Written by two leading experts in the field, this exceptional book introduces the reader to the principles, theory and applications of physical layer wireless/mobile communications. In the area of wireless, the antennas, propagation and the radio channel used are inter-related; this book offers an explanation of that relationship, which is fundamental to the development of systems with high spectral efficiency.
Channels, Propagation and Antennas for Mobile Communications emphasises the basic principles needed to establish an understanding of this technology. However, the tools required - such as the mathematics and statistics - are treated in the manner of a practical handbook, avoiding detailed derivations. The reader will develop a clear insight into the physics and effects of multipath and the use of multipath channels for communications. Propagation modelling, simulation and measurement, scattering, antenna principles, array antennas, adaptive antennas and smart antennas are also covered.
This book will be a valuable reference for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in electrical engineering and communications. Practising design engineers, systems designers and engineering managers will also gain a sound understanding of the field.
Understanding the formation and introduction mechanisms of defects in semiconductors is essential to understanding their properties. Although many defect-related problems have been identified and solved over the past 60 years of semiconductor research, the quest for faster, cheaper, lower power, and new kinds of electronics generates an ongoing need for new materials and properties, and so creates new defect-related challenges.
This book provides an up-to-date review of the experimental and theoretical methods used for studying defects in semiconductors, focussing on the most recent developments in the methods. These developments largely stem from the requirements of new materials – such as nitrides, the plethora of oxide semiconductors, and 2-D semiconductors - whose physical characteristics and manufacturing challenges are much more complex than in conventional Si/Ge or GaAs. Each chapter addresses both the identification and quantification of the defects and their characteristics, and goes on to suggest routes for controlling the defects and hence the semiconductor properties. The book provides valuable information and solutions for scientists and engineers working with semiconductors and their applications in electronics.
At the heart of modern power electronics converters are power semiconductor switching devices. The emergence of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices, including silicon carbide and gallium nitride, promises power electronics converters with higher efficiency, smaller size, lighter weight, and lower cost than converters using the established silicon-based devices. However, WBG devices pose new challenges for converter design and require more careful characterization, in particular due to their fast switching speed and more stringent need for protection.
Characterization of Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Devices presents comprehensive methods with examples for the characterization of this important class of power devices. After an introduction, the book covers pulsed static characterization; junction capacitance characterization; fundamentals of dynamic characterization; gate drive for dynamic characterization; layout design and parasitic management; protection design for double pulse test; measurement and data processing for dynamic characterization; cross-talk consideration; impact of three-phase system; and topology considerations.
This undergraduate textbook for electrical and computer engineering students is dedicated solely to digital CMOS electronics. It covers many of the topics of graduate level textbooks, but in an introductory style specifically crafted (and course tested) for undergraduates. Students will not need a prerequisite in analog electronics, allowing instructors flexibility in course scheduling. This book blends the academic and industrial experience of the authors to define a base of electronics instruction for the CMOS chip industry.
CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: A First Course teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology by focusing on central themes and avoiding excessive details. Extensive examples, self-exercises, and end-of chapter problems assist in teaching the current practices of industry and subjects taught by graduate courses in microelectronics. Computer engineering curriculums can remove the analog electronics prerequisite altogether when adopting this book.
CMOS technology written specifically for (and tested by) undergraduates.
Equal treatment to both types of MOSFET transistors that make up computer circuits.
The authors have between them more than 60 years of experience in making electrical measurements in National Measurement Laboratories. These laboratories are the source of measurement standards and techniques for science and engineering and are dedicated to maintaining the international system of units (SI) by establishing and disseminating the values of measurement standards with the lowest possible uncertainty. Careful attention to detail is required in designing measurement systems that eliminate electrical interference and are as simple and as close to first principles as possible. This book draws on their experience by offering guidance and best practice for designing sensitive electrical measurement circuits.
In particular the book describes examples that demonstrate the elegance, flexibility and utility of balanced-current coaxial networks in obtaining the ultimate in noise-matching and interference elimination for precise and accurate voltage, current and power measurements. It also updates an earlier book on coaxial AC bridges by including recent AC measurements of quantum Hall resistance to establish a primary quantum standard of impedance and by extending impedance measurements in general to higher frequencies.
The Precision Medicine Initiative, Apple’s HealthKit, the FitBit—the booming digital health industry asserts that digital networks, tools, and the scientific endeavors they support will usher in a new era of medicine centered around “the voice of the patient.” But whose “voices” do such tools actually solicit? And through what perspective will those voices be heard? Digital health tools are marketed as neutral devices made to help users take responsibility for their health. Yet digital technologies are not neutral; they are developed from an existing set of assumptions about their potential users and contexts for use, and they reflect dominant ideologies of health, dis/ability, gender, and race. Using patient-networking websites, the Quantified Self, and online breast cancer narratives, Communicative Biocapitalism examines the cultural, technological, economic, and rhetorical logics that shape the “voice of the patient” in digital health to identify how cultural understandings and social locations of race, gender, and disability shape whose voices are elicited and how they are interpreted.
