In 1968 Margaret K. Omar (Nydell) spent four months in a small Egyptian village called Sheikh Mubarak. Located in Middle Egypt near Al-Minya, residents of Sheik Mubarak speak in a dialect closer to Sa'eedi, not the dialect spoken in Cairo. Omar spent time there conducting interviews, examinations, and taping sessions with children and families to study primary language acquisition in non-Western languages.
Based on her fieldwork, Omar describes the physical and social environment in which the native language was learned, the development of early communication and speech, and when and how children learn the phonology, vocabulary, morphology, and syntactical patterns of Egyptian Arabic. Omar makes comparisons with aspects of language acquisition of other languages, primarily English, and explores implications for the theory of language acquisition.
Originally published in 1973, this book is the most thorough and complete analysis of the stages in which children learn Arabic as a first language. The Arabic in this book is presented in transcription, making the information accessible to all linguists interested in language acquisition.
In this important new study, Sandro Sessarego provides a syntactic description of the Afro-Bolivian Spanish determiner phrase. Afro-Bolivian Spanish is one of the many Afro-Hispanic dialects spoken across Latin America and, from a theoretical point of view, is rich in constructions that would be considered ungrammatical in standard Spanish. Yet these constructions form the core grammar of these less-prestigious, but equally efficient, syntactic systems. Because of the wide variety of their usages, Sessarego’s study of these contact varieties is particularly valuable in developing and refining theories of syntactic microvariation.
This dialect presents phenomena that offer a real challenge to current linguistic theory. The Afro-Bolivian Spanish Determiner Phrase elaborates on the importance of enhancing a stronger dialogue between formal generative theory and sociolinguistic methodology, in line with recent work in the field of minimalist syntax. Sessarego’s study combines sociolinguistic techniques of data collection with generative models of data analysis to obtain more fine-grained, empirically testable generalizations.
A collection of the total range of scholarly and popular writing on English as spoken from Maryland to Texas and from Kentucky to Florida
The only book-length bibliography on the speech of the American South, this volume focuses on the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, naming practices, word play, and other aspects of language that have interested researchers and writers for two centuries. Compiled here are the works of linguists, historians, anthropologists, sociologists, and educators, as well as popular commentators.
With over 3,800 entries, this invaluable resource is a testament to the significance of Southern speech, long recognized as a distinguishing feature of the South, and the abiding interest of Southerners in their speech as a mark of their identity. The entries encompass Southern dialects in all their distinctive varieties—from Appalachian to African American, and sea islander to urbanite.
Appalachian Englishes in the Twenty-First Century provides a complete exploration of English in Appalachia for a broad audience of scholars and educators. Starting from the premise that just as there is no single Appalachia, there is no single Appalachian dialect, this essay collection brings together wide-ranging perspectives on language variation in the region. Contributors from the fields of linguistics, education, and folklore debunk myths about the dialect’s ancient origins, examine subregional and ethnic differences, and consider the relationships between language and identity—individual and collective—in a variety of settings, including schools. They are attentive to the full range of linguistic expression, from everyday spoken grammar to subversive Dale Earnhardt memes.
A portal to the language scholarship of the last thirty years, Appalachian Englishes in the Twenty-First Century translates state-of-the-art research for a nonspecialist audience, while setting the agenda for further study of language in one of America’s most recognized regions.
This introduction to major topics in the field of Arabic sociolinguistics examines key issues in diglossia, code-switching, gendered discourse, language variation and change, and language policies. It introduces and evaluates various theoretical approaches and models, and it illustrates the usefulness and limitations of these approaches to Arabic with empirical data. Reem Bassiouney explores how current sociolinguistic theories can be applied to Arabic and, conversely, what the study of Arabic can contribute to our understanding of the function of language in society.
Graduate students of Arabic language and linguistics as well as students of sociolinguistics with no knowledge of Arabic will find this volume to be an indispensable resource.
A comprehensive introduction to Iraqi Arabic for beginners (with Iraqi-English and English-Iraqi glossaries) this is the language spoken by Muslim Baghdad residents, transcribed and not in Arabic script. It does not assume prior knowledge of Arabic. A Basic Course in Iraqi Arabic with MP3 Audio Files contains ten chapters of phonology to explain the sounds, and thirty more covering grammar and vocabulary. The phonology chapters all contain extensive drills. The grammar chapters start with a dialogue or brief narrative, then explain new vocabulary and points of grammar, and conclude with drills. The book is usefully enhanced with a bound-in CD with audio MP3 files to accompany the text and drills.
A Basic Course in Moroccan Arabic with MP3 Files
Richard S. Harrell with Mohammed Abu-Talib and William S. Carroll. Foreword by Margaret Nydell Georgetown University Press, 2006 Library of Congress PJ6770.23.H37 2006 | Dewey Decimal 492.70964
A Basic Course in Moroccan Arabic is a textbook in spoken Moroccan Arabic that is written for beginners who are unfamiliar with the Arabic language, alphabet, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Written in Latinate transcription it is carefully designed to present these elements in a progressive, user-friendly, step-by-step manner.
Following the initial pronunciation introductions and practice, there are 130 lessons consisting of a text where a small number of phrases and sentences illustrate grammatical points. These sections also contain exercises in new grammar and vocabulary. Each lesson is structured in a way that guides the learner naturally and comfortably into an understanding of the structure of Moroccan Arabic. From there, the course progresses into ninety-seven short, conversational dialogs that place the student in a variety of social situations.
