Electromagnetic Field Standards and Exposure Systems covers the broader fields of measurements in telecommunications, radio navigation, radio astronomy, bioscience, and free ranging EM radiation and helps to develop the following measurement standards;
proper calibration of the measuring instrument
external environmental factors that affect accuracy
competence and training of the instrument operator
This book is devoted to the specific problems of electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the near field and to the analysis of the main factors which impede accuracy in these measurements. It focuses on careful and accurate design of systems to measure in the near field based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental engineering principles and on an analysis of the likely system errors. Beginning with a short introduction to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis on the near field, it then presents methods of EMF measurements in near field conditions. It details the factors limiting measurement accuracy including internal ones (thermal stability, frequency response, dynamic characteristics, susceptibility) and external ones (field integration, mutual couplings between a probe and primary and secondary EMF sources, directional pattern deformations). It continues with a discussion on how to gauge the parameters declared by an EMF meter manufacturer and simple methods for testing these parameters. It also details how designers of measuring equipment can reconsider the near field when designing and testing, as well as how users can exploit the knowledge within the book to ensure their tests and results contain the most accurate measurements possible. The SciTech Publishing Series on Electromagnetic Compatibility provides a continuously growing body of knowledge in the latest development and best practices in electromagnetic compatibility engineering. This series provides specialist and non-specialist professionals and students practical knowledge that is thoroughly grounded in relevant theory.
Improvements in the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics (including antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications) can be achieved through the use of 'high-order' techniques. This book outlines these techniques by presenting high-order basis functions, explaining their use, and illustrating their performance. The specific basis functions under consideration were developed by the authors, and include scalar and vector functions for use with equations such as the vector Helmholtz equation and the electric field integral equation.
The book starts by considering the approximation of scalar functions, and explores the error in some of those representations. Singular functions (those that are unbounded) are also considered, since these often arise in practical EM problems. The authors then discuss the approximation of vector functions, and summarize the various classes of vector basis functions that have been used by the professional community. Following this, they present higher-order basis functions for the most common cell shapes used in finite element analysis procedures. Finally, they consider some of the implementation details associated with the use of these functions for integral equation/method of moments formulations and differential equation/finite element method approaches.
This book provides an essential introduction to these techniques for researchers, graduate students and practicing professionals in the discipline of computational electromagnetics.
This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the most advanced and current solutions.
This is the first book to discuss the solution of two-dimensional integral equations in many forms of their application and utility. As 2D problems are simpler to discuss, the student and basic reader can gain the necessary expertise before diving into 3D applications. This is also the first basic text to cover fast integral methods for metallic, impedance, and material geometries. It will provide the student or advanced reader with a fairly complete and up-to-date coverage of integral methods for composite scatterers.
In this volume in the Masterworks of Discovery series, Thomas K. Simpson offers readers a chance to watch one of the greatest minds in physics hard at work. In three papers in mathematical physics written between 1855 and 1864, James Clerk Maxwell grappled with his formulation of the theory of the electromagnetic field.
This volume reproduces major portions of the text of Maxwell's classic papers on concepts that are key to both modern physics and the modern world. Through Simpson's engaginbg commentaries and notes and Anne Farrell's illustrations, readers with limited knowledge of math or physics as well as scientists and historians of science will be able to follow the emergence of Maxwell's ideas and to appreciate the magnitude of his achievement. This book includes a long biographical introduction that explores the personal, historical, and scientific context of Maxwell's book.