clements (1936)
    Nature and Structure of the Climax
    The Journal of Ecology 24 : 252-84

    4. H. A. Gleason (1926)
    The Individualistic Concept of the Plant Association
    Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53 : 7-26

    5. Joseph Grinnell (1917)
    The Niche-Relationships of the California Thrasher
    The Auk 34 : 427-33

    6. A. J. Nicholson and V. A. Bailey (1935)
    The Balance of Animal Populations, Part I
    Proceeding of the Zoological Society, London, no. 3, pp. 551-98

    Part Two - Theoretical Advances
    The Role of Theory in the Rise of Modern Ecology
    Leslie A. Real and Simon A. Levin

    8. Frank W. Preston (1962)
    The Canonical Distribution of Commonness and Rarity, Part I
    Ecology 43 : 185-215, 431-32

    9. G. Evelyn Hutchinson (1957)
    Concluding Remarks
    Population Studies: Animal Ecology and Demography. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22 : 415-27

    10. Lamont C. Cole (1954)
    The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena
    The Quarterly Review of Biology 29 : 103-37

    11. Robert M. May (1974)
    Biological Populations with Non-Overlapping Generations: Stable Points, Stable Cycles, and Chaos
    Science 186 : 645-47

    12. Robert H. MacArthur and Eric R. Pianka (1966)
    On Optimal Use of a Patchy Environment
    The American Naturalist 100 : 603-9

    13. Vito Volterra (1926)
    Fluctuations in the Abundance of a Species Considered Mathematically
    Nature 118 : 558-60

    14. J. G. Skellam (1951)
    Random Dispersal in Theoretical Populations
    Biometrika 38 : 196-218

    Part Three - Theses, Antitheses, and Syntheses
    Conversational Biology and Ecological Debate
    Joel G. Kingsolver and Robert T. Paine

    15. A. G. Tansley (1935)
    The Use and Abuse of Vegetational Concepts and Terms
    Ecology 16 : 284-307

    16. G. E. Hutchinson (1959)
    Homage to Santa Rosalia; or, Why Are There So Many Kinds of Animals?
    The American Naturalist 93 : 145-59
    17. Nelson G. Hairston, Frederick E. Smith, and Lawrence B. Slobodkin (1960)
    Community Structure, Population Control, and Competition
    The American Naturalist 94 : 421-25

    18. Paul R. Ehrlich and Peter H. Raven (1964)
    Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution
    Evolution 18 : 586-608

    19. J. L. Harper (1967)
    A Darwinian Approach to Plant Ecology
    The Journal of Ecology 55 : 247-70

    20. Thomas W. Schoener (1971)
    Theory of Feeding Strategies
    Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2 : 369-404

    Part Four - Methodological Advances
    New Approaches and Methods in Ecology
    James H. Brown

    21. Lennart von Post (1967 [1916])
    Forest Tree Pollen in South Swedish Peat Bog Deposits
    Pollen et Spores 9 : 378-401. A translation by Margaret Bryan Davis and Knut Faegri of Om skogstradspollen i sydsvenska torfmosselagerfolijder (foredragsreferat) (Geolgiska Foereningen i Stockholm. Foerhandlingar 38 : 384-34), with an introduction by Knut Faegri and Johs. Iversen

    22. P. H. Leslie (1945)
    On the Use of Matrices in Certain Population Mathematics
    Biometrika 33 : 183-212

    23. L. C. Birch (1948)
    The Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase of an Insect Population
    The Journal of Animal Ecology 17 : 15-26
    24. C. S. Holling (1959)
    The Components of Predation as Revealed by a Study of Small Mammal Predation of the European Pine Sawfly
    The Canadian Entomologist 91 : 293-320

    25. Warren P. Porter and David M. Gates (1969)
    Thermodynamic Equilibria of Animals with Environment
    Ecological Monographs 39 : 227-44

    26. J. Roger Bray and J. T. Curtis (1957)
    An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communities of Southern Wisconsin
    Ecological Monographs 27 : 325-49

    27. Eugene P. Odum (1969)
    The Strategy of Ecosystem Development
    Science 164 : 262-70

    Part Five - Case Studies in Natural Systems
    Lessons from Nature: Case Studies in Natural Systems
    Robert K. Peet

    28. J. Davidson and H. G. Andrewartha (1948)
    The Influence of Rainfall, Evaporation and Atmospheric Temperature on Fluctuations in the Size of a Natural Population of Thrips Imaginis (Thysanoptera)
    The Journal of Animal Ecology 17 : 200-222

    29. John M. Teal (1962)
    Energy Flow in the Salt Marsh Ecosystem of Georgia
    Ecology 43 : 614-24

    30. Margaret B. Davis (1969)
    Climatic Changes in Southern Connecticut Recorded by Pollen Desposition at Rogers Lake
    Ecology 50 : 409-22

    31. Alex S. Watt (1947)
    Pattern and Process in the Plant Community
    The Journal of Ecology 35 : 1-22

    32. Robert H. MacArthur (1958)
    Population Ecology of Some Warblers of Northeastern Coniferous Forests
    Ecology 39 : 599-619

    33. John Langdon Brooks and Stanley I. Dodson (1965)
    Predation, Body Size, and Composition of Plankton
    Science 150 : 28-35

    Part Six - Experimental Manipulations in Lab and Field Systems
    Manipulative Experiments as Tests of Ecological Theory
    Jane Lubchenco and Leslie A. Real

    34. H. B. D. Kettlewell (1955)
    Selection Experiments on Industrial Melanism in the Lepidoptera
    Heredity 9 :323-42

    35. Thomas Park (1948)
    Experimental Studies of Interspecies Competition. I. Competition between Populations of the Flour Beetles, Tribolium confusum Duvall and Tribolium castaneum Herbst
    Ecological Monographs 18 : 267-307
    36. C. B. Huffaker (1958)
    Experimental Studies on Predation: Dispersion Factors and Predator-Prey Oscillations
    Hilgardia 27 : 343-83

    37. Joseph H. Connell (1961)
    The Influence of Interspecific Competition and Other Factors on the Distribution of the Barnacle Chthamalus stellatus
    Ecology 42 : 710-23

    38. Robert T. Paine (1966)
    Food Web Complexity and Species Diversity
    The American Naturalist 100 : 65-75

    39. Daniel S. Simberloff and Edward O. Wilson (1969)
    Experimental Zoogeography of Islands: The Colonization of Empty Islands
    Ecology 50 : 278-96

    40. Gene E. Likens, F. Herbert Bormann, Noye M. Johnson, D. W. Fisher, and Robert S. Pierce (1970)
    Effects of Forest Cutting and Herbicide Treatment on Nutrient Budgets in the Hubbard Brook Watershed-Ecosystem
    Ecological Monographs 40 : 23-47

    List of Contributors


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