Alexander Dallas Bache (1806–1867) was one of the leaders of American science in the nineteenth century. Driven by a vision of science as a key component of an integrated U.S. nation-state, he guided the nascent American Association for the Advancement of Science and also led what was at that point the nation’s largest scientific enterprise, the U.S. Coast Survey. In this analytical biography, Axel Jansen explains and explores Bache’s efforts to build and shape public institutions as aids to his goal of creating a national foundation for a shared culture—efforts that culminated in his work during the Civil War as one of the founders of the National Academy of Sciences, which he saw as a key symbol of the continued viability of a unified American nation.
American studies has changed drastically over the past few decades, as a new wave of scholars—armed with groundbreaking ideas and more extensive methods of research—flocked to the relatively young field. This focus on scholarship, though necessary to the advancement of the discipline, has left pedagogy largely ignored. In American Studies in Dialogue, Matthias Oppermann consciously resists the traditional academic split between scholarship and classroom practice. His study calls for a radical reconstruction of American studies grounded in an understanding of cultural analysis and critique as genuinely dialogic processes of research and pedagogy. Drawing on case studies ranging from courses in early American civilization to recent multimedia projects, American Studies in Dialogue will be required reading for American studies scholars and teachers.
Beyond Decent Work explores the history of the Indonesian labor movement, using three contemporary case studies to shed light on the development of Indonesia’s labor struggles and trade union strategies. Drawing on extensive and recent qualitative fieldwork, Felix Hauf argues that the economic idea of “decent work” plays a central role in current trade union strategies at the expense of more radical—or traditional working-class—strategies of industrial action, even though the latter have been more effective in fulfilling workers’ demands for higher wages and better working conditions. Hauf’s analysis offers unique insight into the labor dynamics of Indonesia and Southeast Asia more broadly, revealing how genuinely democratic and independent unions—confronted with rival unions controlled by businesses, Indonesian subcontractors, multinational corporations, and the Indonesian state—struggle to create an economy outside the confines of neoliberal capitalism.
A unique account of labor relations in the modern Chinese economy, Beyond the Iron Rice Bowl brings together more than thirty in-depth case studies of key multinational, Chinese, and overseas Chinese enterprises in the automotive, electronic, and garment industries. Analyzing the regimes of production and their segmentations in the context of global and national production networks, the authors discuss Chinese and international industrial relations theory and labor sociology and explore the perspectives of collective bargaining, trade union reform, and democratic workplace representation in China.
Historians discuss the 1970s as an era of deep transformations and even structural rupture in Western societies. For the first time, Cities Contested engages in this debate from the perspective of comparative urban history, examining the struggles in and about urban space at a time when ideas about the “city” and concepts of urban planning were being reconsidered. This book discusses the structural rupture of the time by comparing case studies of Italian and Western German cities, analyzing central issues of urban politics, urban renewal and heritage, and urban protest and social movements. An original contribution to current debates on the transition from industrial modernity to post-Fordist societies as well as to urban history and the history of social movements, Cities Contested draws on the parallel histories of Italy and Germany to propose new questions and new avenues for investigation.
The scene of two devastating civil wars since 1989, Liberia had widely been considered a failed state until the international professional Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was democratically elected president in 2005. This book investigates the political economy of civil war and democratic peace, arguing that the civil wars did not represent state decay, but exhibited dynamics characteristic of state formation. In the analysis of post-war developments, which emphasizes the intertwining of corruption and democracy under the new regime, Felix Gerdes details both political progress and persistent structural deficits of the polity.
Since the mid-1980s, Fritz W. Scharpf has been investigating the evolution of the multilevel European polity and its impact on the effectiveness and legitimacy of democratic government in Europe. Community and Autonomy collects in one volume Scharpf’s nearly two decades of research on government in Europe and offers new contributions that focus on the asymmetric impact of European law on the institutions and policy legacies of EU member states and on the implications of these asymmetries for the democratic legitimacy of government at national and European levels.
Worldwide, plantations are key economic institutions of the modern era. From an environmental perspective, they are also the settings for some of the most powerful, consequential, and frequently destructive modes of production ever to have existed. This volume assembles essays on commodities as diverse as coffee, cotton, rubber, apples, oranges, and tobacco, to provide an overview of plantation systems from Latin America to New Zealand that exposes the many dimensions of environmental history incorporated in these robust institutions. The global history of plantation systems not only highlights the great institutional resilience of our modern monocultures, but also the price that humans and environments have paid for them.
States in sub-Saharan Africa, as anywhere else, are vested with the authority to implement laws and sanction their application. But in spite of a growing emphasis in Africa on participatory approaches to legislation, little research has focused on the extent to which the public has become involved in policy making and whether the state regulations that have been produced have proven publicly beneficial. Offering a new anthropological perspective, Competing Norms fills that gap by exploring how people in sub-Saharan Africa view new regulations in the light of preexisting local norms with which new regulations often compete. A collection of international, interdisciplinary contributors discusses the competing local, state, and international norms as they have evolved over time, unfolding the intricate ambivalences and contradictions that often characterize state regulations.
An extraordinarily rich account of the lives of Turkish men and women living in contemporary Germany, Conceptualising 'Home' offers striking insights into how members of a marginalized immigrant community make room for themselves and reconstruct homes away from home. Based on in-depth interviews, the volume places the life experiences of Turkish people into a broader theoretical perspective, while Esin Bozkurt's careful attention to gender and generational differences ensures an accurate, balanced representation. The result is a surprisingly useful understanding of the very idea of "home."
Since the 1980s, increasing numbers of hospitals in the United States have formed internal ethics committees to help doctors and other health care professionals deal with complicated ethical questions, especially those regarding the end of a life. But it is only in recent years that German hospitals have followed suit. In Conflicts of Care, Helen Kohlen offers the first comprehensive look at the origin and function of these committees in German hospitals. Using a mix of archival research, participant observation, and interviews, Kohlen explores the debates that surrounded their formation and the functions they have taken on since their creation.
In contemporary East Asia, rapid social and political changes have led to multiple shifts in historical perspective. Recent history, marked by the experience of colonialism and wars, has become an object of intense debate both within and among Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan. Contested Views of a Common Past brings together renowned scholars to analyze historical revisionism in politics, historiography, education, and the media. Drawing on a number of theoretical, cross-national, and comparative perspectives, these essays demonstrate how and why historical events have been reevaluated in specific social, political, and cultural contexts. History is thus revealed not only as a source and expression of various nationalisms, but also as a starting point for trans-national understanding and reconciliation.
