When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods
by John V. A. Fine
University of Michigan Press, 2006
Cloth: 978-0-472-11414-6 | eISBN: 978-0-472-02560-2
Library of Congress Classification DR1523.5.F56 2006
Dewey Decimal Classification 305.8/0094972

"This is history as it should be written. In When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans, a logical advancement on his earlier studies, Fine has successfully tackled a fascinating historical question, one having broad political implications for our own times. Fine's approach is to demonstrate how ideas of identity and self-identity were invented and evolved in medieval and early-modern times. At the same time, this book can be read as a critique of twentieth-century historiography-and this makes Fine's contribution even more valuable. This book is an original, much-needed contribution to the field of Balkan studies."
-Steve Rapp, Associate Professor of Caucasian, Byzantine, and Eurasian History, and Director, Program in World History and Cultures Department of History, Georgia State University Atlanta

When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans is a study of the people who lived in what is now Croatia during the Middle Ages (roughly 600-1500) and the early-modern period (1500-1800), and how they identified themselves and were identified by others. John V. A. Fine, Jr., advances the discussion of identity by asking such questions as: Did most, some, or any of the population of that territory see itself as Croatian? If some did not, to what other communities did they consider themselves to belong? Were the labels attached to a given person or population fixed or could they change? And were some people members of several different communities at a given moment? And if there were competing identities, which identities held sway in which particular regions?

In When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans, Fine investigates the identity labels (and their meaning) employed by and about the medieval and early-modern population of the lands that make up present-day Croatia. Religion, local residence, and narrow family or broader clan all played important parts in past and present identities. Fine, however, concentrates chiefly on broader secular names that reflect attachment to a city, region, tribe or clan, a labeled people, or state.

The result is a magisterial analysis showing us the complexity of pre-national identity in Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia. There can be no question that the medieval and early-modern periods were pre-national times, but Fine has taken a further step by demonstrating that the medieval and early-modern eras in this region were also pre-ethnic so far as local identities are concerned. The back-projection of twentieth-century forms of identity into the pre-modern past by patriotic and nationalist historians has been brought to light. Though this back-projection is not always misleading, it can be; Fine is fully cognizant of the danger and has risen to the occasion to combat it while frequently remarking in the text that his findings for the Balkans have parallels elsewhere.