First introduced to Arabic language students in the 1960s, A Basic Course in Moroccan Arabic still has no equal for clarity and ease of use. An audio CD of MP3 files that further aid and enhance the lessons is now bound into this volume.
Bawaajimo: A Dialect of Dreams in Anishinaabe Language and Literature combines literary criticism, sociolinguistics, native studies, and poetics to introduce an Anishinaabe way of reading. Although nationally specific, the book speaks to a broad audience by demonstrating an indigenous literary methodology. Investigating the language itself, its place of origin, its sound and structure, and its current usage provides new critical connections between North American fiction, Native American literatures, and Anishinaabe narrative. The four Anishinaabe authors discussed in the book, Louise Erdrich, Jim Northrup, Basil Johnston, and Gerald Vizenor, share an ethnic heritage but are connected more clearly by a culture of tales, songs, and beliefs. Each of them has heard, studied, and written in Anishinaabemowin, making their heritage language a part of the backdrop and sometimes the medium, of their work. All of them reference the power and influence of the Great Lakes region and the Anishinaabeakiing, and they connect the landscape to the original language. As they reconstruct and deconstruct the aadizookaan, the traditional tales of Nanabozho and other mythic figures, they grapple with the legacy of cultural genocide and write toward a future that places ancient beliefs in the center of the cultural horizon.
Cookies, Coleslaw, and Stoops
Nicoline van der Sijs Amsterdam University Press, 2009 Library of Congress PE1582.D88S5413 2009 | Dewey Decimal 306
From Santa Claus (after the Dutch folklore saint Sinterklaas) and his sleigh (the pronunciation of the Dutch slee is almost identical) to a dumbhead talking poppycock, the contributions of the Dutch language to American English are indelibly embedded to some of our most vernacular terms and expressions. In Cookies, Coleslaw and Stoops, the renowned linguist Nicoline van der Sijs glosses over 300 Dutch loan words like these that travelled to the New World on board the Henry Hudson’s ship the Halve Maan, which dropped anchor in Manhattan more than 400 years ago.
Lively and accessible, the information presented in this volume charts the journey of these words into the American territory and languages, from more obscure uses which maybe have survived in only regional dialects to such ubiquitous contributions to our language like Yankee, cookie, and dope. Each entry marks the original arrival of its term into American English and adds up-do-date information on its evolving meaning, etymology, and regional spread. Not to be missed by anyone with a passion for the history behind our everyday expressions,this charming volume is the perfect gift for the linguistic adventurer in us all.
Dari is the most used language in Afghanistan; all official documents are written in it. This textbook, designed to cover one year of instruction, offers beginning learners a communicative approach to the Dari language that develops the four language skills—speaking, listening, reading, and writing—through culturally relevant activities. The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM with extensive authentic materials, including audio and videos recorded in Afghanistan, to help learners perform tasks and functions in both colloquial and standard forms. Grammar and vocabulary in each thematic lesson are chosen carefully to help learners perform these tasks and functions at an elementary level and beyond.
Dari: An Elementary Textbook prepares learners to perform at level 1+ or 2 on the ILR scale and at the novice high/intermediate low level on the ACTFL scale. Special notes are included for people with experience in Persian to help them learn Dari more efficiently. It is the fifth elementary level textbook published in partnership with the Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region (CeLCAR), following Pashto, Tajiki, Uzbek, and Uyghur.
Dari is the most commonly used language in Afghanistan; in fact, all official documents are written in it. This textbook, designed to cover one year of instruction, offers intermediate learners a communicative approach to the Dari language that develops the four language skills—speaking, listening, reading, and writing—through culturally relevant activities. It is accompanied by a CD-ROM with extensive authentic audio and video to help learners perform tasks and functions in both colloquial and standard forms.
Emphasizing task-oriented, communicative activities that develop key language skills, this textbook offers a thematically organized approach to learning the Dari language for intermediate students. The topics discussed feature travel, micro-loans for businesses, shopping, and meeting with officials. Innovations include the functional approach to grammar and an emphasis on integrated skills development. With its various authentic materials, including a DVD with videos filmed in the different regions of Afghanistan and audio by native speakers, students have many opportunities to advance their language skills.
Applies linguistics methods for a richer understanding of literary texts and spoken language.
Dialect and Dichotomy outlines the history of dialect writing in English and its influence on linguistic variation. It also surveys American dialect writing and its relationship to literary, linguistic, political, and cultural trends, with emphasis on African American voices in literature.
Furthermore, this book introduces and critiques canonical works in literary dialect analysis and covers recent, innovative applications of linguistic analysis of literature. Next, it proposes theoretical principles and specific methods that can be implemented in order to analyze literary dialect for either linguistic or literary purposes, or both. Finally, the proposed methods are applied in four original analyses of African American speech as represented in major works of fiction of the American South—Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Charles W. Chesnutt's The Conjure Woman, William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, and Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God.
Dialect and Dichotomy is designed to be accessible to audiences with a variety of linguistic and literary backgrounds. It is an ideal research resource and course text for students and scholars interested in areas including American, African American, and southern literature and culture; linguistic applications to literature; language in the African American community; ethnicity and representation; literary dialect analysis and/or computational linguistics; dialect writing as genre; and American English.
With this fifth volume of the Dictionary of American Regional English, readers now have the full panoply of American regional vocabulary, from Adam’s housecat to Zydeco. Like the first four volumes, the fifth is filled with words that reflect our origins, migrations, ethnicities, and neighborhoods.
