Nature presents examples of active sensing which are unique, sophisticated and incredibly fascinating. There are animals that sense the environment actively, for example through echolocation, which have evolved their capabilities over millions of years and that, as a result of evolution, have developed unique in-built sensing mechanisms that are often the envy of synthetic systems.
This book presents some of the recent work that has been carried out to investigate how sophisticated sensing techniques used in nature can be applied to radar and sonar systems to improve their performance. Topics covered include biosonar inspired signal processing and acoustic imaging from echolocating bats; enhanced range resolution: comparison with the matched filter; air-coupled sonar systems inspired by bat echolocation; analysis of acoustic echoes from bat-pollinated plants; the biosonar arms race between bats and insects; biologically inspired coordination of guidance and adaptive radiated waveform for interception and rendezvous problems; cognitive sensor/ processor system framework for target tracking; the biosonar of the Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins; human echolocation; and polarization tensors and object recognition in weakly electric fish.
Biologically-Inspired Radar and Sonar is essential reading for radar and sonar practitioners in academia and research, governmental and industrial organisations, engineers working in signal processing and sensing, and those with an underlying interest in the interaction between natural sciences and engineering.
This book text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the underlying techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking.
Based on the authors' 20 years' research work on Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition, this book provides readers with knowledge of various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. It introduces basic principles of radar backscattering, radar imaging, and signal analysis. It describes the characteristics of radar returns from targets, how to produce well-focused ISAR images of moving targets, and what features that can extracted from ISAR images. Also introduced are several important algorithms for ISAR image formation, ISAR image auto-focusing, and applications of ISAR imaging to air targets, sea vessels and ground moving targets. Examples of ISAR imaging of ground moving targets, air targets, and sea vessels are discussed in detail.
In the years since the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity first began transmitting images from the surface of Mars, we have become familiar with the harsh, rocky, rusty-red Martian landscape. But those images are much less straightforward than they may seem to a layperson: each one is the result of a complicated set of decisions and processes involving the large team behind the Rovers.
With Seeing Like a Rover, Janet Vertesi takes us behind the scenes to reveal the work that goes into creating our knowledge of Mars. Every photograph that the Rovers take, she shows, must be processed, manipulated, and interpreted—and all that comes after team members negotiate with each other about what they should even be taking photographs of in the first place. Vertesi’s account of the inspiringly successful Rover project reveals science in action, a world where digital processing uncovers scientific truths, where images are used to craft consensus, and where team members develop an uncanny intimacy with the sensory apparatus of a robot that is millions of miles away. Ultimately, Vertesi shows, every image taken by the Mars Rovers is not merely a picture of Mars—it’s a portrait of the whole Rover team, as well.
Nearly a decade ago, Johanna Drucker cofounded the University of Virginia’s SpecLab, a digital humanities laboratory dedicated to risky projects with serious aims. In SpecLab she explores the implications of these radical efforts to use critical practices and aesthetic principles against the authority of technology based on analytic models of knowledge.
Inspired by the imaginative frontiers of graphic arts and experimental literature and the technical possibilities of computation and information management, the projects Drucker engages range from Subjective Meteorology to Artists’ Books Online to the as yet unrealized ’Patacritical Demon, an interactive tool for exposing the structures that underlie our interpretations of text. Illuminating the kind of future such experiments could enable, SpecLab functions as more than a set of case studies at the intersection of computers and humanistic inquiry. It also exemplifies Drucker’s contention that humanists must play a role in designing models of knowledge for the digital age—models that will determine how our culture will function in years to come.