While Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis Philippe ruled in France, a vast majority of politically unenfranchised Frenchmen were developing their own subculture. Only recently literate, they fashioned their own literature. It consisted of two important genres: the popular novel and the melodrama. As we trace these genres from the turn of the nineteenth century until that moment of February 25, 1848, when the Second Republic was declared, we are also led to a detailed scrutiny of the injustices which the immense majority of the French suffered and of the political causes they espoused. The succession of heroes and villains in their literature mirrored accurately the fears and hopes they felt.
The British created a system wherein the social identity of civil servants clearly influenced their position on official matters. This privileged class set the tone for major policy decisions affecting all members of society. Savage addresses this social construction of power by analyzing the social origins and career patterns of higher-level civil servants as a backdrop for investigating the way four different social service ministries formulated policies between the two World Wars: the Board of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Labour, and the Ministry of Health.
Most people in Wisconsin share a deep appreciation of the shape and composition of their familiar landscapes—the abundance of fresh water, the fertile soils, the northern forests, the varied landforms. All these features relate to a process that is long, complex, and still in progress. Wisconsin’s Foundations is just the book for a broad audience of people who want to know more about the origins, evolution, and geological underpinnings of the Wisconsin landscape.