An exploration of the elaborate relationship between farmers, aerial sprayers, agriculturalists, crop pests, chemicals, and the environment.
The controversies in the 1960s and 1970s that swirled around indiscriminate use of agricultural chemicals—their long-term ecological harm versus food production benefits—were sparked and clarified by biologist Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962). This seminal publication challenged long-held assumptions concerning the industrial might of American agriculture while sounding an alarm for the damaging persistence of pesticides, especially chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT, in the larger environment.
In Chemical Lands:Pesticides, Aerial Spraying, and Health in North America’s Grasslands since 1945 David D. Vail shows, however, that a distinctly regional view of agricultural health evolved. His analysis reveals a particularly strong ethic in the North American grasslands where practitioners sought to understand and deploy insecticides and herbicides by designing local scientific experiments, engineering more precise aircraft sprayers, developing more narrowly specific chemicals, and planting targeted test crops. Their efforts to link the science of toxicology with environmental health reveal how the practitioners of pesticides evaluated potential hazards in the agricultural landscape while recognizing the production benefits of controlled spraying.
Chemical Lands adds to a growing list of books on toxins in the American landscape. This study provides a unique Grasslands perspective of the Ag pilots, weed scientists, and farmers who struggled to navigate novel technologies for spray planes and in the development of new herbicides/insecticides while striving to manage and mitigate threats to human health and the environment.
Field Guide to Wisconsin Grasses
Emmet J. Judziewicz , Robert W. Freckmann, Lynn G. Clark, Merel R. Black University of Wisconsin Press, 2014 Library of Congress QK495.G74J83 2014 | Dewey Decimal 584.909775
Grasses are the foremost plant family of prairies, savannas, barrens, many agricultural landscapes, lawns, and successional habitats throughout Wisconsin, yet they are notoriously difficult to identify. This field guide to 232 species of Wisconsin grasses includes more than 1,100 illustrations. Setting a new standard as the first new, illustrated midwestern grass identification manual to appear since the 1960s, it provides up-to-date, comprehensive information for naturalists, gardeners, landscapers, nursery horticulturalists, community restoration professionals, agronomists and biologists, and any outdoors lover.
The book includes:
• species descriptions and distribution maps for all 232 species
• more than 700 color photographs accompanying species descriptions
• drawings of most species
• chapters on grass morphology and grasses in natural communities
• keys to all species, including an illustrated key to genera
• a glossary of grass terminology.
Andre Voisin; Introduction by Allan Savory Island Press, 1988 Library of Congress SB199.V813 1988 | Dewey Decimal 636.2
Grass Productivity is a prodigiously documented textbook of scientific information concerning every aspect of management "where the cow and grass meet." Andre Voisin's "rational grazing" method maximizes productivity in both grass and cattle operations.
Most people have memories of playing on well-manicured lawns or running across the flat green surface of a local park, but we often don’t think of grasses as something we consume. Indeed, grasses include four species—wheat, rice, maize, and sugar—that provide sixty percent of human calorie intake, and we become more and more dependent on these as the world’s population increases. In this book, Stephen Harris explains the history of our relationship with these vital plants from the end of the last Ice Age to the present day.
Combining biology, sociology, and cultural history, Grasses explores how these staple crops bear the mark of human influence more visibly than any other plant and how we, in turn, are motivated to protect green space such as public parks. Harris describes this symbiotic connection against the background of climate change, contending that humans must find a way to balance their need for grass as food, as living space, and potentially even as fuel. Providing an impressive exploration of the profound impact these plants have on our survival and our pleasure, this well-illustrated book is a must have for gardeners, foodies, and environmentalists.
Since the publication of the first edition of Grasses: Bromus to Paspalumin 1972, twenty-two additional taxa of grasses have been discovered in Illinois that are properly placed in this volume. In addition, numerous nomenclatural changes have occurred for plants previously discovered, and many distributional records have been added. New keys have been prepared for each genus where additional species from Illinois are known. For new species, full-page illustrations are provided. This second edition updates the status of Illinois grasses. The book features 263 figures from the first edition plus 21 new figures for this edition by Paul W. Nelson.
Genera of grasses included in this work are Aegilops, Agropyron, Agrostis, Aira, Alopecurus, Anthoxanthum, Avena, Beckmannia, Briza, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Cinna, Dactylis, Deschampsia, Elyhordeum, Elymus, Elytrigia, Festuca, Hierochloe, Holcus, Hordeum, Koeleria, Lolium, Milium, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Phalaris, Phleum, Poa, Puccinellia, Sclerochloa, Secale, Sphenopholis, Torreyochloa, Triticum, and Vulpia.
At the time of European settlement, tallgrass prairie was the iconic landscape in much of the Upper Midwest. Although its extent has been drastically reduced, intact prairie remnants exist, prairie species persist along roadsides, and interest in prairie reconstruction has increased. The basic prairie matrix is formed by grasses, yet their diversity and beauty are often underappreciated because their flowering structures are highly reduced to aid in wind pollination. This much-needed addition to Iowa’s popular series of laminated guides—the twenty-sixth in the series—illustrates fifty-five grass species characteristic of or commonly found on prairies of the Upper Midwest states of Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
The authors have organized species into groups by their most easily noted field characteristics. Are the flowering heads branched or unbranched? Are the branches dense, narrow, or fingerlike? For each species, its native or exotic status is followed by the months of flowering, abundance, general habitat, height, diagnostic features, geographic range, and, if relevant, threatened or endangered status.
