As one of the world’s most eminent living philosophers, John Perry has covered a remarkable breadth of subjects in his published work, including semantics, indexicality, self-knowledge, personal identity, and consciousness. Looking particularly at the way in which he deals with issues of self, communication, and reality, this volume is organized in seven chapters that highlight a different aspect of Perry’s work on the intersection of these subjects. A fundamental work for students and scholars, Identity, Language, and Mind explores questions that are not only essential in understanding Perry’s writings, but also contemporary philosophy as a whole.
Much of the work in modern formal linguistics is concerned with creating mathematically precise accounts of human languages—accounts that are particularly useful in research involving language processing with computers. Implementing Typed Feature Structure Grammars provides a student-level introduction to the most popular approach to this issue, and includes software that allows users to experiment with modeling different aspects of language.
In 1894 John Dewey established his experimental laboratory school at the University of Chicago, with a focus on teaching each student according to their individual differences. This concept indicated a shift away from the emphasis on communal, classroom teaching, which marked educational practices in the nineteenth century during the advent of widely available public education.
With the introduction of computer-based online instruction in schools, curricula are able to be fully informed by individual difference, subtly and quickly tracking students’ progress. In these courses, teachers play the role of troubleshooters instead of lecturers. Individual Differences examines a large number of studies on computer-based and online instruction, with special attention paid to gifted students in the fields of mathematics, science, technology, and engineering. Other chapters also focus on a wide variety of student populations: deaf students, American Indian rural students, and underachieving, impoverished students.
The 1964 publication of Inference and Disputed Authorship made the cover of Time magazine and the attention of academics and the public alike for its use of statistical methodology to solve one of American history’s most notorious questions: the disputed authorship of the Federalist Papers.
Back in print for a new generation of readers, this classic volume applies mathematics, including the once-controversial Bayesian analysis, into the heart of a literary and historical problem by studying frequently used words in the texts. The reissue of this landmark book will be welcomed by anyone interested in the juncture of history, political science, and authorship.
This book introduces the concept of information sharing as an area of cognitive science, defining it as the process by which speakers depend on "given" information to convey "new" information—an idea crucial to language engineering. Where previous work in information sharing was often fragmented between different disciplines, this volume brings together theoretical and applied work, and joins computational contributions with papers based on analyses of language corpora and on psycholinguistic experimentation.
Ronald M. Kaplan has made foundational contributions to the development of computational linguistic research and linguistic theory, particularly within Lexical-Functional Grammar. Intelligent Linguistic Architectures, a tribute to Kaplan’s cutting-edge work, collects computational and theoretical linguistics papers in his research areas. From machine translation to grammar engineering, from formal issues to semantic theory, this ambitious volume represents the newest developments in linguistic scholarship.
Michael E. Bratman develops a planning theory of intention. Intentions are treated as elements of partial plans of action. These plans play basic roles in practical reasoning, roles that support the organization of our activities over time and socially. Bratman explores the impact of this approach on a wide range of issues, including the relation between intention and intentional action, and the distinction between intended and expected effects of what one intends.
This book investigates the topics of tone, vowel harmony, and metrical structure, with special reference to Kera, a Chadic language spoken in Chad and Cameroon. Kera is a tone language where a change in the pitch of the word can make a difference to its meaning. Drawing on a decade of experience living and working with the Kera, Mary D. Pearce looks at both the phonetics and phonology to examine how tone interacts with the vowel quality and rhythm of the language. The implications arising from this research are relevant for phonologists and Africanists far beyond the boundaries of Chad and should be useful to anyone working on languages with interesting tonal and rhythmic properties.
Interrogative constructions are the linguistic forms by which questions are expressed. Their analysis is of great interest to linguists, as well as to computer scientists, human-computer interface designers, and philosophers. Interrogative constructions have played a central role in the development of modern syntactic theory. Nonetheless, to date most syntactic work has taken place quite separately from formal semantic and pragmatic work on interrogatives. Although there has by now been a significant amount of work on interrogatives across a variety of languages, there exist few syntactic and semantic treatments that provide a comprehensive account of a wide range of interrogative constructions and uses in a single language.
This book closes the gap in research on this subject. By developing the frameworks of Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Situation Semantics, the authors provide an account that rigorously integrates syntactic, semantic, and contextual dimensions of interrogatives. The challenge of providing exhaustive coverage of the interrogative constructions of English, including various constructions that occur solely in dialogue interaction, leads to new insights about a variety of contentious theoretical issues. These include matters of semantic ontology, the quantificational status of wh-phrases, the semantic effect of wh-fronting, the status of constructions in grammatical theory, the integration of illocutionary information in the grammar, and the nature of ellipsis resolution in dialogue. The account is stated with sufficient rigor to enable fairly direct computational implementation.
Semantics is defined as the study of meaning expressed by elements of a language or combinations thereof. Utterances are not just noises or scribbles, they are used to convey information, and they are linked with kinds of events and with states of mind.
This text examines what issues semantics, as a theory of meaning, should address; determining what the meanings of words of the language are and how to semantically combine elements of a language to build up complex meanings. Logical languages are then developed as formal metalanguages to natural language. Subsequent chapters address propositional logic, the syntax and semantics of (first-order) predicate logic as an extension of propositional logic, and Generalized Quantifier theory. Going beyond extensional theory, Henri'tte de Swart relativizes the interpretation of expressions to times to account for verbal tense, time adverbials and temporal connectives and introduces possible worlds to model intensions, modal adverbs and modal auxiliaries.
This broad overview of natural language semantics should cover most of the points addressed in an introductory course. Numerous exercises punctuate each chapter and an example exam based on the materials presented is included, making this volume a perfect textbook and resource for any undergraduate or graduate-level introductory course in semantics.