The History of Cartography, Volume 6 Cartography in the Twentieth Century
edited by Mark Monmonier
University of Chicago Press, 2015
Cloth: 978-0-226-53469-5 | Electronic: 978-0-226-15212-7
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226152127.001.0001


For more than thirty years, the History of Cartography Project has charted the course for scholarship on cartography, bringing together research from a variety of disciplines on the creation, dissemination, and use of maps. Volume 6, Cartography in the Twentieth Century, continues this tradition with a groundbreaking survey of the century just ended and a new full-color, encyclopedic format.

The twentieth century is a pivotal period in map history. The transition from paper to digital formats led to previously unimaginable dynamic and interactive maps. Geographic information systems radically altered cartographic institutions and reduced the skill required to create maps.  Satellite positioning and mobile communications revolutionized wayfinding.  Mapping evolved as an important tool for coping with complexity, organizing knowledge, and influencing public opinion in all parts of the globe and at all levels of society. Volume 6 covers these changes comprehensively, while thoroughly demonstrating the far-reaching effects of maps on science, technology, and society—and vice versa. 

The lavishly produced volume includes more than five hundred articles accompanied by more than a thousand images. Hundreds of expert contributors provide both original research, often based on their own participation in the developments they describe, and interpretations of larger trends in cartography. Designed for use by both scholars and the general public, this definitive volume is a reference work of first resort for all who study and love maps.


Mark Monmonier is distinguished professor of geography at Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. He is the author of more than a dozen books, including How to Lie with Maps; Coast Lines: How Mapmakers Frame the World and Chart Environmental Change; and NoDig, No Fly, No Go: How Maps Restrict and Control, all from the University of Chicago Press.


"Mapmaking may now be a more popular activity than in any other time in history—every time a person looks for directions online, a new, customized map is born. Just a century or so ago, none of the mapmaking tools we now take for granted existed. . . .The History of Cartography, Volume 6: Cartography in the 20th Century traces the incredible advances in the last century that made possible the map-obsessed world of today."
— Atlas Obscura

"This stunning set . . . examines technologically advanced global mapping. With 500 entries (the first three volumes of the encyclopedia featured instead lengthy essays) accompanied by more than 1,000 color and black-and-white maps, photographs, and tables, and its coverage of a seminal time in cartography, this is the portion to buy if your library can’t acquire the entire series."
— Starred Review, Library Journal

“Well-organized, authoritative, and thorough. . . . Highly recommended.”
— Choice

“The unique combination of substantial and comprehensive content written by experts in each of the sub-fields, extensive illustrations, and the coverage of almost anything that is relevant in today’s world of cartography makes this two-part volume my favourite of the series so far. It could even be a serious contender for the one book on that mythical desert island for anyone passionate about maps.”
— Globe

“A major triumph by any and all standards, The History of Cartography project stands as the leading achievement of cartographic scholarship in recent decades.”
— Journal of European Studies

“So rich is this material it is hard to do it justice in review. . . . One of its greatest contributions is to bring this quality information into one volume, putting a spotlight onto its histories—military and otherwise—thereby taking the subject of twentieth-century cartography beyond the realm of the exeperts.”
— International Map Collectors Society

"A worthy tribute to mapping andmapmaking."
— AAG Review of Books

“The richness, depth and variety of coverage is staggering and, as with the other volumes of The History of Cartography, the achievement is difficult to fathom. In fact, I would argue that volume six goes beyond even the previous volumes in magnitude of its achievement not only in size but in quality. The fact that volume six consists of encyclopaedia-style entries does not diminish but, on the contrary, only heightens its impact. I also predict that, of the complete set of volumes, this could end up being the one that gets the most use in terms of both citation and public engagement.”
— Cartographic Journal


List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

Preface, Mark Monmonier

Introduction, Mark Monmonier

Academic Paradigms in Cartography

Academic Cartography in Europe

Accuracy in Mapping

Administrative Cartography

Advertising, Maps as

Aeronautical Chart

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Air-Age Globalism

Airline Map

Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (Academy for Spatial Research and Planning; Germany)

Almagià, Roberto

Alpine Cartography

American Automobile Association (AAA)

American Geographical Society

Anaglyph Map

Analytical Cartography

Animated Map


Antiquarian Maps and Grand Larceny

Arctic, The

Art and Cartography

Astrophysics and Cartography

Electronic Atlas

Facsimile Atlas

Historical Atlas

Historical-Boundaries Atlas

National Atlas

Regional Atlas

School Atlas

Subscription Atlas

Thematic Atlas

World Atlas

Atlas of Canada

Atlas of Finland

Automobile Association (U.K.)