John V. A. Fine, Jr. is Professor of History at the University of Michigan.
    Maps xv
    The Setting, Including the Slavic and Croat Migrations 17
    Overview of the Medieval History of the Western Balkans  18
    The Migrations 22
    Constantine Porphyrogenitus  23
    Croats and Slavs to 1102   27
    Brief Historical Summary  27
    The Sources on the Western Balkans Prior to I102  29
    Constantine Porphyrogenitus  29
    The Lombards 33
    The Franks  33
    The Venetians  37
    The Arabs in Sicily and Spain 42
    The Papacy 42
    Croatia Itself in the Ninth Century  44
    The Dalmatians (Split)  46
    An Early Czech Source  49
    Late References to Croats Produce Alternative Theories  50
    Issues of Language  54
    The Church in Dalmatia and Its Language  54
    The Language Spoken in Croatia and Dalmatia 58
    Early Accounts of the Death of King Zvonimir 59
    A Miscellany of (Mostly) Domestic Sources 59
    Croatia Proper (Eleventh Century to 1102)  59
    In the South  62
    Conclusions (up to 1102)  63
    Slavonia, Dalmatia, and "Velebitia" after I 1o2 67
    The Events of 1102   67
    Slavonia, 1102-1400   71
    Dalmatia and "Velebitia," 11o2-ca. 1340  79
    Setting the Scene: The Different Actors and Their Perceptions
    of Who Was Who up to ca. 1340 79
    King Koloman Establishes Hungarian Rule and the Terminology
    of the Hungarian Administration to ca. 1340  79
    The Dalmatian Cities 84
    Church Discussions on Slavonic  94
    The Term "Dalmatian" as an Identity  94
    Dubrovnik's Terminology  95
    A Brief Byzantine Interlude (1143-80)  99
    The Arab Geographer Idrisi o1o
    Smaller Regional Identities  iro
    Venice's Terminology  103
    Cathar and International Catholic Terminology  1o6
    Dalmatia, Croatia, and Slavonia from the Mid-Fourteenth
    Century, and the Venetian-Hungarian Rivalry, up to the
    Ottoman Conquest    iog
    Setting the Scene, 1340s to ca. 1500  109
    Dalmatia and Croatia  o10
    The Vocabulary Used by Venice (I340S-1500)  I 1I
    Hungary's Vocabulary, ca. 1350-1450  120
    References to Communities Possibly Labeled
    Ethnically: Croats and Vlachs  129
    Other Significant Fifteenth-Century Mentions of
    "Croats/Croatia"  131
    Typical Vocabulary Used in Croatia and Dalmatia  134
    Church Matters  140
    Identity in Dubrovnik in the Fifteenth Century  141
    Vocabulary Used about Dalmatia/Croatia in Italy  143
    Growth of the Zvonimir Legend in the Fourteenth Century  I46
    Contents   xi
    Slavonia in the Fifteenth Century  147
    The Turkish Threat (1493-1526)  148
    The First and Only Pre-50oo Clearly Ethnic Croat  148
    What Language Did People Speak in Dalmatia and "Velebitia,"
    1102-1500? 150
    Conclusions (1102-1500)    165
    Perceptions of Slavs, Illyrians, and Croats, 1500 to 1600   171
    Brief Historical Survey  I71
    The "Croat" Identity Camp    184
    Five Sixteenth-Century Authors Find Ethnicity
    in Connection with the Croats  184
    Other Sixteenth-Century Figures Advancing the "Croat" Name  191
    Protestants  204
    The Catholic Response  208
    Items Labeled "Croatian"  212
    University Registers and "Croats" Elsewhere  212
    Ottoman Terminology   215
    Official Habsburg Terminology  215
    The Uskoks   216
    Travellers  219
    The "Slav," "Illyrian," or "Dalmatian" Identity Camp 223
    The Slavist Camp in the Sixteenth Century  223
    Vinko Pribojevie  223
    Mavro Orbini and a Brief Note on Jacob Luccari  226
    Others in the "Slavic Camp"  229
    Three Slavonian Writers  240
    The Jesuits in Slavonia  242
    Foreigners Define Their Neighbors  244
    Those Who Chose the Term "Illyrian"  255
    Church "Illyrianists"  259
    Protestants  262
    "Dalmatianists"  264
    City Identities and Regional Ones (Other than "Dalmatian")  269
    General Thoughts on the Sixteenth Century   270
    Perceptions of Slavs, Illyrians, and Croats in Dalmatia,
    Dubrovnik, and Croatia Proper, 1600 to 1800 276
    Introductory Remarks   276
    The Dominant "Slavic" and "Illyrian" Camps 280
    Dalmatia's "Slavic" Camp 280
    Juraj BarakoviC  280
    Mate Alberti  283
    Jerolim Kavanjin  285
    Andrija Ka&ie-MioSie 288