Even amateur naturalists can identify big and little bluestem and prairie dropseed in the field, but both professional and amateur naturalists find certain grasses harder to identify, especially the less common or rare species such as cluster fescue and sand reedgrass. The photographs and descriptions in Grasses in Your Pocket will be an invaluable reference for outdoor expeditions in midwestern grasslands.
Grasses of Colorado
Robert B. Shaw University Press of Colorado, 2008 Library of Congress QK495.G74S545 2008 | Dewey Decimal 584.909788
This systematic treatment of Colorado grasses will help students, naturalists, botanists, ecologists, agronomists, range scientists, and other interested readers identify and learn about this unique and economically important plant family. Grasses of Colorado describes all grasses known to occur in the state outside of cultivation: more than 300 native, introduced, naturalized, and adventive species.
Colorado's elevation range of more than 11,000 feet creates a wide variety of habitats that supports a spectacular diversity of grasses. With 335 known species, Colorado has one of the most diverse and extensive grass floras in the United States.
Comprehensive coverage, useful keys, and detailed species descriptions in Grasses of Colorado will make this volume the standard reference for years to come. Robert B. Shaw provides overviews of Colorado's physiography and ecoregions and introduces the grass plant in plain, enjoyable text. He includes a checklist of Colorado grasses, a bibliography, and a glossary of terms that may be unfamiliar to nonspecialists. Line drawings, state distribution maps, and habitat notes for each species enable accurate plant identification, familiarity with regional ecogeography, and increased understanding of plant ecology of the Rocky Mountains.
A monumental accomplishment certain to become the standard work on the subject, Grasses of Colorado synthesizes existing literature and incorporates recent scientific findings to offer a complete, current reference.
Missouri's diverse landscapes, geology, and climate have endowed the state with a rich and varied grass flora. From tallgrass prairies to forested Ozarks to Mississippi lowlands, the state offers an array of grasses that can be classified into six subfamilies of the Poaceae, eighteen tribes, and eighty-seven genera.
Significant changes have been made in grass classification since the first edition of The Grasses of Missouri was published in 1961, resulting in an increased emphasis on phyletic criteria. Recognizing the recent advances in classification and changes in nomenclature, as well as new additions to the flora, this newly revised edition serves as a compilation of the native and naturalized species and subspecific taxa found in Missouri.
Formerly divided into two subfamilies, the Festucoideae and Panicoideae, the state's grass flora is now represented by six subfamilies. While the Panicoideae have remained intact, the traditional Festucoideae are now separated into smaller, more cohesive groupings. Further revisions have resulted in eighteen tribes compared to the twelve identified in the first edition.
Covering more than 275 species and subspecific entities, The Grasses of Missouri is an essential research tool for identifying grasses, complete with working keys, descriptions, line drawings, distributions, a glossary, and a bibliography. The professional and lay person alike will benefit from this indispensable manual.
Grasses of the Intermountain Region
Laurel K. Anderton and Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press, 2009 Library of Congress QK495.G74G744 2009 | Dewey Decimal 584.90979
Grasses of the Intermountain Region is a modification of the two grass volumes of the Flora of North America (FNA). It is designed for identifying members of the Poaceae in the region between the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains, and is intended for use by botanists working with the grasses in this intermountain region of North America. The reduction in number of taxa included from FNA has reduced the length of the keys and made it possible to include, in a single volume, descriptions and illustrations for all taxa treated as well as provide distribution maps for species that are established in the area. Another difference from the FNA volumes is that the maps in this volume show only records from IMR and adjacent areas rather than the full North America range of the taxa.
This book is designed to serve as a reference work, classroom textbook, and field manual for botanists, naturalists, and students interested in learning to identify and learn about the distinguishing features of grasses of the northeastern United States. Included are more than 380 species of grasses that have been documented as occurring in the region. The volume contains 246 range maps and 269 line drawings that clarify descriptions used in the keys and illustrate characteristics of the various kinds of grasses. Dennis Magee also provides a description of each genus and species along with synonyms and habitats. For anyone interested in an up-to-date treatment of the grasses of greater New England, this volume will be an invaluable resource. It is the only comprehensive technical guide devoted exclusively to the grasses of this region and presents a wealth of information in a precise, clear format. The geographic scope of the work extends from the Canadian border south through Long Island and west to the Hudson River. But given the considerable overlap with the grass flora to the adjacent north, south, and west, the book will also be useful beyond New England and the bordering New York counties. The volume includes an illustrated glossary of essential terms and concepts and a “how to use this manual” section. A CD-ROM with a multiple-entry identification guide, and hundreds of accompanying photographic images of individual species, is provided in a sleeve inside the back cover of the book.