Bertin, Jacques

Biogeography and Cartography

Bivariate Map

Board on Geographic Names (U.S.)

Bol’shoy sovetskiy atlas mira

Boundary Disputes

Canada and the United States

Latin America



Middle East

East and Southeast Asia

Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (Federal Office for Cartography and Geodesy; Germany)

Bundesamt für Landestopographie (Federal Office of Topography; Switzerland)

Cadastral Map

Cadastral Surveying

Canada Geographic Information System



Cartographic Duplicity in the German DemocraticRepublic

Cartographic Journal, The



Cave Map

Census Mapping


Chen Shupeng

Children and Cartography

Choropleth Map

Chroma Key

Cinema and Cartography

Climate Map

Cloth, Maps on

Coastal Mapping

Cold War

Canada and the United States


Colonial and Imperial Cartography

Color and Cartography

Comité Européen des Responsables de la Cartographie Officielle (European Committee of Representatives for Official Mapping; International)

Community Mapping

Computer, Digital


Conventions, Cartographic

Coordinate Systems

Copyright Traps


Crime Map

Cruise Missile

Customization of Maps

Cvijic´, Jovan

Dainville, François de

Dasymetric Map

Decolonization and Independence

Decoration, Maps as

Demographic Map

Dictionary, Cartographic

Digital Library

Digital Worldwide Mapping Projects

Directorate of Overseas Surveys (U.K.)

Drawing Instruments

Drawing Media

Pen-and-Ink Drafting

Eastern Europe, Boundary Changes in

Eckert, Max

Educating Mapmakers

Cartographic Textbooks

Teaching with Maps

Electoral Map

Electromagnetic Distance Measurement

Electronic Cartography and the Concept of DigitalMap

Data Structures and the Storage and Retrieval of SpatialData

Data Capture and Data Conversion

Display Hardware

Electronic Map Generalization

Electronic Map Labeling

Computer-Aided Boundary Drawing

Intellectual Movements in Electronic Cartography

Conferences on Computer-Aided Mapping in North America and Europe

Conferences on Computer-Aided Mapping in Latin America

Emergency Planning

Environmental Protection

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI;U.S.)

Epidemiological Map

Esselte Kartor AB (Sweden)

Ethnographic Map

Eurocentric Bias

European Union

Experimental Cartography Unit, Royal College of Art (U.K.)

Exploratory Data Analysis

Facilities Map

Figure of the Earth

Fire Insurance Map

Forensic Mapping

Forestry and Cartography

Fractal Representation

Freytag-Berndt und Artaria KG (Austria)

Gannett, Henry

General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)

Genetics and Cartography


Geodetic Triangulation

Geodetic Trilateration

Gravimetric Surveys

Satellite Geodesy

Geodetic Computations

Geodesy and Military Planning

Canada and the United States

Latin America



Russia and the Soviet Union


For the Planets

Computational Geography as a New Modality

GIS as an Institutional Revolution

GIS as a Tool for Map Analysis and Spatial Modeling

GIS as a Tool for Map Production


Social and Political Significance of Toponyms

Applied Toponymy


Place-Name Studies

Geographical Mapping

Geography and Cartography

Geologic Map

Geophysics and Cartography

Geopolitics and Cartography

GEOSPACE Beckel Satellitenbilddaten GmbH (Austria)

Glavnoye upravleniye geodezii i kartografi i (Chief Administration of Geodesy and Cartography; Russia)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Cultural and Social Signifi cance of Globes

Manufacture of Globes

Views of Earth from Space

Gulf War (1991)

Hallwag Kümmerly+Frey AG (Switzerland)

Hammond Map Company (U.S.)

Harley, J(ohn) B(rian)

Harrison, Richard Edes

Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis (U.S.)

