Questions concerning Aristotle's On Animals (The Fathers of the Church, Mediaeval Continuation, Volume 9)
by Albert the Great
translated by Irven M. Resnick and Kenneth F. Kitchell, Jr.
Catholic University of America Press, 2008
eISBN: 978-0-8132-1752-9 | Cloth: 978-0-8132-1519-8
Library of Congress Classification QL41.A34513 2008
Dewey Decimal Classification 590
Reference metadata exposed for Zotero via unAPI.
Introduction 11 A Note on References to Ancient and Medieval Works 15 Guides to Editorial Convention and Abbreviations 18 Book One 21 Question 1: Whether this book has animals for its subject. 21 Question 2: Whether a variety of organic parts is necessary to the animal 24 Question 3: Whether an organic member that has been cut off can be restored. 28 Question 4: Whether any animal breathes air. 30 Question 5: Whether an aquatic animal, once its form is changed, can become terrestrial. 32 Question 6: Whether motion is present in every animal. 34 Question 7: Whether an immobile animal is always aquatic and not terrestrial. 36 Question 8: Whether some animals should live in a social group. 37 Question 9: Whether every animal has a fixed type of nourishment. 40 Question 10: Whether an animal is born to seek out nourishment more at night than by day. 41 Question 11: Whether every flyer also walks. 43 Question 12: Whether every animal emits a call [vox]. 45 Question 13: Why all animals except the human are very noisy during intercourse. 48 Question 14: Whether brute animals are differentiated according to their habits. 50 Question 15: Whether every animal that has a vessel to receive the first superfluity, which is excrement, also has a vessel for the second superfluity, which is urine. 52 Question 16: Whether every animal that has urine has excrement. 52 Question 17: Whether touch is in the flesh or in something analogous to it. 55 Question 18: Whether sensation exists in uniform members [membris similibus] and whether operation exists in non-uniform members. 57 Question 19: Why some animals have feet and some do not. 60 Question 20: Why the rational animal has only one species. 60 Question 21: Whether physiognomy can be established on the basis of parts of the body 61 Question 22: In respect to which part is physiognomy especially carried out? 64 Questions 23-24: Why the suture in the bone of a human skull is more noticeable than in the bone of other animals 66 Questions 25-28: Why a large forehead indicates a slow person, prone to foolishness, and a small one indicates a good disposition 67 Questions 29-31: Whether the eye has a different nature according to its colors 69 Questions 32-33: Why bulging eyes indicate a disturbed power of discretion and why sunken eyes indicate acute vision 74 Questions 34-37: Why ears may be located on various parts of the head although the eyes, nevertheless, are located close together 75 Question 38: Whether sneezing is a sign of good or evil. 78 Question 39: Whether long and apparent lines on the hands may be signs of a long life, and whether short ones are signs of a shorter life. 78 Question 40: Whether parts in an animal have a location like the parts of the universe. 80 Questions 41-43: Whether the brain is naturally cold and moist 82 Questions 44-47: Whether the heart is pyramidal in shape 85 Question 48: Whether the upper intestines should be thinner and longer and more delicate than the lower ones. 86 Question 49: Why the human lungs are more solid and are not divided into lobes. 87 Questions 50-51: Why the kidneys and the eyes and ears are divided into pairs. 88 Questions 52-53: Why the exterior members are divided into pairs, while the interior members are not 89 Question 54: Whether all animal members lead back to a single member. 90 Question 55: What is that first thing to which all the animal members lead back? 92 Book Two 95 Question 1: Whether the cause of similarity or dissimilarity among the members of various animals occurs as a result of the complexion of mixables or on account of the soul 95 Question 2: Whether the lion?s neck is continuous and not hollow 98 Question 3: Whether the right foot is more unfettered and better suited for motion than the left. 99 Question 4: Why a human?s chest is broader, with respect to its size, than that of other animals. 101 Question 5: Whether the motive power proceeds from the posterior or anterior part of the brain. 102 Question 6: Whether the human foot naturally bends to the front and the hand to the rear. 104 Question 7: Whether an animal naturally has to place its right foot forward. 105 Question 8: Whether the human body should be less hairy than the bodies of other animals 107 Questions 9-12: Whether every animal ought to be horned 108 Questions 13-16: Whether breasts ought to be located on the chest in a woman 112 Questions 17-19: Whether growth is necessary for living things 115 Questions 20-26: On the nature of teeth. 119 Question 27: Whether the human ought to lack a tail naturally 123 Question 28: Why birds imitate the human in speech more than the other animals 125 Question 29: Whether the motion of birds, which is flight, is natural 127 Question 30: Whether any animal ought to lack a spleen, a gall bladder, which is its reservoir [cista], and lungs. 