The definitive study of grasses, whether native or non-native, growing in the wild in Wisconsin. Includes meticulous descriptions, techniques, maps, and illustrations for locating and identifying these grasses, expert analysis, and a detailed glossary and index.
Since the publication of the first edition of Grasses: Panicum to Danthonia in 1973, twenty additional taxa of grasses have been discovered in Illinois that are properly placed in this volume. In addition, numerous nomenclatural changes have occurred for plants already known from the state, and many distributional records have been added. This second edition updates the status of grasses in Illinois. Paul W. Nelson has provided illustrations for all of the additions.
Because the nature of grass structures is generally so different from that of other flowering plants, a special terminology is applied to them. In his introduction, Robert H. Mohlenbrock cites these terms, with descriptions that make the identification of unknown specimens possible. Mohlenbrock’s division of the grass family into subfamilies and tribes is a major departure from the sequence usually found in most floristic works in North America.
Synonyms that have been applied to species in the northeastern United States are given under each species. A description based primarily on Illinois material covers the more important features of the species. The common names—Paflic Grass, Billion Dollar Grass or Japanese Millett, Thread Love Grass, and Goose Grass—are the ones used locally in the state. The habitat designation and dot maps showing county distribution of each grass are provided only for grasses in Illinois, but the overall range for each species is also given.
There is no easy way to identify grasses. And no one understands this better than H.D. Harrington, who observed thousands of students struggle and learn. His clear, concise, and well-organized guide will continue to be a basic and essential text for use in the classroom or in the field. The book contains over 500 drawings and an illustrated glossary.
The family containing grasses and bamboos, Poaceae, includes an estimated 12,000 species. Grasses and bamboos have always been a central pillar of people’s lives, providing rice, maize, sugarcane, and bread wheat for humans and livestock. Despite their importance, Madagascar’s grasses are still poorly known. This guide provides a practical means of identifying these beautiful and interesting plants at the generic level, featuring 144 grasses described with life size color photographs.
Manual of Grasses for North America
Mary E. Barkworth, Laurel K. Anderton Kathleen M. Capels, Sandy Long, and Michael B. Piep Utah State University Press, 2007 Library of Congress QK495.G74M23 2007 | Dewey Decimal 584.9097
Grasses are the world’s most important plants. They are the dominant species over large parts of the earth’s land surface, a fact that is reflected in the many different words that exist for grasslands, words such as prairie, veldt, palouse, and pampas to mention just a few. As a group, grasses are of major ecological importance, as soil binders and providers of shelter and food for wild animals, both large and small. Some grasses, such as wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, tef, and sugar cane are major sources of calories for humans and their livestock; others, primarily bamboos, are used for construction, tools, paper, and fabric. More recently, the seed catalogs that tantalize gardeners each winter have borne witness to an increasing appreciation of the aesthetic value of grasses.
The Manual of Grasses for North America is designed as a successor to the classic volume by Hitchcock and Chase. It reflects current taxonomic thought and includes keys, illustrations, and distribution maps for the nearly 900 native and 400 introduced species that have been found in North America north of Mexico. In addition, it presents keys and illustrations for several species that are known only in cultivation or are of major agricultural significance, either as progenitors of bread wheat and corn or as a major threat to North American agriculture because of their ability to hybridize with crop species. The Manual is a major reference work for grasses that will retain its value for many years.
Settlers crossing the tallgrass prairie in the early 1800s were greeted by a seemingly endless landscape of wildflowers and grasses, one of the most diverse ecosystems on our planet. Today, although the tallgrass prairie has been reduced to a tiny percentage of its former expanse, people are working to restore and reconstruct prairie communities. This lavishly illustrated guide to seeds and seedlings, crafted by Tallgrass Prairie Center botanist Dave Williams and illustrator Brent Butler, will insure that everyone from urban gardeners to grassland managers can properly identify and germinate seventy-two species of tallgrass wildflowers and grasses in eastern North Dakota, eastern South Dakota, southwestern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, northwestern Missouri, and eastern Oklahoma.
Williams has created a brilliant, nearly foolproof system of identification and verification. Two primary keys lead to eleven secondary keys that link to characteristic groups of tallgrass plants: seven groups for wildflowers and four groups for grasses. To identify a seedling, use the primary key to discover its place in the secondary key, then turn to that characteristic group to find your seedling. Circles on each full seedling photograph correspond to close-up photographs; triangles on these close-ups illustrate information in the text to further pinpoint identification. Drawings of leaves illuminate exact identification, and enlarged photographs of each seed provide yet another way to confirm identification.
Thousands of seeds were sprouted in the Tallgrass Prairie Center’s greenhouse to provide seedlings close in size and development to those grown in the field near the end of their first season; research and photography took place over four years. Williams’s text for each species includes a thorough description, a comparison of similar species, and guidance for germination and growth. A complete glossary supports the text, which is concise but detailed enough to be accessible to beginning prairie enthusiasts.
Anyone in the Upper Midwest who wishes to preserve the native vegetation of prairie remnants or reconstruct a tallgrass prairie of whatever size—from home gardens to schoolyards to roadsides to large acreages—will benefit from the hundreds of photographs and drawings and the precise text in this meticulously prepared guide.