Hazards and Risk, Mapping of

Heiskanen, Veikko Aleksanteri

Himalaya, Cartography of the

Historians and Cartography

Historic Preservation and Cartography

Historical Geography and Cartography

Histories of Cartography

History of Cartography Project

H. M. Gousha Company (U.S.)

Holdich, Thomas Hungerford

Holographic Map

Hotine, Martin

Early Twentieth-Century Hydrographic Techniques

Aerial Imagery in Hydrographic Mapping and Coastal Charting


Satellites in Hydrographic and Oceanographic Mapping

Global Positioning Systems in Hydrographic Mapping


IDRISI (software)

Imago Mundi

Imhof, Eduard

Indigenous Peoples and Western Cartography

Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya (Cartographic Institute of Catalonia; Spain)

Institut Géographique National (National Geographical Institute; France)

Instituto Geográfico Nacional (National Geographical Institute; Spain)

Intellectual Property

Interactive Map

Inter-American Geodetic Survey

Intergraph Corporation

International Cartographic Association

International Civil Aviation Organization

International Geographical Union

International Geophysical Year

International Hydrographic Chart

International Hydrographic Organization (Monaco)

International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC; Netherlands)

International Journal of Geographical Information Systems/Science

International Map of the World


Istituto Geografico Militare (Military Geographic Institute; Italy)

Jefferson, Mark Sylvester William

John Bartholomew & Son (U.K.)

Journalistic Cartography

Journals, Cartographic

Justus Perthes (Germany)

Kartographische Nachrichten

Keates, J(ohn) S(tanley)

Koeman, Cornelis

Kokudo chiriin 国土地理院 (Geographical Survey Institute; Japan).

Kolácný, Antonín


Kümmerly+Frey AG (Switzerland)

Labeling Techniques

Typography and Map Design

Land Systems Analysis

Land Use Map


Landscape Architecture and Cartography

Law of the Sea

League of Nations

Libraries, Map

Libraries and Map Collections, National


Linguistic Map

Literature and Cartography

Lobeck, Armin K(ohl)

London Underground Map

Lunar and Planetary Mapping

Mairs Geographischer Verlag (Germany)

Definitions of Map

Map Typologies

Printed Map

Images as Maps

Map as Metaphor

Electronic Map

Sense of Place and the Map

Map Pin (U.S.)

Marine Chart



United States


Great Britain


European Nations

Russia and the Soviet Union



Marketing Cartographic and Spatial Data

Marketing of Maps, Mass

Marschner, Francis Joseph

Martin, Lawrence

Martonne, Emmanuel de

Mathematics and Cartography

Mercator Projection

Meteorology and Cartography

Metric System

Michelin (France)

United States

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Great Britain




Austro-Hungarian Empire

Ottoman Empire


Russia and the Soviet Union



Canada and the Polar North

North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa



Middle East

Southeast Asia



Miller, O(sborn) M(aitland)

Modes of Cartographic Practice

Molodenskiy, M(ikhail) S(ergeyevich)

Moskovskiy institut inzhenerov geodezii, aerofotos”yëmki i kartografi i (Moscow Institute of Geodetic Engineering, Aerial Photography, and Cartography; Russia)

Narrative and Cartography

National Aeronautics and Space Administration(U.S.)

National Atlas of the United States of America,The

National Center for Geographic Information andAnalysis (U.S.)

National Geographic Society (U.S.)

Nation-State Formation and Cartography


Oblique and Perspective Views

Oceanography and Cartography

Office of Strategic Services (U.S.)

Ordnance Survey (U.K.)

Orell Füssli Kartographie AG (Switzerland)

Orienteering Map

Ormeling, Ferdinand J(an)


Paris Peace Conference (1919)

Penck, Albrecht

Vision and Discrimination

Perceiving, Understanding, and Remembering

Perception and Map Design

Cognition and Cartography

Subject Testing in Cartography

Map-Use Skills

Experimental Studies in Psychology


Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (U.K.)

Persuasive Cartography

Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen

Peters Projection

Peucker, Karl

Aerial Photogrammetry and Cartography

Air Photos and Geographic Analysis

Feature Extraction and Photointerpretation

Military Photogrammetry as a Precursor of Remote Sensing

Analytical Photogrammetry and Control Surveying

Geodesy and Photogrammetric Mapping

Instrumental Photogrammetry and Stereocompilation

Orthophotography and Orthophoto Mapping

Photography in Map Design and Production

Physiographic Diagram

Plane Table

Planning, Urban and Regional

Political Cartoons, Maps as

Preußische Landesaufnahme

Prime Meridian


World Map Projections

Interrupted and Polyhedral Projections

Cultural and Social Signifi cance of Map Projections

Regional Map Projections

Projections Defi ned for the Ellipsoid

Projections Used for Topographic Maps

Projections Used for Military Grids

Projections Used for Aeronautical Charts

Projections Used for Marine Charts

Projections Used for Statistical Maps

Canada and the United States

Latin America



Russia and the Soviet Union

Australia and New Zealand

Property Mapping Practices

Professional Practice in Land Surveying

Triangulation, Trilateration, and Traverse

Monumentation and Recovery

Global Positioning System and Property Surveying

Public Access to Cartographic Information

Race, Maps and the Social Construction of

Radó, Sándor (Alexander Rado)

