For millennia, this "verbal" approach to logic was taught in conjunction with grammar and rhetoric, christened the trivium. The decline in teaching grammar and rhetoric in American secondary schools has led Dr. Rollen Edward Houser to develop this book. The first part treats grammar, rhetoric, and the essential nature of logic. Those teachers who look down upon rhetoric are free, of course, to skip those lessons. The treatment of logic itself follows Aristotle's division of the three acts of the mind (Prior Analytics 1.1). Formal logic is then taken up in Aristotle's order, with Parts on the logic of Terms, Propositions, and Arguments.

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Contents

Acknowledgments

A Note to the Logic Instructor

A Note to the Student

Part 1. Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic

Lesson 1. A Grounding in Grammar

Problem Set 1: Grammar Review

Lesson 2. Rhetoric: An Introduction

Problem Set 2: Rhetorical Analysis

Lesson 3. The Canon of Five Rhetorical Skills and the Five Parts of a Classical Speech

Problem Set 3: The Rhetoric of Socrates in the Apology

Lesson 4. The Three Rhetorical Appeals

Problem Set 4: The Three Appeals

Lesson 5. Aristotle Invents Logic—Twice

Problem Set 5: Problem Solving

Lesson 6. Aristotle Organizes the Logic of Discovery and Proof

Problem Set 6: Three Acts of the Mind

Part 2. The Logic of Terms

Lesson 7. Language, Thought, and Reality

Problem Set 7: Signs

Lesson 8. Categories: Working toward Definitions by Answering the “What?” Question

Problem Set 8: Recognizing and Using Categories

Lesson 9. Clarifying Concepts through Division and Collection of Terms

Problem Set 9: Argument Using Division

Lesson 10. Aristotle’s Predicables

Problem Set 10: Recognizing Essence, Property, and Accident

Lesson 11. Answering the “Why?” Question: Causes

Problem Set 11: The Four Causes

Lesson 12. Different Kinds of Definitions

Problem Set 12: Definitions

Part 3. The Logic of Propositions

Lesson 13. Statements and Propositions

Problem Set 13: Statements and Propositions

Lesson 14. Properties of Categorical Propositions

Problem Set 14: Basic Categorical Propositions

Lesson 15. Recognizing the Kinds of Categorical Propositions

Problem Set 15: Advanced Categorical Propositions

Lesson 16. Categorical Propositions in Context

Problem Set 16: Propositions in Context

Lesson 17. Euler and Venn Diagrams of Propositions

Problem Set 17: Euler and Venn Diagrams of Propositions

Lesson 18. Opposition

Problem Set 18: Opposition

Lesson 19. Conversion

Problem Set 19: Conversion

Lesson 20. Obversion

Problem Set 20: Obversion and Advanced Manipulations

Lesson 21. Hypothetical Propositions

Problem Set 21: Hypothetical Propositions

Lesson 22. Advanced Conditional Propositions

Problem Set 22: Advanced Hypothetical Propositions

Part 4. The Logic of Arguments

Lesson 23. Two Kinds of Reasoning

Problem Set 23: Distinguishing Deductive from Inductive Reasoning

Lesson 24. The Categorical Syllogism

Problem Set 24: Identifying Categorical Syllogisms

Lesson 25. Validity of Categorical Syllogisms

Problem Set 25: Validity of Categorical Syllogisms

Lesson 26. Categorical Syllogisms in Prose

Problem Set 26: Categorical Syllogisms in Prose

Lesson 27. Venn Diagrams of Categorical Syllogisms

Problem Set 27: Venn Diagrams of Categorical Syllogisms

Lesson 28. Enthymemes and Epicheiremas

Problem Set 28: Enthymemes and Epicheiremas

Lesson 29. Extended Categorical Arguments

Problem Set 29: Longer Categorical Arguments

Lesson 30. Hypothetical Arguments

Problem Set 30: Hypothetical Arguments

Lesson 31. Advanced Hypothetical Arguments

Problem Set 31: Standardized Test–Style Arguments

Lesson 32. Induction

Problem Set 32: Induction

Lesson 33. Complex Arguments

Problem Set 33: Complex Arguments

Answers to Selected Problems

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Chronology of Logicians and Their Logical Works

Appendix 2: A Selection of English-Language Textbooks in Logic

Bibliography

Index of Names

Index of Subjects