Contradicting the popular notion that American English has become homogenized, DARE demonstrates that our language still has distinct and delightful local character. (If a person lives in a remote place, would you say he’s from the boondocks, the puckerbrush, the tules, or the willywags?) Whether we are talking about foods, games, clothing, family members, animals, or almost any other aspect of life, our vocabulary reveals much about who we are.
Each entry in DARE has been carefully researched to provide as complete a history of its life in America as possible. Illustrative citations extend from the seventeenth century through the twenty-first. More than 600 maps show where words were collected by the DARE fieldworkers. And quotations highlight the wit and wisdom of American speakers and writers. Recognized as the authoritative record of American English, DARE serves scholars and professionals of all stripes. It also holds treasures for readers who simply love our language.
This companion volume to the Dictionary of American Regional English vastly enhances readers’ use of the five volumes of DARE text. Those who want to investigate the regional synonyms for a rustic, or a submarine sandwich, or that strip of grass between the sidewalk and the street can search through the five volumes and compare the distributional maps. Or, with this volume, they can open to a page with all those maps displayed side by side. Not only is it an extraordinary teaching tool, it is also a browser’s delight.
The user who wants to know what words characterize a given state or region is also in luck. The Index to the five volumes not only answers that question, but also satisfies the reader’s curiosity about words that have come into English from other languages, and words that vary with the speakers’ age, sex, race, education, and community type.
And those who simply love to explore the variety and ingenuity of American expression will be seduced by more than 400 DARE fieldwork questions and all of their answers. Like the preceding five volumes, Volume VI is a treasure trove of American linguistic creativity.
A Dictionary of Iraqi Arabic: English-Arabic, Arabic-English
English-Arabic edited by B.E. Clarity, Karl Stowasser, and Ronald G. Wolfe. Arabic-English edited by D.R. Woodhead and Wayne Beene. Foreword by Ronald G. Wolfe Georgetown University Press, 2003 Library of Congress PJ6826.D53 2003 | Dewey Decimal 492.7321
Originally offered in two separate volumes, A Dictionary of Iraqi Arabic, a staple of Georgetown University Press's world-renowned Arabic language program, now handily provides both the English to Arabic and Arabic to English texts in one volume. Designed for an English speaker learning Arabic, this is a key reference for anyone learning the colloquial speech of Iraq as spoken by educated people in Baghdad. Using romanized transliteration and transcription rather than the Arabic alphabet, it is further enhanced in most cases by having sentences to illustrate how individual word entries are used in context, reinforcing the user's acquisition of colloquial Iraqi.
This classic volume presents the core vocabulary of everyday life in Morocco—from the kitchen to the mosque, from the hardware store to the natural world of plants and animals. It contains myriad examples of usage, including formulaic phrases and idiomatic expressions. Understandable throughout the nation, it is based primarily on the standard dialect of Moroccans from the cities of Fez, Rabat, and Casablanca. All Arabic citations are in an English transcription, making it invaluable to English-speaking non-Arabists, travelers, and tourists—as well as being an important resource tool for students and scholars in the Arabic language-learning field.
A Dictionary of Syrian Arabic provides Syrian terms for the language spoken in everyday life by Muslims primarily in Damascus, but understandable throughout Syria as well as in the broader linguistic areas of present-day Lebanon, Jordan, and among the Palestinians and the Arabic-speaking population of Israel. Entries include examples, idioms, and common phrases to illustrate usage. The Arabic terms are presented in transcription. It is useful for students of Arabic, scholars wishing to train in the Syrian dialect, and visitors and travelers to Syria and other nations where the dialect is spoken. A thorough introduction outlines the sociolinguistic situation in Syria and covers phonology, morphology, syntax, grammar, and vocabulary. Alongside the other Arabic language-learning and reference works published by Georgetown University Press, this dictionary is yet another invaluable volume on spoken Arabic, belonging at the side of travelers and scholars, and on the shelves of research and reference libraries.
The Maya language of Yucatan is known as Yucate by linguists, but its speakers refer to it as May. Dialiectical differences are minimal across the peninsula, and the more than 750,000 speakers of Maya can be understood wherever they go. Moreover, it is not only a living language but is of great use to epigraphers working on ancient Maya glyphs.
This dictionary is the culmination of fourteen years’ labor centering on the town and dialect of Hocaba. Whereas other dictionaries of may use Latin paradigms, this is the first to provide a comprehensive, systematic listing of the stems that can be derived from each root and that give Maya its distinctive character. The entries cover the full range of Maya speech, from simple expressions and idioms to compound stems. Maya sample sentences provide a window into the richness of everyday communication, with its mixture of wit, epithets, insults, riddles, aphorisms, and exchanges of information, including a wonderful assortment of metaphorical expressions like "peccary’s eyelashes" for a type of bean, "the end of the road" for marriage, and a verb meaning "to draw breath with puckered mouth after eating chili." Among the cultural domains encompassed by the dictionary are agriculture, architecture, astronomy, culinary practices and recipes, education, folklore, games, humor, medical prescriptions, ritual, toys, and weaving, many of which have roots in the Precolumbian past. In addition to the dictionary entries, this work also contains a short grammar, a botanical index, and bibliography.
"Raymond and Russell have fashioned a lively, useful volume. . . . The ability and integrity of the contributors make much of the difference, but the editors have given the book direction by soliciting state of the art essays in three fields . . . dialectology (the articles represent area linguistics at its best), grammar and usage (Algeo on usage shibboleths is particularly fine), and lexicography (a delight)."