Railroad Map

Raisz, Erwin (Josephus)

Rand McNally & Company (U.S.)

Ravenstein Verlag (Germany)

Recreational Map


Relief Map

Relief Model

Relief Shading

Earth Observation and the Emergence of Remote Sensing

Satellite Systems for Cartographic Applications

Data Handling and Information Extraction from Remotely Sensed Imagery

Satellite Imagery and Map Revision

Remote Sensing as a Cartographic Enterprise

Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Handling of Geographic Information (1987)

Reproduction of Maps by One-Off Processes

Reproduction of Maps by Printing


Photomechanical Processes

Color Reproduction

Prepress Techniques

Reproduction, Design, and Aesthetics

Folding Strategies

Ristow, Walter W(illiam)

Canada and the United States

Latin America



Australia and Oceania

Robinson, Arthur H(oward)

Robinson Projection

Route Map

Royal Geographical Society (U.K.)

R. R. Donnelley & Sons (U.S.)

Russia and the Soviet Union, Fragmentation of

Russkoye geografi cheskoye obshchestvo (Russian Geographical Society)

Salishchev, Konstantin Alekseyevich


Scientific Discovery and Cartography


Shelton, Hal

Snyder, John P(arr)

Social Theory and Cartography

United States and Canada

Latin America

Western Europe

Eastern Europe

Australia and New Zealand

Canada and the UnitedStates


Societies, Map

Societies, Map Librarianship

Societies, Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing

Mapping Software

Illustration Software

Image Processing Software

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Soils Map

Sources of Cartographic Information

Space Oblique Mercator Projection

Standards for Cartographic Information

Star Chart

Statistical Map

Statistics and Cartography

Styles, Cartographic

Survey of India

SYMAP (software)

Tactile Map

Tanaka, Kitiro

Tax Map

Television and Maps

Terrain Analysis and Cartography

Tharp, Marie

Thematic Mapping

Tidal Measurement

Times Atlas of the World

Tissot’s Indicatrix

Tobler, Waldo R(udolph)

Topografi sche Dienst (Netherlands)

Topographic Map



United States

Latin America

Africa by the British

Africa by the French

Africa by the Germans

South Africa

Western Europe

Eastern Europe

Russia and the Soviet Union

Middle East





Touring Club Italiano (Italian Touring Club)

Travel, Tourism, and Place Marketing

Tsentral’nyy nauchno-issledovatel’skiy institut geodezii,aeros”yëmki i kartografi i (Central Research Institute of Geodesy, Air Survey and Cartography; Russia)

Uncertainty and Reliability

United Nations

Urban Mapping

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Geological Survey

U.S. Intelligence Community, Mapping by the

Velhagen & Klasing (Germany)

Verlag Ed. Hölzel (Austria)

Viewshed Mapping

Vinland Map

Virtual Reality

Visualization and Maps

Wagner & Debes (Germany)

Wall Map

Warfare and Cartography

Warntz, William

Wax Engraving

Campus Map

Cyclist Map

Escape and Evasion Map

Hiking and Trail Map

Indexed Street Map

In-Vehicle Navigation System

Mobility Map

Orientation Map

Public Transportation Map

Road Atlas

Road Symbols

Web-Based Wayfi nding

Wheelchair Access Map

Weather Channel, The

Weather Map

Web Cartography

Westermann Verlag (Germany)

William-Olsson, William

Wolfegg Castle

Women in Cartography

Woodward, David

World Aeronautical Chart

World Revolution and Cartography

World War I

World War II

Wright, John K(irtland)

Wuhan cehui keji daxue (Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping; China)

Zhongguo kexueyuan 中国科学院 (Chinese Academyof Sciences) (CAS)

Brief Processual History of Volume 6

Editors and Contributors

Entries Listed by Conceptual Cluster