Counternarrative Possibilities reads Cormac McCarthy’s westerns against the backdrop of American mythology’s two formative national tropes: virgin land (from the 1950s) and homeland (after 9/11). Looking at McCarthy’s westerns in the context of American studies, James Dorson shows how his books counter the national narratives underlying these tropes and reinvest them with new, potentially transformative meaning. Departing from prevailing accounts of McCarthy that place him in relation to his literary antecedents, Counternarrative Possibilities takes a forward-looking approach that reads McCarthy’s work as a key influence on millennial fiction. Weaving together disciplinary history with longstanding debates over the relationship between aesthetics and politics, this book is at once an exploration of the limits of ideology critique in the twenty-first century and a timely, original reconsideration of McCarthy’s work after postmodernism.
Fashion Week in Paris and London, the Venice Biennale, and the nineteenth-century Viennese scientific community may seem wildly disparate, but each represent the cultural possibilities of an international metropolis. Creative Urban Milieus is an interdisciplinary examination of the historical relationship between culture and the economy in such cities as Berlin, New York, Helsinki, London, Venice, and many others. This groundbreaking work investigates the contributions of the creative class to the urban renaissance, contextualized by historical examples from the eighteenth century to the present day.
Skeptical of the current euphoria surrounding the commercialization of culture, a distinguished group of contributors apply a comparative and historical perspective to probe how creative works have affected the global economy. Drawing on lessons from urban planning, art history, and cultural spectacles alike, Creative Urban Milieus will change the way we think about the symbiotic relationship between cities and innovation.
In reaction to the international financial crisis of 2007, a network of social scientists from seven countries analyzed the various changes in the regulation of financial markets, and this book presents their results. The articles published herein show patterns of institutional change that were triggered by the economic crisis on different political levels, of their implementation and effectiveness, as well as their results. An indispensible tool for political scientists, Crisis and Control contributes significantly to the theory of institutional change.
Our conception of cultures and cultural change has altered dramatically in recent decades: no longer do we understand cultures as isolated units; rather, we see them as hybrid formations constantly engaged in a multidirectional process of exchange and influence with other cultures. Yet the very process by which we represent these cultural transfers is itself subject to cultural, political, and ideological conditions that affect our understanding, acknowledgment, and representation of them. Built around concrete examples of controversial representations of cultural transfer from Asia, the Arab world, and Europe, Cultural Transfers in Dispute presents a critical self-reflection on the scholarly practices that underpin our attempts to study and describe other cultures.
After war, many countries, such as Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, or Iraq, the transition to a democratic market economy extremely difficult. This failure to thrive, Dead Ends of Transition demonstrates, is often the result of national reliance on foreign aid. Rentier states, the contributors to this study argue, have few incentives to respond to the needs of their societies. Taking a closer look at the policies of rentier economies, this book further identifies new ways in which these countries and their international partners could work together to ease the critical transition to democracy.
Can interest groups and lobbyists—arguably undemocratic institutions—operate in democratic systems without hindering the people’s interests? Karolina Karr’s Democracy and Lobbying in the European Union explores the role and potential impact of interest groups on democracy, both in theory and practice, in the context of a changing continent. This timely volume explores how the power of interest groups has developed due to the growing distance between elected representatives and the European people and forecasts what this development might mean for the vitality of government.
In 2005 hopes for closer European integration were dealt a potentially fatal blow when French and Dutch voters rejected the proposed new European Union constitution. Going beyond the instant analysis of journalists, which placed blame for the failed vote on the two nations’ internal politics, Democracy Needs Dispute examines a collection of media accounts of European policy debates to argue that the problem with the EU is its relative lack of vibrant political conflict. Democracy Needs Dispute offers both up-to-date analysis and a rich theoretical understanding of the problems facing further efforts at European integration.
When democracy was introduced to Nigeria in 1999, one third of its federal states declared that they would be governed by sharia, or Islamic law. In Democratization and Islamic Law, Johannes Harnischfeger argues that such a break with secular constitutional traditions in a multi-religious country can have disastrous consequences. The efforts by Islamic politicians to assert their own religious laws, Harnischfeger contends, have driven Muslims and Christians to confrontation. This book is an essential contribution to debates surrounding the increasingly fraught relationship between religion and politics.
Joseph Stalin’s death was a defining event in Soviet history. In its aftermath, the state was forced to reconceive its political, economic, social, and cultural identity. This volume includes new contributions from an international collection of researchers that critically engage with this period of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union. Together, they offer fresh perspectives not just on Stalinism, but also on questions of change and continuity in Soviet politics, modernization, and society more generally, moving broad-scale processes such as urbanization into the center of interpreting Soviet history. And in so doing, De-Stalinisation Reconsidered makes clear that the Soviet history of the 1950s and ’60s is crucial for understanding not only glasnost and perestroika, but contemporary Russia, as well.
Historical work on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries suggests that as nation-states were solidifying throughout Western Europe, exiled groups tended to develop rival national identities—an occurrence that had been fairly uncommon in the two preceding centuries. Diaspora Identities draws on eight case studies, ranging from the early modern period through the twentieth century, to explore the interconnectedness of exile, nationalism, and cosmopolitanism as concepts, ideals, attitudes, and strategies among diasporic groups.
The Chinese government and international observers argue that China’s economy must overcome its excessive dependence on exports if substantial growth in domestic consumption is to be achieved and sustained in the future. But this shift can only occur if China also lessens its reliance on cheap migrant labor and encourages investment in its own labor force.
In The End of Cheap Labour?, Florian Butollo investigates the recent transformation of the garment and LED lighting industries in the Pearl River Delta, China’s largest industrial hub. He reveals that industrial upgrading rarely supports improvements in working conditions and the basic employment pattern; and this failure of “social upgrading” threatens to undermine the desired rebalancing of the Chinese economy. Butollo demonstrates that the implementation of collective labor rights remains an important obstacle in the future of the Chinese growth model.