"These essays are quietly unassuming in tone but highly useful."
This Arabic language-learning classic is now enhanced with a bound-in CD of MP3 files. Designed to provide beginners in Arabic with maximum linguistic and cultural exposure in a short period (about 100 hours of contact time), this book consists of sixteen lessons with dialogs and exercises dealing with day-to-day scenarios: greeting people, getting a taxi, making phone calls, asking directions, discussing the weather, and effectively communicating with police and duty officers. The lessons help the reader to navigate situations at gas stations, marketplaces, restaurants, and in their own households.
Formal Spoken Arabic (FSA) is a kind of lingua franca that is more natural than speaking Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the literary form of the language. FSA uses the shared features of the various urban colloquial dialects, defaulting to Levantive (terms common to Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan) where the spoken dialects diverge. Each lesson includes cultural notes on American-Arab interactions, notes on learner strategies for managing Arabic conversations with a limited amount of language, and grammar explanations in clear, non-technical language. Although the main dialogue for each lesson is presented in Arabic script, transcriptions are used to accelerate spoken performance. The FAST Course includes grammatical explanations, English-Arabic and Arabic-English glossaries, appendices listing common idioms, courtesy expressions and other useful terms, instructor's notes, and drills aided and accompanied by the CD.
Originally created for diplomats, this is an expanded and enhanced edition of a work originally developed by the U.S. State Department as a six-week intensive, or "FAST" (Familiarization and Short-Term) course, and is easily adaptable for students in Middle East area studies. Travelers heading for posts in the Arab world who quickly need to gain a basic ability to converse in day-to-day situations will find Formal Spoken Arabic FAST Course an invaluable companion.
The Georgetown Dictionary of Iraqi Arabic is a modernized, up-to-date dialectal Arabic language resource that promotes successful daily communication with native Arabic speakers. Students, teachers, and scholars of Arabic will welcome this dramatically overhauled edition of one of the only Arabic dialect dictionaries of its kind—establishing a new standard in Arabic reference.
The dictionary represents a new generation of Arabic language reference materials designed to help English speakers gain proficiency in colloquial Arabic. Thoroughly updated, expanded, and enhanced, this dictionary supersedes the seminal Iraqi dictionaries originally published by Georgetown University Press in the 1960s and then reissued in the early 2000s.
Created in cooperation with Georgetown University Press and the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) of the University of Pennsylvania, this new dictionary draws from the LDC’s extensive lexical database of colloquial Iraqi, and includes more than a thirty percent increase in terms for contemporary speech than found in the original dictionaries.
This comprehensive reference focuses on conversation, emphasizing the colloquial speech of educated residents of Baghdad. The dictionary assumes familiarity with the Arabic alphabet, the standard organization of Arabic dictionaries along the triconsonantal root system, and the formation of Arabic verb forms.
• Approximately 17,500 Iraqi Arabic entries
• Approximately 10,750 English-to-Iraqi entries
• An increase of more than 30 percent in terms that reflect current vocabulary and usage
• Provides conventional Arabic script for main entries, and organized by root, as standard for Arabic dictionaries
• Employs International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for all terms to demonstrate correct pronunciation
• Offers extensive example sentences to illustrate how the Iraqi words are used
• Indicates relevant parts of speech for each Iraqi entry and subentry
The Georgetown Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic is a modernized, up-to-date dialectal Arabic language resource that promotes successful daily communication with native Moroccan speakers. Created using the latest computational linguistics ideas and tools, the dictionary represents a new generation of Arabic language reference materials designed to help English speakers gain proficiency in colloquial Arabic variety. Thoroughly updated, expanded, and enhanced, this dictionary supersedes the seminal Moroccan dictionaries originally published by Georgetown University Press in the 1960s.
More than just a phrasebook, The Georgetown Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic now includes new words and phrases (including commonly borrowed words), Arabic script and organization by root, pronunciation in IPA format, among other features. Students, teachers, and scholars of Arabic will welcome this resource, which has a firm base of Moroccan words so they may grow their vocabulary and learn more about the Moroccan Arabic variety. It is the second Georgetown University Press Arabic dialect dictionary that the Linguistic Data Consortium has revamped and remains one of the very few Moroccan dialect dictionaries available. Scholars and linguists are certain to find its presentation of this complex and challenging dialect informative and useful in discussions of Arabic dialectology.
* Features over 13,000 Moroccan Arabic entries and 8,000 English-Arabic entries
* Provides conventional Arabic script for main entries, organized by root, as standard for Arabic dictionaries
* Employs International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for all terms to demonstrate correct pronunciation
* Includes borrowed words commonly used in Moroccan Arabic, such as those from Amazigh and French
* Contains an appendix showing the roots of words with prefixes to help the learner
Taking Cajuns as a case study, Good God but You Smart! explores the subtle ways language bias is used in classrooms, within families, and in pop culture references to enforce systemic economic inequality. It is the first book in composition studies to examine comprehensively, and from an insider’s perspective, the cultural and linguistic assimilation of Cajuns in Louisiana.
