front cover of The Formation of the Soviet Union
The Formation of the Soviet Union
Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923, Revised Edition
Richard Pipes
Harvard University Press, 1997

Here is the history of the disintegration of the Russian Empire, and the emergence, on its ruins, of a multinational Communist state. In this revealing account, Richard Pipes tells how the Communists exploited the new nationalism of the peoples of the Ukraine, Belorussia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Volga-Ural area--first to seize power and then to expand into the borderlands.

The Formation of the Soviet Union acquires special relevance in the post-Soviet era, when the ethnic groups described in the book once again reclaimed their independence, this time apparently for good.

In a 1996 Preface to the Revised Edition, Pipes suggests how material recently released from the Russian archives might supplement his account.


front cover of Karamzin's Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia
Karamzin's Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia
A Translation and Analysis
Richard Pipes
University of Michigan Press, 2005

Russian history was typically studied through liberal or socialist lenses until Richard Pipes first published his translation of Karamzin's Memoir. Almost fifty years later, it is still the only English-language edition of this classic work. Still fresh and readable today, the Memoir-in which Alexander I's state historian elaborates his arguments for a strong Russian state-remains the most accessible introduction to the conservatism of Russia's ancien regime. This annotated translation is a "faithful rendition of the letter and spirit of the original," which not only introduces readers to the sweep of Karamzin's ideas, but also weaves together a fascinating version of Russia's rich history. With a new foreword by Richard Pipes, Karamzin's Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia is a touchstone for anyone interested in Russia's fascinating and turbulent past.

Richard Pipes is Baird Professor of History at Harvard University.

Nikolai M. Karamzin (1766-1826) was a Russian historian, poet, and journalist. He was appointed court historian by Tsar Alexander I.


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Revolutionary Russia
Richard Pipes
Harvard University Press

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Liberal on the Left, 1870-1905
Richard Pipes
Harvard University Press, 1970

More than anyone else in his time, Struve was the master of history, journalism, economics, international relations, and practical politics. A scholar and activist, he helped found the Marxist movement in Russia, initiated Marxist Revisionism there, and launched Lenin's career, and he was the theoretician and a cofounder of the Constitutional Democratic Party.

In writing about Struve, Richard Pipes turns biography into history. He lays bare the split soul of the Russian intellectuals--their irresponsibility, unwillingness to compromise, intolerance. Struve, the liberal turned conservative, preached to his countrymen physical and spiritual freedom based on law. He was a Westerner in his championing of social reform, legality, private property, and a vigorous state and foreign policy. This long and rich tradition of liberal-conservatism is recounted against the background of a "monstrous growth of political claims on the individual that caused intellectual and moral independence increasingly to be punished with ostracism, confinement, exile, and death."


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The Ukraine, 1917–1921
A Study in Revolution
Taras Hunczak
Harvard University Press, 1977
The Ukraine, which had for centuries been ruled by other nations, finally gained its independence for a brief period after the First World War. During this revolutionary era, a series of Ukrainian governments were established whose political spectrum ranged from anarchism to monarchical rule. This comprehensive volume edited by Taras Hunczak includes fourteen articles by leading specialists, and is the first scholarly treatment of the problem to appear in twenty-five years.

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