District energy (DE) systems use central heating and/or cooling facilities to provide heating and/or cooling services for communities and can be particularly beneficial when integrated with cogeneration plants for electricity and heat. This book provides information on district energy and cogeneration technologies, and the systems that combine them, with a focus on their modelling, analysis and optimization.
Topics covered include a brief introduction to district heating and cogeneration; background material on thermodynamics and exergy analyses; models for cogeneration, heating and district heating, and chilling and district cooling; descriptions and analyses of configurations for integrating cogeneration and DE technologies; economics of cogeneration and DE; environmental impact of cogeneration systems, including wastes and carbon dioxide emissions and their allocations; modelling and optimization of cogeneration-based district energy systems accounting for economics and environmental impact; developments and advances in technologies and systems for cogeneration and DE; and future directions.
Examples and case studies are included throughout the book to illustrate the material covered, and to demonstrate the importance, benefits and value of cogeneration and district energy technologies in achieving sustainable and efficient energy systems.
Industrial automation is driving the development of robot manipulators in various applications, with much of the research effort focussed on flexible manipulators and their advantages compared to their rigid counterparts. This book reports recent advances and new developments in the analysis and control of these robot manipulators.
After a general overview of flexible manipulators the book introduces a range of modelling and simulation techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, neuro-modelling approaches, and numerical techniques for dynamic characterisation using finite difference and finite element techniques. Control techniques are then discussed, including a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern control methods including neuro and iterative control, and a range of soft-computing control techniques based on fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary and bio-inspired optimisation paradigms. Finally the book presents SCEFMAS, a software environment for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
Flexible Robot Manipulators is essential reading for advanced students of robotics, mechatronics and control engineering and will serve as a source of reference for research in areas of modelling, simulation and control of dynamic flexible structures in general and, specifically, of flexible robotic manipulators.
The ever increasing utilisation of robotic manipulators for various applications in recent years has been motivated by the requirements and demands of industrial automation. Among these, attention is focused more towards flexible manipulators, due to various advantages they offer compared to their rigid counterparts. Flexural dynamics have constituted the main research challenge in modelling and control of such systems; research activities have accordingly concentrated on the development of methodologies to cope with this.
The book reports recent and new developments in modelling, simulation and control of flexible robot manipulators. The material is presented in four distinct components: (i) a range of modelling approaches including classical techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, and neuro-modelling approaches; (ii) numerical modelling/ simulation techniques for dynamic characterisation of flexible manipulators using the finite difference, finite element, symbolic manipulation and customised software techniques; (iii) a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern intelligent control methods including soft-computing and smart structures for flexible manipulators; and (iv) software environments for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
The book can serve as a teaching resource as well as a reference text for research.
Parameter estimation is the process of using observations from a system to develop mathematical models that adequately represent the system dynamics. The assumed model consists of a finite set of parameters, the values of which are calculated using estimation techniques. Most of the techniques that exist are based on least-square minimisation of error between the model response and actual system response. However, with the proliferation of highspeed digital computers, elegant and innovative techniques like filter error method, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks are finding more and more use in parameter estimation problems. Modelling and Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Systems presents a detailed examination of many estimation techniques and modelling problems.
This essential tool for research on modern power systems presents the main concepts of modelling and simulation of power systems and their use for simulation-based design. Written in a systematic, didactic style, and employing examples and case studies, the book explains the key techniques and methods used by software packages. Simulation solvers implemented in C++, MATLAB® and Python are used to explain the structure and development of commercial simulation tools. Ideal for researchers and advanced students involved with power system research.
The development of large-scale renewable generation and load electrification call for highly efficient and flexible electric power integration, transmission and interconnection. High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission technology has been recognized as the key technology for this scenario. HVDC transmissions, including both the line commutated converter (LCC) HVDC and voltage source converter (VSC) HVDC have played an important role in the modern electric power system. However, with the inclusion of power electronic devices, HVDC introduces the characteristics of nonlinearity and different timescales into the traditional electromechanical system and thus careful modeling and simulation of HVDC transmission are essential for power system design, commissioning, operation and maintenance.
This book focuses on the modeling and simulation of HVDC transmission systems. The development of HVDC technologies is briefly introduced, and then the role of modeling and simulation in the research and development of HVDC systems is discussed. The chapters cover the general practice of HVDC modeling and simulation; electromagnetic modeling of LCC HVDC; VSC HVDC system modeling and stability analysis; electromagnetic modeling of DC grids; electromagnetic simulation of HVDC transmission; electromechanical transient simulation of LCC HVDC; electromechanical simulation of VSC HVDC; dynamic phasor modeling of HVDC; small-signal modeling of HVDC systems; hybrid simulation for HVDC; and real-time modeling and simulation for HVDC systems. The simulation algorithms are explained for each model and case studies and application examples are included.