The study investigates the complicated motivations and cultural concessions of upwardly mobile Cajuns who “choose” to self-censor—to speak Standardized English over the Cajun English that carries their cultural identity. Drawing on surveys of English teachers in four Louisiana colleges, previously unpublished archival data, and Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of the legitimate language, author Nichole Stanford explores how socioeconomic and political pressures rooted in language prejudice make code switching, or self-censoring in public, seem a responsible decision. Yet teaching students to skirt others’ prejudice toward certain dialects only puts off actually dealing with the prejudice. Focusing on what goes on outside classrooms, Stanford critiques code switching and cautions users of code meshing that pedagogical responses within the educational system are limited by the reproductive function of schools. Each theory section includes parallel memoir sections in the Cajun tradition of storytelling to open an experiential window to the study without technical language.
Through its explication of language legitimacy and its grounding in lived experience,Good God but You Smart! is an essential addition to the pedagogical canon of language minority studies like those of Villanueva, Gilyard, Smitherman, and Rose.
An Introduction to Moroccan Arabic and Culture and the accompanying multimedia DVD are designed to enable students to communicate effectively using Moroccan Arabic. Since Moroccan Arabic is rarely written or used in formal communication, the strength of the book lies in training learners in speaking and listening skills that can be used in everyday situations.
Upon completing this course, students should be able to:• greet people• introduce themselves• ask and reply to simple questions• use days and numbers in context• order food• shop• make appointments and reservations• give directions• talk about future plans• use common idiomatic expressions
Each chapter includes:• cultural introductions to social, religious, or cultural aspects of Moroccan society• listening comprehension exercises• vocabulary exercises• dialogues and texts• conversation practice• grammar instruction on how native speakers structure their speech• interactive and video materials to support cultural understanding, listening, speaking, and grammar explanations
The book uses Romanized transcription alongside Arabic script for the first three chapters and thereafter only the Arabic script. It also includes a glossary and answer key. It requires approximately 120 contact hours, plus 180-240 additional hours of preparation outside class. A novice student should reach the intermediate-mid level of proficiency by the end of this course.
This book is an primary text for the Shoshoni language that provides basic information on the phonology and grammar of the language. While the book emphasizes the Fort Hall dialect, it also addresses other dialects. Primarily conceived as a college or high school-level textbook, it is also an accessible introduction for anyone interested in the language. Readers will find useful background information about the Shoshoni people, and a history of Fort Hall into the present day. Each chapter contains exercises for the student, and sections on language and culture that discuss such topics as gift giving, presentation of self, eye contact, and other non-verbal behavior.
Listen to the open source audio companion to this book:
Founded as a communal society in 1855 by German Pietists, the seven villages of Iowa’s Amana Colonies make up a community whose crafts, architecture, and institutions reflect—and to an extent perpetuate—the German heritage of earlier residents. In this intriguing blend of sociolinguistic research and stories from Colonists both past and present, Philip Webber examines the rich cultural and linguistic traditions of the Amanas.
Although the Colonies are open to the outside world, particularly after the Great Change of 1932, many distinctive vestiges of earlier lifeways survive, including the local variety of German known by its speakers as Kolonie-Deutsch. Drawing upon interviews with more than fifty Amana-German speakers in 1989 and 1990, Webber explores the nuances of this home-grown German, signaling the development of local microdialects, the changing pattern in the use of German in the Colonies, and the reciprocal influence of English and German on residents’ speech. By letting his sources tell their own stories of earlier days, in which the common message seems to be wir haben fun gehabt or “we had fun working together,” he illuminates the history and unique qualities of each Colony through the prism of language study.
Webber’s introduction to this paperback edition provides an up-to-date itinerary for visitors to the Colonies, information about recent publications on Amana history and culture, and an overview of expanded research opportunities for language study and historical inquiry. The result is an informative and engaging study that will be appreciated by linguists, anthropologists, and historians as well as by general readers interested in these historic villages.
A Language and Power Reader organizes reading and writing activities for undergraduate students, guiding them in the exploration of racism and cross-racial rhetorics.
Introducing texts written from and about versions of English often disrespected by mainstream Americans, A Language and Power Reader highlights English dialects and discourses to provoke discussions of racialized relations in contemporary America. Thirty selected readings in a range of genres and from writers who work in ?alternative? voices (e.g., Pidgin, African American Language, discourse of international and transnational English speakers) focus on disparate power relations based on varieties of racism in America and how those relations might be displayed, imposed, or resisted across multiple rhetorics. The book also directs student participation and discourse. Each reading is followed by comments and guides to help focus conversation.
Research has long shown that increasing a student?s metalinguistic awareness improves a student?s writing. No other reader available at this time explores the idea of multiple rhetorics or encourages their use, making A Language and Power Reader a welcome addition to writing classrooms.
The oil-rich sultanate of Brunei Darussalam is located on the northern coast of Borneo between the two Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. Though the country is small in size and in population, the variety of language use there provides a veritable laboratory for linguists in the fields of Austronesian linguistics, bilingual studies, and sociolinguistic studies, particularly those dealing with language shift.
This useful reference is divided into three sections: one on varieties of the Malay language used in the country, one on other indigenous languages, and one on the role and form of the English used there. Contributors to the collection include Bruneian scholars as well as established experts in the fields of Austronesian linguistics, sociolinguistics studies, and the description of new varieties of English.
Top linguists from diverse fields address language varieties in the South.
Language Variety in the South Revisited is a comprehensive collection of new research on southern United States English by foremost scholars of regional language variation. Like its predecessor, Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White (The University of Alabama Press, 1986), this book includes current research into African American vernacular English, but it greatly expands the scope of investigation and offers an extensive assessment of the field. The volume encompasses studies of contact involving African and European languages; analysis of discourse, pragmatic, lexical, phonological, and syntactic features; and evaluations of methods of collecting and examining data. The 38 essays not only offer a wealth of information about southern language varieties but also serve as models for regional linguistic investigation.