The architects of the Soviet Union intended not merely to remake their society—they also had an ambitious plan to remake the citizenry physically, with the goal of perfecting the socialist ideal of man. As Euphoria and Exhaustionshows, the Soviet leadership used sport as one of the primary arenas in which to deploy and test their efforts to mechanize and perfect the human body, drawing on knowledge from physiology, biology, medicine, and hygiene. At the same time, however, such efforts, like any form of social control, could easily lead to discontent—and thus, the editors show, a study of changes in public attitude towards sport can offer insight into overall levels of integration, dissatisfaction, and social exhaustion in the Soviet Union.
Europeans Engaging the Atlantic offers innovative perspectives on historical European knowledge concerning the “New World” and on trade and commerce therewith. In so doing, it enhances our understanding of how, when, and why early modern Europeans made sense of the Atlantic world, and how they tried to connect with Atlantic trade and commerce. Featuring case studies that discuss these issues from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, this volume explores both the degree to which the Atlantic was (or was not) part of the European worldview—or just one part of a worldview with many centers of interest—and how European engagement with the Atlantic world evolved.
Everyday heroes and heroines—ordinary men, women, and children who are honored for actual or imagined feats—have received only scant attention in heroism scholarship. While scholars have devoted thousands of pages to war heroes, heroic leaders, and superheroes, as well as to the blurring distinctions between heroes and celebrities, they have said little about the meaning and impact of ordinary citizens’ heroism. This collection of essays seeks to fill that void. Comparing the United States, Germany, and Britain from a multidisciplinary perspective, Extraordinary Ordinariness asks both when this particular hero type first emerged and how it was discussed and depicted in political discourse, mass media, literature, film, and other forms of popular culture. Looking across fields of study, countries, and centuries, this book sheds new light on the many social, cultural, and political functions that our everyday heroes have served.
Feelings at the Margins offers a uniquely interdisciplinary take on the contemporary phenomenon of marginalization in Indonesia and its emotional impact on affected individuals and groups. By combining anthropological, political, and historical perspectives on Indonesian particularities with more universal conclusions, this volume is sure to attract not only scholars with a regional interest in the archipelago, but also researchers more broadly concerned with the interplay between stigma, marginality, culture, and emotion. Moreover, the book’s vivid ethnographic case studies—detailing recurring acts of violence against communities based on their ethnicity, gender, sexuality, descent, and religion—and discussion of significant sociocultural and political developments in early twenty-first-century Indonesia will make it a valuable resource for scholars of social and political activism.
Conventional wisdom holds that globalization has made the world more modern, not less. But how has modernity been conceived of in colonial, postcolonial, and post-revolutionary worlds? In Figurations of Modernity, an international team of scholars probe how non-European worlds have become modern ones, from the perspective of a broad range of societies around the globe.
From vocational education in Argentina to secular morality in Tibet, from the construction of heroes in Central Asia to historical memory in Nigeria, this comprehensive volume reckons with the legacy of empire in a globalizing world. Enhanced by the perspectives of historians, anthropologists, and scholars of comparative education, Figurations of Modernity will be an essential book for those studying post-colonial nations across disciplines.
Do unemployment, religiosity, or morality play a role in people’s perception of happiness and well-being? Using large-scale survey data from more than seventy countries, Olga Stavrova shows in Fitting In and Getting Happy that to a large extent happiness depends on a match between individuals’ attributes and the sociocultural characteristics of the environment in which they live. The first systematic, theory-driven investigation of cross-cultural variability in the causes and correlates of happiness, this book also provides a comprehensive overview of prior theoretical and empirical literature on happiness and life satisfaction, and suggests a number of avenues for further research in the fields of subjective well-being studies and cross-cultural comparative studies.
In Frames of Friction, Carsten Junker maps out a dazzling panorama of critical cultural debatesfrom the twentieth century to explore the ways in which African American speakers and writers established their authority and gained recognition. Taking into account the latest ideas from gender studies and African American studies, as well as current essay theory, Junker juxtaposes the ways in which African American authors and speakers from the 1920s to the 1970s debated critical topics with their white and Jewish contemporaries in order to emphasize the dialogic nature of the essay form. Ultimately, Junker hones in on the genre of essay itself, arguing that it is repeatedly questioned and reconstituted during times of social change.
Despite the momentous social and economic change of recent decades, patterns of social stratification have proven to be remarkably stable. In From Origin to Destination, an expert team analyzes the current state of social stratification research from a comparative, international perspective. This volume presents theoretical knowledge as well as empirical evidence on questions such as intergenerational social mobility; inequalities of educational opportunity, gender and ethnicity; and the role of education in the labor market.
This volume focuses on how the far right’s views of Islam have been increasingly co-opted by both liberal and conservative parties and woven into the policies of Western governments over the past two decades. The unprecedented influence of xenophobic and Islamophobic parties, whether in coalition with governments or recipients of the popular vote, reflects a major realignment of forces and a danger to the Western core values of human rights and equality. From the Far Right to the Mainstream explores how Islamophobia has moved to the mainstream of Western policy making, and the role that the media has played.
This volume addresses the complex relationship between memory, culture, and gender—as well as the representation of women in national memory—in several European countries. An international group of contributors explore the national allegories of memory in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the relationship between violence and war in the recollections of both families and the state, and the methodological approaches that can be used to study a gendered culture of memory.
Why do young men born in many small villages in Spain tend, at the end of the twentieth century, to stay there to live, often remaining unmarried, while young women from the same villages tend to leave? In Gender, Work, and Property, Nancy Konvalinka explores this phenomenon using the case of one small village in northwestern Spain, and she extrapolates her findings there to understand similar processes elsewhere in Europe.
The changes in this village are analyzed and documented through long-term ethnographic research, participant observation, interviews, kinship diagrams, life-course models, and archive study in order to help bring the village alive for the reader.
Comparing various European and American historiographies from the past two hundred years, Gendering Historiography provides insights into the establishment and cultivation of gendered power relations in different societies and outlines the devastating effects that exclusionary practices can have on each national canon. This detailed and revealing book will change the face of history writing, bringing overlooked and previously excluded histories back into modern historiography.
Global challenges such as poverty, climate change, and economic crises are all problems that the global community must face collectively. But in order to do so successfully, we need to engage in a continued intercultural dialogue on alternative approaches to development that are ethically justifiable, politically acceptable, and ecologically sustainable. To this end, the Institute for Social and Development Studies at the Munich School of Philosophy in cooperation with MISEREOR, the German Catholic Bishops’ Organization for Development Cooperation, invited scholars from across the world to define and explore an overarching goal: the global common good. This book represents the product of their efforts; in it, contributors investigate normative ideals, analyze obstacles that prevent the realization of these ideals, and propose paths for global transformation.