This book begins with an essential background discussion of the many applications and drawbacks for paraxial beams, which is required in the treatment of the complex space theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves. The author highlights that there is a need obtain exact full-wave solutions that reduce to the paraxial beams in the appropriate limit. Complex Space Source Theory of Spatially Localized Electromagnetic Waves treats the exact full-wave generalizations of all the basic types of paraxial beam solutions. These are developed by the use of Fourier and Bessel transform techniques and the complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves is integrated as a branch of Fourier optics. Two major steps in the theory are described as: 1) the systematic derivation of the appropriate virtual source in the complex space that produces the required full wave from the paraxial beam solution and 2) the determination of the actual secondary source in the physical space that is equivalent to the virtual source in the complex space.
This book provides an introduction to many aspects of computer control. It covers techniques or control algorithm design and tuning of controllers; computer communications; parallel processing; and software design and implementation. The theoretical material is supported by case studies covering power systems control, robot manipulators, liquid natural as vaporisers, batch control of chemical processes; and active control of aircraft.
The book is suitable for practising engineers, postgraduate students and third year undergraduates specialising in control systems. It assumes some knowledge of control systems theory and computer hardware.
This book covers theoretical methods for the design of continuous time controllers for linear multivariate systems. It is intended for use by those wishing to build on a first course in control systems, either to expand their knowledge as practising engineers or as postgraduate students doing higher degrees in control engineering.
Based on material used in graduate courses taught by Professor Balasubramanian at the University of New Brunswick, this book brings together state space and frequency domain design methods for linear multivariable systems. It compares their similarities and highlights the advantages or disadvantages of the various approaches for particular applications. Divided into eleven chapters this book covers in some depth: state space design methods, frequency domain methods for multivariable systems, characteristic locus desiqn methods and stochastic control problems.
This book collects together in one volume a number of control engineering solutions, intended to be representative of solutions applicable to a broad class of control problems, and outlines possible alternative approaches to finding them. This is neither a control theory book nor a handbook of laboratory experiments, although it includes both the basic theory of control and practical laboratory set-ups to illustrate the solutions proposed.
A number of control problems are identified and discussed, from the initial phase of experimental construction of a model of the process to the final steps of hardware and software implementation, for several illustrative applications including a motor drive and a small scale robot. PID tuning and anti-wind-up, disturbance rejection, time delays and distributed systems, state feedback and observer design, multiloop interaction, fault detection and supervision, and fuzzy logic control are some of the control issues treated.
Written by a team of European experts, the book should interest a broad audience. Control engineering students will find potential applications for control theory and workable examples of practical control problems. Most of the laboratory set-ups will be easy to replicate by control engineering teaching staff, enabling practical activity to complement theoretical and exercise class sessions. Applied control engineers will find guidelines to approach the solution of their own control problems, including discussion of alternative methods and results to be expected. The publication of this book represents the final outcome of a European TEMPUS project to improve educational practice in automation and control technology.
This book introduces researchers and advanced students with a basic control systems background to an array of control techniques which they can easily implement and use to meet the required performance specifications for their mechatronic applications. It is the result of close to two decades of work of the authors on modeling, simulating and controlling different mechatronic systems from the motion control, automotive control and micro and nano-mechanical systems control areas. The methods presented in the book have all been tested by the authors and a very large group of researchers, who have produced practically implementable controllers with highly successful results.
The approach that is recommended in this book is to first start with a conventional control method which may then be cascaded with a feedforward controller if the input is known or can be measured with a preview; to add a disturbance observer if unknown disturbances are to be rejected and if regulation of the uncertain plant about a nominal model is desired; and to add a repetitive controller to take care of any periodic inputs of fixed and known period. Case studies ranging from road vehicle yaw stability control and automated path following, to decoupling control of piezotube actuators in an atomic force microscope are presented. Parameter space based methods are used in the book for achieving robust controllers.
Control of Mechatronic Systems is essential reading for researchers and advanced students who want to be exposed to control methods that have been field tested in a wide variety of mechatronic applications, and for practicing engineers who design and implement feedback control systems.
J.R. Leigh The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2004 Library of Congress TJ213.L335 2004 | Dewey Decimal 629.8312
Concise highly readable book emphasising the concepts and principles that are prerequisite for understanding both traditional and recent control theory.
The text is enlivened by a large number of interesting interludes that complement the main text.