129 Question 31: Whether it is necessary for every animal to have members specially designated for generation. 132 Book Three 135 Question 1: Whether veins are necessary in an animal body 135 Question 2: Whether veins exist in every part of the body. 138 Question 3: Whether the veins arise from the heart or the liver 140 Question 4: Whether the arteries are necessary to an animal. 144 Question 5: Whether the arteries take their origin from the heart or the brain. 146 Question 6: Whether the nerves are necessary. 149 Question 7: Whether the nerves take their origin from the brain or the heart. 151 Question 8: Whether the nerves are of a melancholic or phlegmatic complexion. 152 Question 9: Whether the bones are necessary. 154 Question 10: Whether the bones have sensation. 155 Question 11: Whether cartilage is necessary. 158 Questions 12-16: On Hair 159 Question 17: Whether skin and web [tela] are necessary to an animal. 162 Question 18: Whether blood is necessary for an animal. 165 Question 19: Whether blood is a principle of the animal?s preservation or is a natural source of corruption. 167 Question 20: Whether of all the humors blood along nourishes. 170 Question 21: Whether blood is more abundant in thin animals than in fat ones. 172 Question 22: Whether blood is more abundant in men than in women. 173 Question 23: Whether the first generation of the blood occurs in the heart or in the liver. 175 Questions 24-26: Why the blood in the heart is liquid and is coagulated outside of it 177 Question 27: Whether the marrow is necessary for the bones? nourishment. 179 Book Four 181 Questions 1-2: Whether bloodless animals are naturally cold 181 Questions 3-4: Whether an animal having a shell must naturally be enclosed inside the shell 184 Question 5: Whether every animal has every sense. 187 Question 6: Whether fish have hearing 189 Question 7: Whether voice is natural or voluntary or artificial. 191 Question 8: Whether every voice is significative 193 Question 9: Whether sleep is necessary for an animal. 195 Question 10: Whether sleep is present in every animal 198 Question 11: Whether sleep is an affect [passio] of the heart or the brain. 201 Question 12: Whether sleep is an affect of the common or individual sense. 203 Additional Questions for the Fourth Book [Quaestiones...annexae] 206 Question 1: Why salt placed in water liquefies, but it does not liquefy when placed on a burning tile or in oil (or boiling honey). 206 Question 2: Why musk placed among smelly things loses its aroma and later when placed in a foul smelling place it recovers its odor. 207 Question 3: Why a charcoal is kindled by a crystal when it is placed opposite the sun?s rays. 209 Question 4: Why snow is preserved in barley chaff. 210 Question 5: Why pears placed in barley chaff become ripe. 210 Question 6: Why women have such large breasts, and men do not. 211 Question 7: Why the members are discovered to be cold in one who is dying but they are warm in one already dead. 212 Question 8: Why marine fish are very bland, when they are nourished on salt water. 212 Question 9: Why insanity follows after being bitten by a rabid dog. 213 Question 10: Why a person who passes by a corpse suffers goosebumps. 213 Question 11: Why madmen have so much strength. 214 Question 12: Why the blood of the one slain flows while the murderer is present. 214 Question 13: Why a morsel of bread placed in a very strong wine increases the sharpness of the wine. 215 Question 14: Why vision takes pleasure more in the color green than in any other color. 216 Question 15: Why roast meat strengthens more than does boiled meat. 216 Question 16: Why one who has been wounded in the arm?s muscle loses the power of speech. 217 Question 17: Why members that are weakened by hunger are immediately strengthened by food that has been received, though not yet incorporated, in the stomach. 217 Question 18: Why does a dead person staying in the water rise to the top and a living one sink to the bottom? 218 Question 19: Why a certain wise man after being bled forgot all that he knew. 219 Question 20: Why someone suffering a fever lost the knowledge of letters. 219 Question 21: Why some people who eat more are thin, whereas others who eat only a little are fat. 220 Question 22: Why were eyes and ears absent in a boy that was born? 220 Question 23: Why was it that someone who saw an enemy dropped dead? 220 Question 24: Why is it that must, since it is clearer, does not cause drunkenness? 220 Book Five 222 Question 1: Whether coition is necessary for the generation of animals. 222 Question 2: Whether coition is necessary for every animal. 224 Question 3: Whether the greatest pleasure occurs in generation by means of coition. 225 Question 4: Whether pleasure is greater in men than in women during coition. 227 Question 5: Whether pleasure is greater in brute beasts than in the human at the time of intercourse. 230 Question 6: Whether desire in the operation of intercourse is greater in men or in women. 