As catalysts of our present global condition, telegraphs are emblems of modernity. The establishment of a worldwide network of landline and submarine cable connections in the mid-nineteenth century fostered the emergence of new structures and patterns of interaction on a global scale. World politics and a global economy only became possible with the creation of “global communication electric.”
This book examines the emergence of this global media system between 1860 and 1930 in four sections—"Inter|Nationalisms," "Agents|Actors," "Use|News," and "Space|Time"—that aim to broaden and challenge popular conceptions of telegraphy. In exploring the varied uses of telegraphy, real or imagined, Global Communication Electric expands the notion of the telegraph as a globalizing medium: of connection as well as friction; of political, social, and economic entanglement as well as disentanglement; and of crossing as well as creating distance in space and time.
Although many books have been written about the economic impact of globalization on Europe, none has focused exclusively on the pharmaceutical industry. To fill this gap in scholarship, Globalization and Industrial Relations offers a full account of how open markets have affected drug companies, their employees, and consumers alike.
Using the examples of Germany and the United Kingdom as case studies, this volume uses a careful theoretical background and broad empirical analysis to evaluate the current state of industrial relations in the pharmaceutical industry. Globalisation and Industrial Relations addresses how companies in the pharmaceutical industry deal with the challenges from globalization in respect to collective bargaining and workplace representation. A complete analysis of industrial relations in the drug manufacturing industry in a changing world, this volume also forecasts different trajectories for the systems of industrial relations in Germany and the United Kingdom.
Popular culture often portrays divorced fathers as deadbeats who have little interest in caring for the emotional, physical, and financial needs of their children. In the stereotype-shattering book, “I Didn’t Divorce My Kids!”, Gerhard Amendt presents the long-neglected plight of the divorced father who is plagued by grief and loneliness after being separated from his children. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews of thousands of such dads, Amendt reveals how fathers cope with trying to salvage their own lives while simultaneously maintaining relationships with their children after a painful divorce.
Amendt’s incisive look at divided families also explores the impact that a single-parent household has on children’s well-being, criticizing the American tendency to over-pathologize normal reactions to familial upheaval. Even the most civilized of divorces, Amendt argues, can cause rage, sadness, potential health problems, and behavioral disturbances in otherwise well-adjusted children. The broad spectrum of experiences recounted in “I Didn’t Divorce My Kids!” will be essential reading for anyone interested in, or personally shaped by, the changing face of the modern family.
The Spanish Civil War has been called the quintessential expression of violent ideological confrontation in 1930s Europe. Despite this reputation, researchers have neglected to properly explore the Spanish experience in the context of the history of twentieth-century warfare. To fill this gap, “If You Tolerate This . . . ” brings together an international group of scholars to address the Spanish Civil War’s role in the development of total war.
Examining such topics as military violence, the experience of war, and the culture of war, this anthology traces how the differentiation between civilian and military sectors crumbled with the onset of civil war. Individual memory and collective identity in Spain, the authors argue, became synonymous with mass killing and mass dying. Offering a unique perspective on one of European history’s most fraught events, this volume will be necessary reading for students and scholars of twentieth-century Spain and military history.
As civil wars and insurgencies rage around the globe, Klaus Schlichte’s In the Shadow of Violence addresses a crucial question: why do some groups succeed in violently seizing and holding power while others fail? What makes for a successful non-state armed force? Arguing that success rests on the ability of these groups to transform the power of violence into legitimate domination, both inside their ranks and in the larger society, Schlichte explores the techniques and strategies they employ—and the long shadow of violence they must overcome along the way.
One of the largest peace-keeping missions currently being undertaken by the United Nations is in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the UN is attempting to deal with the civil wars and other conflicts that have plagued the country since 1996. In Intervention as Indirect Rule, Alex Veit uses a close study of the district of Ituri, a major battlefield and a laboratory for international intervention, to explore the micropolitics of warfare and statebuilding. Combining detailed firsthand empirical data with a historically informed analysis, Veit shows the effect that contemporary humanitarian interventions have on state-society relations. He also pays particular, and much needed, attention to the question of why the very organizations that should be helping with international statebuilding efforts—local authorities and civil society groups—so often instead turn out to be corrupt or hostile. Ultimately Veit argues that international intervention tends inadvertently to replicate—or even amplify—historical structures of political inequality, rather than establishing a liberal form of statehood.
Family is the foundation of society, and debates on family norms have always touched the very heart of America. This volume investigates the negotiations and transformations of family values and gender norms in the twentieth century as they relate to the overarching processes of social change of that period. By combining long-term approaches with innovative analysis, Inventing the “Modern American Family” transcends not only the classical dichotomies between women’s studies and masculinity studies, but also contribute substantially to the history of gender and culture in the United States.
Justice and peace are key concepts in the discourse of many academic disciplines. Conceptually, they are obviously linked, but perennial disputes surround the question of their interdependence and whether priority must be accorded to justice or peace. This volume brings together a diverse group of internationally renowned scholars from the fields of political theory, philosophy, international relations, history, cultural anthropology, and law to address these overarching questions and offer suggestions on how the friction between justice and peace might be resolved. The contributors draw on long-standing philosophical debates in order to address historical as well as contemporary conflicts ranging from the establishment and enforcement of legal and political norms in the disputes of early modern Europe to present-day tensions inherent in the constitutionalization of international law.
Analyzing the history of the movement to shorten the workday in late nineteenth-century New York City and Berlin, this book explores what Karl Polanyi has termed the “fictitious commodification” of labor. Despite the concept’s significance for present-day social movements, European and North American historiography has largely ignored the impact of free-market rhetoric on the formation of organized labor. Filling this gap, Philipp Reick provides both a contribution to the current reevaluation of Polanyian thought and theory and an interdisciplinary investigation of the trans-Atlantic transmission of ideas.
As Reick demonstrates, while on both sides of the Atlantic workers opposed the unchecked commodification of labor power as a violation of their political, social, and economic rights, the emerging movements for protection from commodification did not promote a universalist concept of rights. By showing that American and German workers drew upon a strikingly similar rationality when formulating demands, this book reveals that we cannot label either the US labor movement as a deviation from the supposed norm of industrial contestation or its German counterpart as the embodiment of that norm.
