Within the modern built environment, advanced engineering systems allow us to go about our daily lives in a relative degree of safety, comfort and security. Often, we do not give too much thought about what is happening behind the scenes.
Every engineering system needs an energy source and control input to provide the service it is designed for. Without some degree of management, those engineering systems may not perform quite as intended. It is often unreliable to depend solely on building occupiers to satisfactorily control these engineering systems purely by manual means, and hence make the best use of the engineering systems for the benefit of all.
The aim of this Code of Practice is to provide knowledge, understanding and good practice guidance on the design, evaluation, implementation and improvements on the use of automated controls used in mechanical and electrical engineering systems within the built environment.
The Code of Practice also aims to provide clear and concise information on building automation and control systems that can be developed and applied to several different installations. There is often no single solution and therefore building controls must be specifically tailored to meet specific user needs, local technical requirements and the constraints of budget and resources.
Many realistic engineering systems are large in dimension and stiff for computation. Their analysis and control require extensive numerical algorithms. The methodology of singular perturbations and time scales (SPTS), crowned with the remedial features of order reduction and stiffness relief is a powerful technique to achieve computational simplicity.
This book presents the twin topics of singular perturbation methods and time scale analysis to problems in systems and control. The heart of the book is the singularly perturbed optimal control systems, which are notorious for demanding excessive computational costs.
The book addresses both continuous control systems (described by differential equations) and discrete control systems (characterised by difference equations). Another feature is the extensive bibliography, which will hopefully be of great help for future study and research. Also of particular interest is the categorisation of an impressive record of applications of the methodology of SPTS in a wide spectrum of fields, such as circuits and networks, fluid mechanics and flight mechanics, biology and ecology, and robotics.
This book is aimed at graduate students, applied mathematicians, scientists and engineers working in universities and industry.
Wide area monitoring, protection and control systems (WAMPACs) have been recognized as the most promising enabling technologies to meet challenges of modern electric power transmission systems, where reliability, economics, environmental and other social objectives must be balanced to optimize the grid assets and satisfy growing electrical demand. To this aim WAMPAC requires precise phasor and frequency information, which are acquired by deploying multiple time synchronized sensors, known as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), providing precise synchronized information about voltage and current phasors, frequency and rate-of-change-of-frequency.
This book provides an overview of this emerging technology. Topics covered include an introduction to WAMPACs; reliability-based substation monitoring systems placement; system integrity protection scheme based on PMU technology; new methodologies for large scale power system dynamic analysis; a fuzzy-based knowledge discovery paradigm for on-line optimal power flow analysis; and false data injection attacks and countermeasures for wide area measurement system.