232 Question 7: Whether desire for intercourse is caused by the hot or the cold. 233 Question 8: Whether the operation of coition flourishes more in a cold or hot region. 235 Question 9: In which season coition flourishes more. 238 Question 10: Whether the male and the female are especially urged on at the same time to generate. 240 Questions 11-14: Related questions about coition. 242 Book Six 244 Question 1: Whether flyers naturally generate by laying eggs 244 Question 2: Whether the egg white is generated from the superfluity of the egg or from some substance of the one laying the egg. 246 Question 3: Whether the yolk of the egg is generated from menstrual blood or from some other moisture. 249 Question 4: Whether the white of the egg is warmer than the yolk, or contrariwise. 251 Question 5: Whether the animal is nourished from the yolk. 252 Questions 6-13: On certain properties of eggs. 255 Questions 14-18: On the properties indicating coition. 259 Questions 19-22: On the generation of animals, in relation to wind 262 Question 23: Whether urine is a simple or mixed body. 266 Questions 24-26: On the urine of brute beasts. 267 Book Seven 270 Question 1: Whether the non-living is naturally prior to the living 270 Question 2: Whether there is something intermediate between living and non-living. 271 Question 3: Whether a power regulating life exists in a human. 275 Question 4: Whether food will be necessary to the animal. 277 Question 5: Whether drink is necessary for an animal. 280 Question 6: Whether food or drink is more necessary. 282 Question 7: Whether fish are nourished by water. 283 Question 8: Whether fish eat their young. 285 Questions 9-11: On rainwater. 287 Questions 12-16: On the nutriment and the drink of flyers. 290 Questions 17-19: Whether reptiles can live long without food 292 Questions 20-21: Whether local motion particularly agrees with birds 295 Question 22: Whether animals lie dormant in winter on account of fear or weakness. 299 Question 23: Whether animals are alive at the time of concealment. 300 Question 24: Whether these animals have the first act of life without the second. 301 Question 25: Whether animals take nourishment when they lie hidden. 303 Question 26: Whether animals breathe at the time of concealment. 304 Question 27: Whether life is preserved longer in places that are warm and moist, cold and dry, or cold and moist. 306 Question 28: Why people in warm places have a smaller stature and less strength and boldness than those in cold places. 309 Question 29: Whether youth can be restored. 311 Question 30: Whether old age can be slowed down. 313 Question 31: Whether age can renewed by taking up a viper or another poison. 314 Question 32: Whether pestilential disease [morbus pestilentialis] arises from an infection of the air. 317 Questions 33-39: On the sicknesses of pigs, dogs, and horses. 318 Book Eight 323 Question 1: Whether brute animals know friendship or enmity 323 Question 2: Whether friendship and enmity are present in all brute animals. 324 Question 3: Whether the lamb will flee the wolf without perceiving there is something harmful in it. 325 Question 4: Whether art or craft is present in beasts 327 Questions 5-9: On the sheep and its properties. 328 Question 10: Whether it is by nature, from customary activity, or by instruction that cunning is present in animals that walk 332 Questions 11-14: Whether the deer is an animal possessing judgment 336 Questions 15-20: Whether fliers are more cautious than walkers. 341 Question 21: Why the owl [bubo] does not see in the daytime 345 Question 22: Whether art and craft are more suited to ringed fliers than to other animals 345 Question 23: Whether the ant gathers seeds. 347 Question 24: Whether a spider naturally produces a web 348 Question 25: Whether the web is produced from the spider?s substance or from some superfluity it has. 349 Question 26: Whether the bee can produce honey. 351 Question 27: Whether honey is made in the bee?s body or outside it. 352 Question 28: Whether wax and honey are produced from the same material. 353 Questions 29-34: On the customs of the wolf 355 Questions 35-38: On animals that ruminate and have long extremities 357 Question 39: Whether the camel and the horse distinguish their mothers from others 359 Questions 40-42: On the cock?s song 360 Book Nine 364 Question 1: In what period especially should human generation take place. 364 Question 2: Whether a difference in ages ought to be calculated according to seven- year periods. 365 Question 3: Whether the period for generation among men lasts longer than does the period for conception in women. 367 Question 4: Whether a male grows more slowly outside the uterus than a woman does. 368 Question 5: Whether the menses are necessary for generation after impregnation. 369 Question 6: Whether only women suffer menstruation. 371 Question 7: Whether the moon has dominion over the menstrual flow. 373 Questions 8-10: Whether the menstrual flow is sudden 374 Questions 11-15: On the signs of conception. 378 Questions 16-17: Whether the male is formed more quickly than the female 382 Question 18: Whether a male or a female can be generated by contrivance. 