Law beyond the State brings together contributions by renowned experts on international and European Union law to celebrate the centennial of Goethe‒Universität Frankfurt. The essays explore Frankfurt’s contribution to the development of international law; the historical development of international law; how this form of law can be used as a tool to improve the world and create a better future for all; the essential relevance of the spiritual dimension of legal orders, including the European Union, to ensuring their values will be taken seriously; and the possibility, offered by the Internet, for all persons concerned with global lawmaking to participate effectively in relevant decision-making processes.
How do business leaders inspire their employees so deeply that employees strive to surpass their own best work, helping managers and their staff to achieve mutual success? Sebastian Purps-Pardigol has figured it out—and the answer starts with the brain. Based on insights from neuroscience, psychology, and behavioral economics, as well as one hundred and fifty interviews with employees and CEOs, he has devised a new, innovative approach to the meaning of leadership today and what it takes to make businesses unbeatable.
In Leading with the Brain, Purps-Pardigol presents seven factors all business leaders should keep in mind to not only make their workforce feel more satisfied, but also to increase the overall health and well-being of their staff. Drawing on real-life examples of businesses that succeed by managing according to scientific findings, Purps-Pardigol shows that by leading in a people-oriented, humane way, managers can release their employees’ hidden energies to the benefit of all.
Since the founding in 1660 of the Royal Society, London, scientists engaging in experimental research have sought to establish a base for exploratory work in communities and their political institutions. This connection between science and the national state has only grown stronger during the past two centuries. Here, historians, sociologists, and jurists discuss the history of that relationship since 1800, asking such key questions as how have scientists conceived of the national setting for their transnational work in the past, and how do they situate their work in the context of globalization? Taken together, the essays reveal that while nineteenth-century scientists in many countries felt they had to fight for public recognition of their work, the twentieth century witnessed the national endorsement and planning of science. With essays ranging from an analysis of speeches by nineteenth-century German university presidents to the state of science in the context of European integration, this book will appeal to anyone interested in the public and political role of science and its institutions in the past, present, and future.
The course of human lives in Western society is inescapably shaped by political, cultural, and economic factors. Changes in these spheres inevitably lead to changes in our conceptions of everything from childhood and adulthood to family structures and living arrangements. The nineteen articles collected in The Life Course Reader offer a range of both theoretical and empirical studies of changing conceptions of the life course. Drawing on data from North America and Europe, the Reader will be indispensable for anyone studying human development and the twenty-first century family.
From anti-Reagan riots in West Berlin to pictures of revolutionary Nicaragua, it is impossible to examine global social protest movements of the 1970s and ’80s without addressing how these movements imagined the Americas. By examining historical representations of the United States and Latin America among Western European protesters and how these symbols were utilized by these movements, this book offers a fresh and compelling look at protest in the second half of the twentieth century. Contributions focus primarily on the anti-Euromissile peace protests and the solidarity movement with Latin America to shed light both on how European protestors built networks with the Americas and how American activists conceived of Europe and European protest. Looking east to west, north to south, this book reveals that we cannot understand the groundswell of 1980s protest movements in Europe without unraveling European representations of the Americas.
To solve real-world issues, the model of transdisciplinary research, which approaches from both the hard and social sciences, has recently come to the forefront. By integrating multiple disciplines as well as the expertise of partners from the societal practice, researchers are able to look at a problem from many angles, with the goal of making both societal and scientific advances. Methods for Transdisciplinary Research provides scholars with a model for conceptualizing and executing this type of work, while offering a systematic description of methods for knowledge integration that can be applied to any field, making it an indispensible guide for every transdisciplinary researcher and teacher.
As urban areas have grown and sprawl has spread in recent decades, metropolitan governments around the world have begun to look beyond city borders, establishing regional partnerships to help them deal with issues of transit, resource use, and more. Metropolitan Governance examines this trend through a close comparative study of seven metropolitan areas in Israel and Germany. While not neglecting the reasons behind these changes in governance, the authors pay particular attention to their effects on—and diminishing of—democratic participation and accountability.
One of the keys to dealing with militant Islamic groups is understanding how they work with, relate to, and motivate their constituencies. Mobilizing the Faithful offers a pair of detailed case studies—of the Egyptian groups al-Jamaa al-Islamiyya and al-Jihad and Lebanon's Hizbullah—to identify typical forms of support relationships, development patterns, and dynamics of both radicalization and restraint. The insights it offers into the crucial relationship between militants and the communities from which they arise are widely applicable to violent insurgencies not only in the Middle East but around the world.
Multilevel structures are becoming increasingly characteristic of the world in which we live. This book is a unique study of policy making in a multilevel political system extending from the national to the international level. Taking as its subject the process of financial market reforms that took place following the recent financial crisis, it brings together an international group of renowned social scientists to explore the interplay between international organizations, European authorities, and regulators in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany in global financial decision making. Contributors thoroughly explore a small set of reform issues—including bank structure, bank capital, resolution, and over-the-counter trading of derivatives—to provide a detailed view of the vertical and horizontal interactions between these actors as related to a set of key questions: Are those states affected by the crisis adopting internationally negotiated regulations? Or are they instead determining the European and international reform agenda? Are the agreed upon policies contributing to greater harmonization of financial regulation in a multilevel political system? Or is the process being dominated by differing national interests?
In The Normality of Civil War, Teresa Koloma Beck uses theories of the everyday to analyze the social processes of civil war, specifically the type of conflict that is characterized by the expansion of violence into so-called normal life. She looks beyond simplistic notions of victims and perpetrators to reveal the complex shifting interdependencies that emerge during wartime. She also explores how the process of normalization affects both armed groups and the civilian population. A brief but smart analysis, The Normality of Civil War gets at the root of the social dynamics of war and what lies ahead for the participants after its end.
Examining new archival material from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, One Law for All? discusses legal transfer and practice in imperial and post-imperial societies, including Russia, Latin America, Africa, and East Asia. The essays collected here analyze the legal sphere as a site of struggle, both in debate and in everyday life, from the level of universal aspirations to particular local practices. The contributors explore the ways in which both lawmakers and ordinary people talk about and actively use the law, thereby telling a story of contested European hegemony, local assertions, and multiple legal borrowings.