This second edition of Control Theory: A Guided Tour (IEE 1992) has been fully revised and enlarged and now contains an introduction to H infinity methods as well as a new chapter on Artificial Intellingence (AI) methods and a retrospective review of how control theory developed. All the topics covered can be taken further using the extensive annotated reference section.
Using clear tutorial examples, this fully updated new edition concentrates on explaining and illustrating the concepts that are at the heart of control theory.
It seeks to develop a robust understanding of the underlying principles around which the control subject is built. This simple framework is studded with references to more detailed treatments and also has interludes that are intended to inform and entertain.
The book is intended as a companion on the journey through control theory and although the early chapters concentrate on fundamental ideas such as feedback and stability, later chapters deal with more advanced topics such as state variables, optimisation, estimation, Kalman filtering and robust control.
Control-Based Operating System Design describes the application of system- and control-theoretical methods to the design of computer operating system components. It argues that computer operating system components should not be first 'designed' and then 'endowed with control', but rather when possible conceived from the outset as controllers, synthesised and assessed in the system-theoretical world of dynamic models, and then realised as control algorithms. Doing so is certainly a significant perspective shift with respect to current practices in operating system design, but the payoff is significant too. In some sense, adopting the suggested attitude means viewing computing systems as cyber-physical ones, where the operating system plays the computational role, the physical elements are the managed resources, and the various (control) functionalities to be realised, interact and co-operate as a network.
The book includes both a theoretical treatment of the usefulness of the approach, and the description of a complete implementation in the form of Miosix, a microcontroller kernel made available as free software.
This comprehensive book covers the state-of-the-art in control-oriented modelling and identification techniques. With contributions from leading researchers in the subject, Control-oriented Modelling and Identification: Theory and practice covers the main methods and tools available to develop advanced mathematical models suitable for control system design, including: object-oriented modelling and simulation; projection-based model reduction techniques; integrated modelling and parameter estimation; identification for robust control of complex systems; subspace-based multi-step predictors for predictive control; closed-loop subspace predictive control; structured nonlinear system identification; and linear fractional LPV model identification from local experiments using an H1-based glocal approach.
This book also takes a practical look at a variety of applications of advanced modelling and identification techniques covering spacecraft dynamics, vibration control, rotorcrafts, models of anaerobic digestion, a brake-by-wire racing motorcycle actuator, and robotic arms.
Over the last twenty years Corrugated horns have become widely used as feeds for microwave reflector antennas because of their high efficiency, good pattern symmetry and low cross-polarisation. They are increasingly used in antennas for satellite communications, radar, microwave point to point communications and radio astronomy.
The authors draw on more than fifteen years experience to write the first book to appear devoted to the theory and design of corrugated horns and scalar feeds.
The book explains why hybrid mode feeds are ideal feeds for reflectors. The propagation and radiation behaviour of cylindrical corrugated waveguides, narrow flare angle conical corrugated horns and wide flare angle corrugated horns are described. Factors relevant to the practical design of corrugated horns are discussed. Other topics treated include the measurement of corrugated horns.
The Current Comparator
W.J.M. Moore The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1988 Library of Congress MLCM 91/03837 (T)
In 1961, Moore and Miljanic in collaboration with N. L Kusters developed the current comparator, for which a patent was granted in 1964. Since that time they and their associates have applied this technique toward advancing the art of electrical measurement.
The current comparator comprises a special configuration of concentric toroidal magnetic cores and windings which enable the physical realisation of a very precise ampere-turns ratio standard. It provides the basis for the precise measurement of various electrical quantities at both direct and alternating currents using current ratio techniques. Applications include the calibration of instrument transformers, measurement of the losses of high voltage capacitors and inductive reactors, measurement of the short circuit losses of large power transformers, the calibration of power and energy meters, an alternating current impedance bridge, direct current resistance measurements, the calibration of high direct current metering systems and shunts, a seven decade direct current potentiometer, and a 20 bit digital-to-analogue converter.
The book presents the basic theory of the current comparator, methods of construction leading to high ratio accuracies, and the operating principles of the various applications.
This is a book written by leading experts in the fields of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and wireless sensor networks (WSN). This book describes how wireless sensor networking technologies can help in establishing and maintaining seamless communications between the physical and cyber systems to enable efficient, secure, reliable acquisition, management, and routing of data.
Topics covered include: an introduction to WSN and CPS; integration issues and challenges between WSN and CPS; enabling CPS design architectures with WSN technologies; cyber security in CPS; data management in CPS with WSN; routing in WSN for CPS; resource management in CPS; mobile sensors in CPS; intelligent WSN in CPS; resilient WSN for CPS; case studies of integrated WSN and CPS; and medical CPS. All chapters of the book have been rigorously peer-reviewed. Cyber-Physical System Design with Sensor Networking Technologies is essential reading for researchers, advanced students and developers working in the areas of cyber-physical systems and sensor networks.