    Ivan (Diivo) GunduliC  297
    Andrija ZmajeviC's Church Chronicle 300
    Julius Palmotid  301
    Jacob Mikalja  302
    Discussions on What Slavic Language/Dialect to Use  303
    Textbooks on Language/Geography, Dictionaries  306
    Other Texts  307
    A Miscellany of Uses of "Slavic"  309
    Ragusan Broad Pan-Slavism in the Eighteenth Century  311
    Items Called "Slavic"  312
    The Continuation of the Term "Illyrian" in Dalmatia  313
    Serafin/Saro CrijeviC  313
    Ardelio Della Bella  314
    Other Texts on Language  316
    Texts on Other Subjects  317
    A Miscellany of References to "Illyrian"  318
    Illyrian and Slavic Mixed in Dalmatia 322
    Johannes Lucius and His Circle  324
    Injacijo Gjorgji  330
    Sebastian Dolci or Slade  336
    Djuro Ferik  337
    Those Advancing a Dalmatian Category 338
    Use of the Term "Croatian" in Dubrovnik and Venetian Dalmatia -40
    Those Using "Croatian" along with Other Terms 345
    Ivan Tanzlingher-Zanotti  345
    Filip Grabovac  347
    Others  350
    Foreigners' Use of Terms about Dalmatia 353
    Italians  353
    Official Venice  353
    Alberto Fortis and a Dalmatian's Response to Him  358
    Individual Italians  361
    Other European Observers  363
    Ottoman Sources  366
    Croatia Proper under Austria  370
    The Military Frontier  370
    Use of Term "Croatian" in and about Croatia Proper  375
    The End of Venetian Dalmacia (1797)  380
    The Terminology Used by the Church
    Hierarchy and Religious Orders  381
    Michael Priuli's Visitation of Dalmatia in 1603  381
    Zadar  382
    Isle of Krk  385
    Third Order Franciscans (Including Zadar and Krk)  387
    Hvar and Brae 392
    Bartol Kaide 394
    The Ragusan Church 405
    Scattered Church Uses of "Slavic"  405
    Scattered Church Uses of "Illyrian"  407
    The Jesuits on the Adriatic Coast  412
    Scattered Church Uses of "Dalmatian"  415
    The Issue of Printing Church Books in Slavonic  416
    Ivan Tomko Mrnavid  421
    The South Slav Guesthouse in Rome 423
    Schools for Illyrians in Italy  428
    The Term "Illyrian" in Dealing with the Orthodox  431
    Debate on Vernacular versus Church Slavonic
    in Texts in the Eighteenth Century  432
    Western Balkan Schools 436
    Use of Term "Croatian" in Church Sources 442
    In Venetian Dalmatia 442
    From Habsburg Croatia 446
    Broad "Slavism" among Churchmen 447
    LoSinj's Troubles and the Crisis over Illyrian
    in Churches, ca. 1802   454
    M. BogoviC's Summary of "Identity" among
    Church-Oriented West Balkanites  456
    Slavonia, 600o to 1800 457
    Setting the Scene in the Seventeenth Century  457
    Jesuits  459
    South Slavs at the University of Graz in the Eighteenth Century  472
    The Osijek School under State Supervision  473
    The Croatian College in Vienna 474
    Terminology Used by the Church Hierarchy and
    Religious Orders in Slavonia 475
    Juraj Rattkay  478
    Recovery of Turkish Slavonia 480
    Paul Ritter VitezoviC  482
    Implications of Terms 492
    Juraj HabdeliC, Andrija JambreSic, and Ivan Belostenec  493
    Matija Petar KatanciC  500
    Antun Kanidlid 502
    Antun IvanosiC  505
    Matija Antun Reljkovih  507
    Terminology Used by the Church Hierarchy and Religious
    Orders in Eighteenth-Century Slavonia  511
    Other More Secularly Minded Slavonians  516
    Petrovaradin  522
    Thoughts on Language in Slavonia 523
    The Debate on Joakim Stulli's Dictionary  525
    Habsburg Terminology 529
    Baltazar Adam Kreelik  532
    Tito Brezovacki 536
    Ignjat MartinoviC  539
    Habsburg and Habsburg Catholic Church Terminology
    in Dealing with the Orthodox 541
    Djordje BrankoviC  542
    The Serbian Church 542
    Foreigners Visit Slavonia  546
    Friedrich Wilhelm von Taube 546
    Balthasar Hacquet  550
    Other Foreigners  551
    Labels in Latin-Letter Proto-Serbo-Croatian Published Books  552
    Epilogue  553
    Conclusions 557
    Monarchs of Croatia to 1800 BY IAN MLADJOV     563
    Simplified Genealogy of the Frankapans, SubiCi, and Zrinski 467
    Bibliography 569
    Most Used Abbreviations 571
    Sources  571
    Secondary Literature  584

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