Three decades after the publication of Arlie Russell Hochschild’s The Managed Heart, the processes of commodification of emotion she wrote about now reach into all areas of labor processes, extending even to private life and intimate relationships. The contributors to this volume take up her concepts to study the diversity of this economic intrusion into family, education, and nursing in the service sector as well as into corporate management. Aside from the powers and interests that force these developments, these essays argue, there are also productive uses and active resistances to them.
How do policy debates work? How can interest groups and legislators influence political processes through the media? This book introduces discourse network analysis as a methodological toolbox for the study of policy debates. With this set of methods, political discourse is cast as a temporal network of actors and their statements in the media over time. In a case study, Philip Leifeld applies discourse network analysis to the policy debate on old-age security in Germany. Demonstrating that German pension politics was characterized by an increasing polarization of competing coalitions towards the end of the 1990s, Leifeld shows how structural breaks in the discourse network can explain major policy changes and a radical turn to privatization in 2001.
Policy Debates on Reprogenetics takes an in-depth look at recent public policy debates over stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in Great Britain and Germany in order to determine the effect of such debates on the progress of scientific knowledge. Svea Luise Herrmann argues that debates about government policy do not tend to lead to more societal and political control over scientific research; rather, the discussions, when framed as questions of ethics, allow societies to air anxieties without retarding or challenging scientific progress. As our understanding of genetics continues to grow, this volume will be a useful resource for scientists and policy makers alike.
Bringing together the fields of sociology, political science, and management and organization studies, Ursula Mühle offers in this unique volume an authoritative overview of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Mühle first considers the origins of CSR during the 1970s, highlighting the various approaches to CSR and explaining its early shortcomings. She then turns to the United Nations Global Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative to investigate why, since the mid-1990s, CSR has been on the rise. Finally, Mühle employs several case studies as well as interviews with business executives and politicians to illustrate why businesses worldwide now view CSR as a key component to their success. The Politics of Corporate Social Responsibility will be welcomed by scholars and CSR practitioners alike.
While industrialized nations are facing declining birth rates and aging populations, developing countries must deal with rapid urbanization, migration movements, and ongoing population growth. Population Dynamics and Supply Systems explores the links between demographic changes, the environment, and sustainable development. These complex interactions are illustrated with the provisioning structures for water and food. From an inter- and transdisciplinary perspective, this volume uses case studies from Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa to propose innovative solutions for enhancing the adaptive capacity of supply systems to cope with demographic changes.
Can Western modernity be analyzed and critiqued through the lens of enslavement and colonial history? As this volume reveals, such analysis is not only possible, it is essential to our understanding of contemporary race relations and society generally. Drawing from the fields of postcolonial, decolonial, and black studies, this book assembles contributions from renowned scholars that offer timely and critical perspectives from a variety of disciplines, including history, sociology, political science, gender studies, cultural and literary studies, and philosophy.
Despite the understanding of scholars that masculinity, far from being a natural or stable concept, is in reality a social construction, the culture at large continues to privilege an idealized, coherent male point of view. The Privilege of Crisis draws on the work of authors such as H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling, and Joseph Conrad—as well as contemporary postcolonial writers such as J. M. Coetzee, Hanif Kureishi and Zadie Smith—to show how recurrent references to a "crisis" of masculinity or the decline of masculinity serve largely to demonstrate and support positions of male privilege.
Although digitalization or smart manufacturing might be considered a driving factor behind Procurement 4.0—the latest conceptualization of how modern companies procure goods and services—it is far too shortsighted to view Procurement 4.0 as simply a digitalized function. In Procurement 4.0, four leading experts on this revolutionary concept offer the first comprehensive framework to identify the interrelated opportunities and challenges it provides.
As the authors show, dynamic, interconnected value chains are key factors of sustainable business success, with procurement managed and steered by strategic purchasers in their new role as value chain managers. This evolving environment will be influenced by a variety of digitalization forces, including Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things, smart data and clouds, Enterprise 2.0, social media, and mobile computing. Integrating all network levels of procurement—from intra-company and inter-company relationships to global connectivity along value chains—and drawing on interviews with corporate heads of BMW, Lufthansa, Maersk, BP, and Allianz, the authors explore four dimensions of procurement that will address the business needs of the future: competing value chains, co-creation, leadership, and digital transformation.
It is time to leave capitalism behind. In Prosperity without Greed, Sahra Wagenknecht shows that we live in a system of economic feudalism that has nothing to do with a free market economy, where the innovations we require to solve myriad important societal problems are not forthcoming. How can it be, Wagenknecht asks, that technological developments financed by the taxpayer end up enriching private companies even if those companies’ activities violate public interests? Through clear analysis and concrete proposals, Wagenknecht suggestss new forms of ownership and sketches the outlines of an innovative and just economy that instead promotes and rewards talent, real performance, and start-ups with groundbreaking ideas.
Although grass-roots social movements are an important force of social and political change, they quite often fail to achieve their lofty goals. Similarly, the inability of research to systematically explain the impact of such movements stands in sharp contrast to their emotional appeal. Protest, Opportunities, and Mechanisms attempts to rejuvenate current scholarship by developing a comprehensive theory of social movements and political change.
In addition to reviewing the existing literature on the political outcomes of social movements, this volume analyzes the examples of the American civil rights movement and anti-nuclear energy efforts in eighteen countries to forge a new understanding of their momentous impact.
Modern Western thought has traditionally relegated the religious and the secular to two entirely different spheres. Religion and Its Other takes issue with this oversimplified dichotomy, tracing the borders and grey areas between religion and the secular world as conceived of in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim cultures past and present.
A unique collection of theoretically informed historical and anthropological case studies, this comprehensive volume includes discussions of medieval atheism, Egyptian modernization, Jewish mysticism, Lutheran angels, and other such topics. Religion and Its Other will enrich the library of anyone interested in the social construction of religion across the centuries.
Since the first Baltic nations joined the European Union, debates about reorganizing post-Soviet republics have grown increasingly heated. How do citizens in the Baltic and South Caucasian states cope with EU expansion and the feeling of existing simultaneously “inside” and “outside” Europe? Based on ethnographies and archival work, Representations on the Margins of Europe offers new insights into shifts in the national identity, cultural geography, and symbolic boundaries. This exploration of local responses to Europe’s new hegemony will appeal to anyone interested in anthropology, history, and politics.