This book discusses words used in the Southeast and how they have changed
during the 20th century. It also describes how the lexicon varies according
to the speaker's age, race, education, sex, and place of residence
(urban versus rural; coastal versus piedmont versus mountain). Data collected
in the 1930s as part of the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic
States project were compared with data collected in 1990 from similar speakers
in the same communities.
The results show that region was the most important
factor in differentiating dialects in the 1930s but that it is the least
important element in the 1990s, with age, education, race, and age all
showing about the same influence on the use of vocabulary. An appendix
contains a tally of the responses given by 78 speakers to 150 questions
about vocabulary items, along with speakers' commentary. Results
from the 1930s may be compared to those from 1990, making this a treasure
trove for anyone interested in regional terms or in how our speech is changing
as the South moves from an agricultural economy through industrialization
and into the information age.
Unlike other multi-ethnic nations, such as Myanmar and India, where official language policy has sparked bloody clashes, Thailand has maintained relative stability despite its eighty languages. In this study of the relations among politics, geography, and language, William A. Smalley shows how Thailand has maintained national unity through an elaborate social and linguistic hierarchy.
Smalley contends that because the people of Thailand perceive their social hierarchy as the normal order, Standard Thai, spoken by members of the higher levels of society, prevails as the uncontested national language. By examining the hierarchy of Thailand's diverse languages and dialects in light of Thai history, education, culture, and religion, Smalley shows how Thailand has been able to keep its many ethnic groups at peace.
Linguistic Diversity and National Unity explores the intricate relationship between language and power and the ways in which social and linguistic rank can be used to perpetuate order.
Modern Iraqi Arabic with MP3 Files is an introductory textbook—suitable for classroom or self-study—for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. A detailed discussion of the consonants, vowels, and other characteristics of Iraqi phonetics—including pronunciation exercises on the CD—serves the needs of travelers, businesspeople, diplomats, archaeologists, and scholars who want to learn to speak the language quickly and efficiently.
Using the dialect of middle-class Baghdad, twenty lessons are arranged in a story-like format and are based on everyday travel situations. From arriving at the airport to getting to the hotel, students will learn proper greetings and introductions; how to ask for directions, take a taxi, and tell time; and prepare for daily activities like visiting the bank, museum, post office, and restaurants. The book contains basic dialogue, grammar, vocabulary, drills, and an extensive glossary. A section of idiomatic phrases, accompanied by their cultural, religious, or proverbial explanations, offers insight into current Iraqi culture.
NEW TO THIS EDITION: • Arabic script has been added so the reader has a choice of following the Arabic writing or the transcription in the Roman alphabet. • Four entirely new lessons cover medical care, media (radio, television, and journalism), telephone conversations, and cultural and folkloric tales. • All audio materials from the first edition—plus new audio materials for the new lessons—are included as MP3 files on a CD bound into the book.
The third installment in the landmark LAVIS (Language Variety in the South) series, New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South: Historical and Contemporary Approaches brings together essays devoted to the careful examination and elucidation of the rich linguistic diversity of the American South, updating and broadening the work of the earlier volumes by more fully capturing the multifaceted configuration of languages and dialects in the South.
Beginning with an introduction to American Indian languages of the Southeast, five fascinating essays discuss indigenous languages, including Caddo, Ofo, and Timucua, and evidence for the connection between the Pre-Columbian Southeast and the Caribbean.
Five essays explore the earlier Englishes of the South, covering topics such as the eighteenth century as the key period in the differentiation of Southern American English and the use of new quantitative methods to trace the transfer of linguistic features from England to America. They examine a range of linguistic resources, such as plantation overseers’ writings, modern blues lyrics, linguistic databases, and lexical and locutional compilations that reveal the region’s distinctive dialectal traditions.
New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South: Historical and Contemporary Approaches widens the scope of inquiry into the linguistic influences of the African diaspora as evidenced in primary sources and records. A comprehensive essay redefines the varieties of French in Louisiana, tracing the pathway from Colonial Louisiana to the emergence of Plantation Society French in a diglossic relationship with Louisiana Creole. A further essay maps the shift from French to English in family documents.
An assortment of essays on English in the contemporary South touch on an array of compelling topics from discourse strategies to dialectal emblems of identity to stereotypes in popular perception.
Essays about recent Latino immigrants to the South bring the collection into the twenty-first century, taking into account the dramatic increase in the population of Spanish speakers and illuminating the purported role of “Spanglish,” the bilingual lives of Spanish-speaking Latinos in Mississippi, and the existence of regional Spanish dialectal diversity.
In North Carolina English, 1861–1865, Michael E. Ellis offers an Oxford English Dictionary–like take on regional language based on more than two thousand letters and diaries composed by North Carolinians during the Civil War. These documents are part of a larger project, the Corpus of American Civil War Letters (CACWL), aimed at locating, photographing, and transcribing letters written during the period from all parts of the country. With little formal education, the correspondents were men and women who wrote “by ear,” often reproducing their spoken language through unconventional spellings and grammatical forms, as well as regional or archaic words and usages.