384 Questions 19-23: On the birth of a woman and her circumstances. 386 Questions 24-28: On the fetus before and after birth. 390 Book Ten 395 Question 1: Whether the mother or the father is more responsible for an obstacle to generation. 395 Question 2: Whether the retention of the sperm is more noxious in men than is the retention of menses in women. 397 Question 3: Whether the emission of semen weakens the male more than the female. 399 Question 4: Whether a fetus can be generated from one part of the sperm. 400 Question 5: Whether a mole [molyn] can be generated in a woman from semen emitted through pollution in sleep. 402 Book Eleven 406 Question 1: Whether there is a double mode of proceeding in science. 406 Question 2: Whether the descriptive process is more necessary than the process which assigns causes. 408 Question 3: Which cause the natural philosopher ought to consider more. 409 Questions 4-5: Which cause is naturally prior. On the number of causes. 411 Question 6: Whether the Philosopher ought to treat the mode of dividing here. 413 Question 7: Whether the final differentia is convertible with the species. 415 Question 8: Whether there is more pleasure in the knowledge [cognitio] of superior or inferior things. 418 Question 9: Whether our intellect can achieve knowledge of the first cause. 421 Book Twelve 425 Question 1: Whether homogenous [consimiles] parts are generated immediately from the elements 425 Question 2: Whether the elements exist in act in homogenous parts. 427 Question 3: Which elements predominate in homogenous parts. 431 Question 4: Whether official parts are composed from homogenous ones by means of continuity. 432 Question 5: Whether operations occur through similar or dissimilar parts. 434 Question 6: Whether a more intense heat is found in the element of fire, or in a mixture. 437 Question 7: Whether the first digestion is in the mouth. 439 Question 8: Whether the first digestion, which occurs in the stomach, may change the nutriment into a different species. 441 Question 9: Whether the four humors are generated from the same nutriment. 443 Question 10: Whether blood is the last food for the members. 445 Question 11: Whether thick blood is more nourishing than thin blood. 446 Question 12: Whether zirbus and fat have a complexion that is naturally hot or cold. 448 Question 13: Whether the marrow is the nutriment for bones. 450 Question 14: Whether all bones are nourished. 452 Question 15: Whether the marrow is hot. 454 Question 16: Whether the brain is cold owing to the heart?s tempering action. 456 Question 17: Whether sensation is in the brain. 458 Question 18: Whether the vital power has something analogous to it and whether it exists in some organ. 461 Question 19: Whether one element is dominant in any given sense organ. 462 Question 20: Whether the organ of touch and taste is in the heart and whether the organs of the other senses are in the head. 465 Book Thirteen 469 Question 1: On the complexion of the heart. 469 Question 2: Whether an animal that has a large heart is fearful. 471 Question 3: Whether a softer heart is better. 473 Question 4: Whether the heart is hotter than the spirit. 474 Question 5: Whether a heart so flows to the other parts that it receives nothing from them. 475 Question 6: Whether the heart is susceptible to illness. 476 Question 7: Whether the blood is generated first in the heart or in the liver. 479 Question 8: Whether some sweat can be bloody. 480 Question 9: Whether venous blood is thicker than arterial blood. 482 Question 10: Whether the liver is generated from semen or from menstrual blood. 484 Question 11: Whether the motion of the lungs is natural. 485 Question 12: Whether a pulse exists in every animal. 486 Question 13: Whether the heat in an artery is natural or accidental. 488 Question 14: Whether the diaphragm is necessary. 489 Question 15: Whether an affliction of the diaphragm disturbs the intellect. 491 Question 16: Whether touching the diaphragm is a cause of laughter. 493 Questions 17-18: On laughter. 494 Question 19: Whether birds and fish ought not to chew. 497 Question 20: Whether birds ought to have a double stomach, like a liver and crop. 499 Question 21: Whether blood is the nutriment for the stomach. 501 Question 22: Whether several intestines are required beyond the stomach. 502 Book Fourteen 505 Question 1: Whether bile [fel] is only a superfluity. 505 Question 2: Whether some of the bile or choler is naturally sent to the intestines. 506 Question 3: Whether choler or bile is the cause of a short lifespan. 507 Question 4: Whether serpents should have members that serve the motive power. 509 Question 5: Whence the serpent?s motion begins, as if from a principle. 510 Question 6: Whether the heart has a dedicated location in serpents, in ringed animals, and in bloodless animals. 512 Question 7: Whether the parts that have been cut off live after they have been cut off. 513 Question 8: Whether a soul is one in number in some part that has been divided. 517 Question 9: Whether fleshiness on a person?s head impairs the intellect. 