This classic study, by the late John Doyle Klier, is considered a seminal text in modern Jewish history by one of the foremost scholars in the field. In this, his first book, Klier offers an important analysis of Russia’s early acquisition of, attitudes toward, and administration of its Jewish population. He argues that the Russian response to the Jewish Question was based less on a tradition or religious antipathy than on the failure to develop a consistent, well-articulated policy in the face of a new and unusual problem. This failure led to ineffective social legislation and became the legacy of Russia’s first encounter with the Jews. This essential book will be of enduring interest to scholars of modern Russian and Jewish history.