The core of the book is an alphabetically arranged glossary of words and expressions characteristic of mid–nineteenth century North Carolina, each containing excerpts from the letters themselves to illustrate meaning and usage. While the majority of the writers were Confederate soldiers and their family members, the collection also includes letters from slaves, former slaves, and African Americans from North Carolina serving in the Union Army. The soldiers’ letters rarely contain details about battles, except to list the names of relatives or neighbors among the killed or wounded. After a battle, a soldier might simply write, “the Like of ded men an horses I never saw before” or “we hav lost a heep of men and kild a heep of yankeys.” As Joel Howard of Lincoln County wrote home in June 1863, “I have bin in the ware and Saw the ware and heard tell of the ware till I have got tired of it. if I Could get clear of this ware I neve[r] want to Read of A nother.”
Food is perhaps the most common topic, followed by illness. Numerous terms relate to farming, clothing, religion, and the effects of the war itself, as well as entries for expressions that have long since disappeared from American English: in the gants, on the goose, and up the spout.
In addition to the glossary, Ellis offers an extensive overview of North Carolina English of the period, delves into the social background of the letter writers, and provides invaluable guidance to the ways in which Civil War letters should be read. A unique window into a largely neglected corner of our extraordinarily rich and regionally distinct language, this volume will prove an indispensable reference for scholars and students seeking to reconstruct the world of the common Civil War soldier.
Founded in 1847 by religious separatists, the town of Pella in central Iowa is the state’s oldest Dutch American colony, and its crafts, architecture, and celebrations reflect and perpetuate the Dutch heritage of its earlier residents. Through his intriguing blend of sociolinguistic research, regional history, and interviews with current speakers of Pella Dutch, Philip Webber examines the town’s rich cultural and linguistic traditions.
Drawing upon formal and informal interviews and conversations with more than 150 speakers of Pella Dutch, Webber uses the methods of language research to trace the vestiges of Dutch heritage left on the English spoken by local residents; to explain attitudes toward language and ethnicity that emerged in the twentieth century; and to document the vocabulary, linguistic forms, humor, and conversational patterns that characterize contemporary Pella Dutch. In addition, desiring to let his informants speak for themselves, he includes the playful jokes, proverbial observations, folk wisdom, children’s rhymes, riddles, and puzzles influenced by Pella Dutch.
Webber’s introduction to this expanded paperback edition provides new photographs, updated information about recent research and publications, examples of how Dutch continues to be spoken, and descriptions of the ways in which Pella continues to commemorate its linguistic and cultural heritage. Linguists, anthropologists, and historians—as well as all those who enjoy Pella’s Tulip Time festival, its summertime fair or kermis, the Dutch letters in its bakeries, and the early winter visit of Sinterklaas—will appreciate Webber’s informed and engaging study of this unique Iowa community.
In exploring the ways that Appalachian people speak and write, Amanda E. Hayes raises the importance of knowing and respecting communication styles within a marginalized culture. Diving deep into the region’s historical roots—especially those of the Scotch-Irish and their influence on her own Appalachian Ohio—Hayes reveals a rhetoric with its own unique logic, utility, and poetry.
Hayes also considers the headwinds against Appalachian rhetoric, notably ideologies about poverty and the biases of the school system. She connects these to challenges that Appalachian students face in the classroom and pinpoints pedagogical and structural approaches for change.
Throughout, Hayes blends conventional scholarship with autobiography, storytelling, and language, illustrating Appalachian rhetoric’s validity as a means of creating and sharing knowledge.
A Reference Grammar of Egyptian Arabic
Ernest T. Abdel-Massih, Zaki N. Abdel-Malek, and El-Said M. Badawi with Ernest N. McCarus. Foreword by Elizabeth M. Bergman Georgetown University Press, 2009 Library of Congress PJ6777.A234 2009 | Dewey Decimal 492.770962
Originally published in 1979, this classic reference work presents definitions of grammatical and linguistic terms for spoken Egyptian Arabic in dictionary form from "active participles" through "writing system." Entries feature definitions and examples of all the grammatical features including phonology, morphology, and syntax. Aimed at the intermediate to advanced student of Egyptian Arabic, this volume presupposes a basic knowledge of Egyptian Arabic. Arabic lexical items are presented in romanized transliteration and are therefore accessible to those who are not familiar with Arabic script.
A Short Reference Grammar of Iraqi Arabic is the only volume of its kind, reflecting Iraqi Arabic as spoken by Muslims in Baghdad. With all the Arabic transcribed, it is written for beginners as well as Arabic speakers wanting to learn the dialect. It covers the phonology, morphology (word formation of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and numerals, achieved by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots), and syntax, teaching the reader how to make the sounds, form words, and construct sentences.
Fifteen research linguists discuss the varieties of Spanish spoken in California, Iowa, Indiana, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, and Texas. They variously address language maintenance, syntactic variation, lexicography, language use and language teaching, and include studies on socioeconomic, political, and cultural aspects of language in the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States.
Informative and entertaining essays on the accents, dialects, and speech patterns particular to Alabama
Thomas E. Nunnally’s fascinating volume presents essays by linguists who examine with affection and curiosity the speech varieties occurring both past and present across Alabama. Taken together, the accounts in this volume offer an engaging view of the major features that characterize Alabama’s unique brand of southern English.
Written in an accessible manner for general readers and scholars alike, Speaking of Alabama includes such subjects as the special linguistic features of the Southern drawl, the “phonetic divide” between north and south Alabama, “code-switching” by African American speakers in Alabama, pejorative attitudes by Alabama speakers toward their own native speech, the influence of foreign languages on Alabama speech to the vibrant history and continuing influence of non-English languages in the state, as well as ongoing changes in Alabama’s dialects.