This book is essential reading for engineers and researchers involved with transmission grid construction, as well as advanced students of electrical engineering.
This book provides engineers, researchers and advanced students with the mathematical modelling, control and simulation tools needed for the successful design, long-term management and maintenance of a small scale hydro-power plant (HPP). It also covers the hybrid operation with other small scale renewable power plants as well as the use of a storage system. The book features case studies and test-based design, and all system components are modelled using the well-known state space form technique.
This comprehensive book describes how to systematically assess the stability of electrical grids with a high share of power electronics converters and considers what their presence in the electrical grid entails. It is divided into three areas: Part 1 presents the three fundamental stability analysis methods and tools for power electronics systems; Part 2 examines applications in power utility systems; and Part 3 describes applications in microgrids and mobile power systems.
Topics covered include linear state-space phasor methods; impedance analysis in synchronous reference frame; effects of distortion on stability; harmonic linearisation and sequence impedance analysis; nonlinear effects of power electronics on stability; grid-connected inverters for renewable energy and energy storage; high voltage dc transmission converters and systems; power electronics controllers in power systems; stability impact of grid impedance and interactions with grid synchronisation methods; droop controllers in microgrids; internal protections and limitations of converter control systems and their impact on stability; agent-based control of microgrids; adaptive control of microgrids; electric ship power systems.
Modelling and Stability of Smart Grids will be invaluable to researchers and advanced students in power electronics and power grid engineering.
This book presents cutting-edge research advances in the rapidly growing areas of nanoantennas and plasmonics as well as their related enabling technologies and applications. It provides a comprehensive treatment of the field on subjects ranging from fundamental theoretical principles and new technological developments, to state-of-the-art device design, as well as examples encompassing a wide range of related sub-areas. The content of the book also covers highly-directive nanoantennas, all-dielectric and tuneable/reconfigurable devices, metasurface optical components, and other related topics.
Intended to provide valuable information for researchers and graduate students in electromagnetics, antennas and propagation, coverage includes the following topics: optical properties of plasmonic nanoloop antennas; passive and active nano cylinders; coherent control of light scattering; time domain modeling with the generalized dispersive material model; inverse-design of plasmonic and dielectric optical nanoantennas; multi-level atomic systems for modeling nonlinear light-matter interactions; nonlinear multipolar interference: from non-reciprocal directionality to one-way nonlinear mirrors; plasmonic metasurfaces for controlling harmonic generations; optical nanoantennas for enhanced THz emission; active photonics based on phase-change materials and reconfigurable nanowire systems; and nanofabrication techniques for subwavelength optics.
Designed for ICT professionals involved in the planning, design, development, testing and operation of network services, this book is ideal for self-teaching. It will help readers evaluate a network situation and identify the most important aspects to be monitored and analysed. The author provides a detailed step by step methodological approach to network design from the analysis of the initial network requirements to architecture design, modelling, simulation and evaluation, with a special focus on statistical and queuing models. The chapters are structured as a series of independent modules that can be combined for designing university courses. Practice exercises are given for selected chapters, and case studies will take the reader through the whole network design process.
This book provides a comprehensive range of topics for monitoring, modelling and assessing the performance of photovoltaic plants, and enabling effective asset management. Using real-world data, the book emphasises practical usability, systematically covering the knowledge needed to perform these tasks, from the basics all the way through to the evaluation of key performance indicators. Source code used to perform data analysis is also included. This book is ideal for anyone working with photovoltaic systems or plants.
To ensure stable operation of a power system, it is necessary to analyse the power system performance under various operating conditions. Analysis includes studies such as power flow and both steady-state and transient stability. To perform such studies requires knowledge about the models used to represent the various components that constitute an integrated power system. In situations where there is a risk of loss of stability, it is necessary to apply controls that can ensure stable and uninterrupted supply of electricity following a disturbance.
The subject of stability thus encompasses modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability. All these topics are covered in this book, providing a comprehensive treatment of the overall subject of stability of power systems. Topics covered include modelling of the synchronous machine; the synchronous machine connected to power systems; modelling of transformers, transmission lines and loads; power flow analysis; optimal power flow; small signal stability; transient stability; transient energy function methods; artificial intelligent techniques; power system stabilizers; series compensation; shunt compensation; compensation devices; and recent technologies.
The subject matter is covered at a level that is suitable for students, scientists and engineers involved in the study, design, analysis and control of power systems.