In the thirty years since the first “test-tube baby,” in-vitro fertilization and other methods of reproductive assistance have become a common aspect of family life and medicine in developed nations—and, increasingly, throughout the world. This collection brings together ethnographic studies of how these reproductive technologies are deployed across a wide variety of nations and cultures, taking special account of how they are linked to aspirations towards modernity—and how they contribute to an ongoing reconfiguration of the boundaries of knowledge and human agency. The resulting volume offers both a current snapshot of the cultural state of reproductive technologies and a plethora of provocative questions for the future.
This book reexamines the trope of the machine in the garden first laid out in one of the founding texts of American studies by Leo Marx fifty years ago. The contributors to this volume explore the lasting influence of this concept on American culture and the arts, rereading it as a dialectic wherein nature is as much technologized as technology is naturalized. Extending the relevance of Marx’s theory from the nineteenth to twenty-first centuries, they examine filmic and literary representations of industrial, bureaucratic, and digital gardens; explore its role in the aftermath of the Civil War and of rural electrification during the New Deal; its significance in landscape art as well as in ethnic literatures; and discuss the historical premises and continued impact of Leo Marx’s groundbreaking study.
The Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Summer of Love—the 1960s were one of the most turbulent decades in US history. These years launched an unprecedented public debate over the meaning of “America,” dividing US society in deep and troubling ways. Yet despite the passage of time, the contemporary crises in the “American way of life” and the political system that sustain it might well make one wonder: to what degree are we still living on the outskirts of the '60s? By examining crucial events, trends, and individuals from the civic, social, political, intellectual, cultural, and economic spheres across a range of disciplines, this volume offers a nuanced and pluralist account of the longest decade in America.
Unquestionably a watershed year in world history, 1917 not only saw the Russian Revolution and the US entry into World War I, it also marked a foundational moment in determining global political structures for the remaining twentieth century. Yet while contemporaries were cognizant of these global connections, historiography has been largely limited to analysis of the nation-state. A century later, this book discusses the transnational dimension of the numerous upheavals, rebellions, and violent reactions on a global level that began with 1917. Experts from different continents contribute findings that go beyond the well-known European and transatlantic narratives, making for a uniquely global study of this crucial period in history.
In this timely investigation of secessionist entities in post-Soviet territories, Smolnik explores how political authority is organized, produced, and reproduced in conditions of violent conflict. Drawing on case studies of unrecognized or only partially recognized states in the South Caucasus, she shows that so-called low-level violent conflicts may significantly influence the form and functioning of political rule and thereby have a considerable impact on the empowerment and disempowerment of local actors. Offering fresh insight into the connections between violence and political power, Secessionist Rule not only contributes to the political sociology of violent conflict, but also adds to our knowledge of the largely understudied internal dynamics of de facto states.
In the wake of globalization, national governments are becoming increasingly interdependent, and knowledge is arguably becoming the most valuable form of capital. Helmut Willke’s Smart Governance offers a new perspective on global governance from the vantage point of a global knowledge society.
Employing a case study of the global financial system and an analysis of several governance regimes, Willke contends that markets, legal systems, and morality must evolve to cope with uncertainty, build capacities, and achieve resilience. Smart Governance will change the way economists, historians, and political scientists view international cooperation.
According to mainstream discourse of the Cold War, post-1945 Western Europe was essentially a homogeneous historical space fully integrated into modern industrial society. But as Southern Europe? makes clear, Western European societies were in fact divided by deep political and economic inequalities. While nations in the north embodied consolidated democracies, Spain, Portugal, and Greece were at times all authoritarian regimes. Deeply afflicted with underdevelopment, these countries were cut off from the “economic miracles” other Western European states were experiencing. With its weak democracy, Italy held a contradictory position between the struggles of the Iberian and Greek peninsulas and the progress of its neighbors beyond the Alps.
Now, old inequalities long believed to be things of the past have resurfaced, and a new debt crisis appears to be splitting the continent apart along historic lines. This book raises the important question of whether studying the geopolitics and social history of southern Europe might be a valuable analytical tool for understanding these contemporary financial catastrophes.
Spirits in Politics explores the interface between religion and politics in African societies by examining recent and ongoing research in a variety of regional settings. Case studies from across the African continent exemplify how—and at which social levels—spirits, witchcraft, and other supernatural agents play an active role in political action and the conceptualization of power. This volume illustrates not only how ritual techniques such as divination or spirit possession may play a vital role in people’s efforts to regain control over the political processes that determine their lives, but also how magical and other secret practices are at the center of local discourse on democratization and state politics. Moreover, the contributors show that these practices are prominent in day-to-day decision-making processes at local levels, including the interaction between spirit-based and democratic institutions of social organization in modern urban life and economies.
While globalization affects the sovereignty of every nation-state, European countries face special challenges due to the emergence of the European Union. The State of Europe explores the transformation of ideas of statehood in light of the EU’s continued development, including rapidly changing notions of democracy, representation, and citizenship alongside major shifts in economic regulation. This book will be an essential guide for students and teachers of economics, political science, and international relations, as well as anyone interested in the expanding role of the EU worldwide.
Studying Social Networks provides a concise, comprehensive introduction to the process of empirical network research. Students and practitioners new to social research will find easily understandable learning goals, numerous examples, and helpful exercises all in one compact volume. The authors have integrated different disciplinary perspectives, while stressing the importance of substance-specific orientation while studying networks. Scholars will find Studying Social Networks a helpful tool not only for teaching, but also as a guide for their own empirical research.
The accuracy of a survey is directly affected by how the survey is presented, how the questions are worded, and what the format is for responses. In addition, survey methods continue to develop at an accelerating rate to keep step with technological demands. Consequently, research on survey methods themselves is essential to ensuring accurate data. Survey Measurements presents the most up to date findings in this field. Exploring the effects of survey question format and survey type on data quality as well as developments in the treatment of missing data, an international collection of contributors addresses such key topics as motivated misreporting; audio-recording of open-ended questions; framing effects; multitrait-multimethod matrix modeling; web, mobile web, and mixed-mode research; experience sampling; estimates of change; and multiple imputation. This book will be a vital resource for teachers and students of survey methodology, advanced data analysis, applied survey research, and a variety of disciplines including the social sciences, public health research, epidemiology, and psychology.