Adding to these studies is a foreword by Walt Wolfram and an afterword by Michael B. Montgomery, both renowned experts in southern English, which place both the methodologies and the findings of the volume into their larger contexts and point researchers to needed work ahead in Alabama, the South, and beyond. The volume also contains a number of useful appendices, including a guide to the sounds of Southern English, a glossary of linguistic terms, and online sources for further study.
Language, as presented in this collection, is never abstract but always examined in the context of its speakers’ day-to-day lives, the driving force for their communication needs and choices. Whether specialist or general reader, Alabamian or non-Alabamian, all readers will come away from these accounts with a deepened understanding of how language functions between individuals, within communities, and across regions, and will gain a new respect for the driving forces behind language variation and language change.
The editors and fourteen other research linguists discuss—in English and in Spanish—the African influence on Caribbean phonology, dominant sociolinguistic attitudes in Puerto Rico, and historico-legal aspects of bilingualism in colonial Hispanic America.
Much recent scholarship has sought to identify the linguistic and social factors that favor the expression or omission of subject pronouns in Spanish. This volume brings together leading experts on the topic of language variation in Spanish to provide a panoramic view of research trends, develop probabilistic models of grammar, and investigate the impact of language contact on pronoun expression.
The book consists of three sections. The first studies the distributional patterns and conditioning forces on subject pronoun expression in four monolingual varieties—Dominican, Colombian, Mexican, and Peninsular—and makes cross-dialectal comparisons. In the second section, experts explore Spanish in contact with English, Maya, Catalan, and Portuguese to determine the extent to which each language influences this syntactic variable. The final section examines the acquisition of variable subject pronoun expression among monolingual and bilingual children as well as adult second language learners.
"[A] superb collection of studies that substantially increases our understanding, not only of variation in subject personal pronouns, but also of variable morphosyntactic processes generally.... clearly relevant to all students and scholars who wish to understand the complexities of linguistic variation and dialect contact." -- Robert Bayley, professor of linguistics, University of California, Davis
"Students and scholars will find that this volume is an essential reference in the field of Spanish language variation. If the study of final /s/ has led Spanish sociophonetics, the study of subject pronouns stars in sociogrammar. This volume presents a 3D analysis of how subject pronouns are used and acquired in Spanish. This comprehensive volume is not only of interest to those concerned with Spanish grammar, but also to anyone interested in pro-drop languages. The vision of Carvalho, Orozco and Shin has harmonized an excellent collective volume." -- Francisco Moreno-Fernández, professor of Hispanic linguistics. University of Alcala (Spain) and Instituto Cervantes at Harvard University.
"If you seek innovative, theoretically and empirically driven research into syntactic variation, open this book and read on. Here a variationist focus on alternating sound and silence, something and nothing, or subject pronouns and nulls generates striking insights into the nature of Spanish and those who speak and learn it." -- Richard Cameron,, University of Illinois at Chicago
This book is the first comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects, based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups.
Kristen E. Brustad has adopted an analytical approach that is both functional and descriptive, combining insights from discourse analysis, language typology, and pragmatics—the first time such an approach has been used in the study of spoken Arabic syntax. An appendix includes sample texts from her data.
Brustad's work provides the most nuanced description available to date of spoken Arabic syntax, widens the theoretical base of Arabic linguistics, and gives both scholars and students of Arabic tools for greater cross-dialect comprehension.
Wisconsin is one of the most linguistically rich places in North America. It has the greatest diversity of American Indian languages east of the Mississippi, including Ojibwe and Menominee from the Algonquian language family, Ho-Chunk from the Siouan family, and Oneida from the Iroquoian family. French place names dot the state's map. German, Norwegian, and Polish—the languages of immigrants in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries—are still spoken by tens of thousands of people, and the influx of new immigrants speaking Spanish, Hmong, and Somali continues to enrich the state's cultural landscape. These languages and others (Walloon, Cornish, Finnish, Czech, and more) have shaped the kinds of English spoken around the state. Within Wisconsin's borders are found three different major dialects of American English, and despite the influences of mass media and popular culture, they are not merging—they are dramatically diverging.
An engaging survey for both general readers and language scholars, Wisconsin Talk brings together perspectives from linguistics, history, cultural studies, and geography to illuminate why language matters in our everyday lives. The authors highlight such topics as:
• words distinctive to the state
• how recent and earlier immigrants have negotiated cultural and linguistic challenges
• the diversity of bilingual speakers that enriches our communities
• how maps can convey the stories of language
• the relation of Wisconsin's Indian languages to language loss worldwide.
The Upper Peninsula of Michigan—known as “the U P”—is historically, geographically, and culturally distinct. Struggles over land, labor, and language during the last 150 years have shaped the variety of English spoken by resident Yoopers, as well as how they are viewed by outsiders—and themselves. Drawing on sixteen years of fieldwork, including interviews with seventy-five lifelong residents of the UP, Kathryn Remlinger examines how the idea of a unique Yooper dialect emerged. Considering UP English in relation to other regional dialects and their speakers, she looks at local identity, literacy practices, media representations, language attitudes, notions of authenticity, economic factors, tourism, and contact with non-English immigrant and Native American languages. The book also explores how a dialect becomes a recognizable and valuable commodity: Yooper talk (or “Yoopanese”) is emblazoned on t-shirts, flags, postcards, coffee mugs, and bumper stickers.