519 Question 10: Whether the upper part [of the body] in children is larger than the lower. 521 Question 11: Whether hands should belong to the human alone. 523 Question 12: Whether a human should naturally have wings and fins. 525 Question 13: Whether in respect to motive parts bloodless animals should surpass those with blood. 528 Book Fifteen 530 Question 1: Whether sex is necessary for the generation of animals. 530 Question 2: Whether nature intends the generation of a female. 532 Question 3: Whether male and female diversify species. 533 Questions 4-5: Whether male and female co-exist in one and the same thing. 536 Question 6: Whether the male is hotter than the female. 539 Question 7: Whether a man has to be larger than a female. 540 Question 8: Whether a male or female has a longer life span. 542 Question 9: Whether the male?s flesh is softer than the female?s flesh. 543 Question 10: Whether the male is better nourishment than the female. 544 Question 11: Whether the male is better suited for proper behavior [mores] than the female. 547 Question 12: Whether sperm comes forth from the entire body. 549 Question 13: Whether the sperm is of the nature of parts or of some superfluity. 551 Question 14: Whether sperm is derived more from one part than from another. 554 Question 15: Whether sperm is a superfluity of the last food. 556 Question 16: Whether sperm is generated immediately from blood. 558 Question 17: Whether one who has a defect in some part necessarily generates an animal that is defective in the same part. 560 Question 18: Whether sperm is necessary for the generation of animals. 561 Question 19: Whether females produce sperm. 564 Question 20: Whether sperm is a material part of the fetus [conceptus]. 567 Book Sixteen 571 Question 1: Whether the soul is in the sperm. 571 Question 2: Whether the power of the soul must be in the semen. 574 Question 3: Whether this power is from the father?s soul. 576 Question 4: Whether this power is corrupted once the fetus is formed. 578 Question 5: Whether the soul?s power operates through a mediating heat. 580 Question 6: Whether the heat, which is an instrument of the soul, is an elemental heat. 583 Question 7: Whether spirit is necessary in animals. 585 Question 8: Whether spirit is a body. 588 Question 9: Whether spirit is generated in the heart. 590 Question 10: Whether the vegetative soul comes into being in a natural way. 592 Question 11: Whether a sensitive soul can be produced through the power of the semen. 594 Question 12: Whether the power that is in the seed can achieve the production of the intellectual soul. 598 Question 13: Whether the intellective soul is simultaneously created and infused into the body. 600 Question 14: Whether all members are generated simultaneously. 604 Question 15: Whether the heart is generated first. 606 Question 16: Whether the informative power for the other members is in the heart after it has been formed. 609 Question 17: Whether sterility is a natural affliction [passio]. 611 Question 18: Whether sterility comes from soul or the body. 614 Question 19: Whether generation of a mule from a mare and an ass is natural. 615 Question 20: Whether the mule and she-mule are sterile by nature. 617 Book Seventeen 619 Questions 1-3: On birds' eggs. 619 Questions 4-6: On Chicks. 623 Question 7: Whether wind eggs are generated from a superfluity of sperm. 626 Question 8: Whether the white should be distinguished from the yolk in a wind egg. 627 Question 9: Whether a wind egg, if the male?s sperm comes into contact with it, is suited for generation. 628 Question 10: Whether female birds can be impregnated by the male's kiss or odor alone. 630 Question 11: Whether there is a mixture of semen and nutriment in fish eggs. 631 Question 12: Whether all the elements concur for the generation of an animal generated by putrefaction. 633 Question 13: Whether putrefaction is a path to generation. 635 Question 14: Whether animals like this are generated by a superior power. 636 Book Eighteen 639 Question 1: Whether the power?s strength causes the generation of a male. 639 Question 2: Whether the generation of one that shares each sex is natural. 641 Question 3: Whether some power in the semen is the cause of resemblance. 643 Question 4: Why wise men and philosophers very often generate foolish children. 646 Question 5: Whether a monster exists in nature. 648 Question 6: Whether the cause of a monstrosity stems from the matter or from the efficient cause. 649 Question 7: Whether an animal having parts of animals different in species can be generated from two animals that are different in species. 652 Question 8: Whether milk is necessary for the nourishment of the fetus. 654 Book Nineteen 656 Question 1: Whether the embryo is nourished before its formation. 656 Question 2: Whether the embryo emits superfluities in the womb. 658 Question 3: Whether the embryo breathes in the womb. 659 Questions 4-5: Whether sleep occurs in the embryo 660 Question 6: On the color of the eyes. 663 Questions 7-9: On hairs. 666 Questions 10-11: On voice. 670 Questions 12-13: On teeth 673 Index 677 Bibliography 680