Theorizing Emotions reflects the recent turn to emotions in academia—not just in sociology but also in psychology, evolutionary biology, and neuroscience. Drawing on the classic studies of Max Weber, Erving Goffman, and Norbert Elias, several leading European scholars present their findings on the role of emotions in various facets of society, from the laboratory to the office to the media. Among the topics discussed are the tensions between feelings and feeling rules, the conscious and unconscious emotions of scientists, emotions and social disorder, the effect of the emotional turn as an element of advancing modernity, romantic love in U.S. and Israeli codes of conduct, and the role of mass media in generating massive public emotions.
In A Ticket to Work, Bettina Kohlrausch examines the differing approaches taken by Britain and Germany to assisting young people with the often difficult transition from school to full-time work. Detailing the workings of such programs as skills training and job-placement assistance, the volume places those vocational training methods in the context of the general political and economic climate of the two nations, drawing a contrast between Britain’s more liberal market economy and Germany’s more structured and coordinated regime.
The global finance system has been the subject of hot debate for several years. Major players such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have come under fire for their financial practices, while the role of epistemic authorities, including rating agencies, remains unclear. This book systematically analyzes the role knowledge plays in global finance reform by considering its influence in the empirical areas of finance (banking, accounting, and bond rating, for example). As the contributors demonstrate, current institutional management strategies reflect a shift toward “cognitive,” or learning-based modes of managing financial and political risks—and this cognitive thinking has its own consequences for the global marketplace.
This book examines local attempts at sustainable development in post-socialist Eastern Europe. Enikö Baga focuses on the small Romanian town of Timisoara as its residents respond to major national and international changes, including the dismantling of an authoritarian regime and Romania’s admittance to the European Union in 2007. As Baga illustrates, such shifts provide powerful opportunities for local communities, as they learn to use their own economic, social, and cultural resources to enact political change. A unique look at grassroots development efforts in Eastern Europe, this book will be an important study for scholars and students of economics and comparative politics.
The university system, both in America and abroad, has always claimed a universal significance for its research and educational models. At the same time, many universities, particularly in Europe, have also claimed another role—as custodians of national culture. Transnational Intellectual Networks explores this apparent contradiction and its resulting intellectual tensions with illuminating essays that span the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century nationalization movements in Europe through the postwar era.
From a decidedly multidisciplinary perspective, the articles in Transnational Political Spaces address the notion that political space is no longer fully congruent with national borders. Instead there are areas called transnational political spaces—caused by factors such as migration and social transformation—where policy occurs oblivious to national pressure. Organized into three sections—transnational actors, transnational spaces, and critical encounters—this volume explains how these spaces are formed and defined and how they can be traced and conceptualized.
This book focuses on the relationship between physical space and social mobility, focusing on the new phenomenon of the “international professional” who makes the world his home. Mobile people, Magdalena Nowicka reveals, create their own spatial and cultural universes through daily routines and practices. Even the choice of a specific residence, Nowicka shows, has definite local and global consequences. Grounded in the influential theories of Ulrich Beck as well as the latest research in the sociology of space, Transnational Professionals and their Cosmopolitan Universes is an important contribution to continuing debates on globalization and sociology.
Travelling Facts explores the production and distribution of facts : their life cycles as well as the material networks through which they travel. Acknowledging that facts are fallible and originate primarily in isolated laboratories and field sites, the volume includes discussions about how facts are reassembled into practical knowledge, how they translate locally, and what lessons may be learned from those who attempt to regulate fact production and circulation in the face of the marked acceleration and expansion of digital technologies worldwide.
In recent decades, scholars working in postcolonial history have successfully challenged the primacy of Western historiography and its Eurocentric worldview. With Unsettling History, a group of historians extend that challenge to two central components of work in history: archiving and narrating. Archival resources, they argue, despite their air of impartiality, are the product of established interests and subject to various practices of selection, cataloguing, and preservation. Narrating, too, is more complicated than it might at first seem, especially as the range of genres available to the historians for presenting their findings has expanded in recent years.
This book investigates the governance structures and mechanisms of knowledge and technology transfer in the context of innovation and production systems in six regions of Europe. For that purpose, the author develops a new and innovative heuristic governance model of knowledge transfer systems. Against the assumption of far-reaching institutional coherence and homogeneity of national systems in existing scholarship, Michael Ortiz demonstrates that national innovation and production systems are regionally variegated. With analyses of strengths and weaknesses, barriers, shortcomings, and dilemmas of regional innovation and knowledge transfer systems, the book ultimately identifies best practice models and policy recommendations for the investigated regions.
During the first half of the twentieth century military victory parades in New York became an iconic part of the American cultural memory—ticker tape and soldiers returning to their sweethearts symbolized the joy of a nation at peace. In this incisive new study, Sebastian Jobs approaches these events as political street theater. Focusing on organizers, spectators, and soldiers, Jobs explores each group’s participation in the action, as well as the ways in which they interacted with each another. This book also demonstrates how abstract concepts, like the nation-state, were embodied in these events, and how these political performances made an impact on American culture and society.
Although Prussia’s beloved Queen Luise and the Swiss-born aristocrat and writer Germaine de Staël were Napoleon Bonaparte’s best-known female opponents, women’s discontent with Napoleon and the Napoleonic wars was more widespread—and vocal—than once assumed. Women against Napoleon expands our awareness of the range of women’s responses to the despot by presenting an international spectrum of female opposition, including contemporary letters, diaries, and published writings, as well as historical fiction of the twentieth century. By setting these materials together, this volume forges new links between literary, historical, and gender scholarship.
Writing Political History Today
Edited by Willibald Steinmetz, Ingrid Gilcher-Holtey, and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt Campus Verlag, 2013 Library of Congress D443.W725 2013 | Dewey Decimal 909.82
In recent years political history has been rediscovered by historians. In this volume the contributors approach the new political history in a constructivist way, conceiving the political as a communicative space whose boundaries are constantly reconfigured through acts of verbal, visual, and sometimes violent communication. Writing Political History Today is organized into four sections, focusing on politics and the political as contested concepts; boundary disputes between the political and other spheres; the question whether violence is a means, an object, or the end of political communication; and on a future agenda for writing political history.