Since the dawn of the republic, faith in social equality, religious freedom, and the right to engage in civic activism have constituted our national creed. In this bracing history, Kathleen D. McCarthy traces the evolution of these ideals, exploring the impact of philanthropy and volunteerism on America from 1700 to 1865. What results is a vital reevaluation of public life during the pivotal decades leading up to the Civil War.
The market revolution, participatory democracy, and voluntary associations have all been closely linked since the birth of the United States. American Creed explores the relationships among these three institutions, showing how charities and reform associations forged partnerships with government, provided important safety valves for popular discontent, and sparked much-needed economic development. McCarthy also demonstrates how the idea of philanthropy became crucially wedded to social activism during the Jacksonian era. She explores how acts of volunteerism and charity became involved with the abolitionist movement, educational patronage, the struggle against racism, and female social justice campaigns. What resulted, she contends, were heated political battles over the extent to which women and African Americans would occupy the public stage.
Tracing, then, the evolution of civil society and the pivotal role of philanthropy in the search for and exercise of political and economic power, this book will prove essential to anyone interested in American history and government.
In resource-challenged Athens County, Ohio, staff and volunteers at the nonprofit Athens County Foundation came up with a daring idea: to host a locally sourced, gourmet dinner for four hundred people. The meal would be held on the brick-paved main street of the city of Athens, to raise funds for the food bank, and increase awareness of the persistent local struggle with food insecurity, as well as raise the visibility of the foundation. The logistical challenges were daunting, but the plan would unite the community around the common theme of providing for its own.
Since then, Bounty on the Bricks has become a touchstone event that raises close to one hundred thousand dollars for the food bank. In The Community Table, Athens County Foundation executive director Susan Urano translates her years of nonprofit experience with large-scale annual fundraisers into a step-by-step guide for development professionals, community leaders, and volunteers.
Urano guides readers to consider when to mount a fundraiser, who the stakeholders are, what social and financial value the event will bring to the community, and how partnerships might augment the payoff. Using real-life examples, she explains how organizers can learn from mistakes and illustrates methods of team building, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Sample ideas, timelines, budgets, publicity plans, and committee structures round out The Community Table.
Something new and important is afoot. Nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are under increasing pressure to do more and to do better to increase and improve productivity with fewer resources. Social entrepreneurs, community-minded leaders, nonprofit organizations, and philanthropists now recognize that to achieve greater impact they must adopt a network-centric approach to solving difficult problems. Building networks of like-minded organizations and people offers them a way to weave together and create strong alliances that get better leverage, performance, and results than any single organization is able to do.
While the advantages of such networks are clear, there are few resources that offer easily understandable, field-tested information on how to form and manage social-impact networks. Drawn from the authors’ deep experience with more than thirty successful network projects, Connecting to Change the World provides the frameworks, practical advice, case studies, and expert knowledge needed to build better performing networks. Readers will gain greater confidence and ability to anticipate challenges and opportunities.
Easily understandable and full of actionable advice, Connecting to Change the World is an informative guide to creating collaborative solutions to tackle the most difficult challenges society faces.
In the early 1980s the tenant leaders of the New Orleans St. Thomas public housing development and their activist allies were militant, uncompromising defenders of the city’s public housing communities. Yet ten years later these same leaders became actively involved in a planning effort to privatize and downsize their community—an effort that would drastically reduce the number of affordable apartments. What happened? John Arena—a longtime community and labor activist in New Orleans—explores this drastic change in Driven from New Orleans, exposing the social disaster visited on the city’s black urban poor long before the natural disaster of Katrina magnified their plight.
Arena argues that the key to understanding New Orleans’s public housing transformation from public to private is the co-optation of grassroots activists into a government and foundation-funded nonprofit complex. He shows how the nonprofit model created new political allegiances and financial benefits for activists, moving them into a strategy of insider negotiations that put the profit-making agenda of real estate interests above the material needs of black public housing residents. In their turn, white developers and the city’s black political elite embraced this newfound political “realism” because it legitimized the regressive policies of removing poor people and massively downsizing public housing, all in the guise of creating a new racially integrated, “mixed-income” community.
In tracing how this shift occurred, Driven from New Orleans reveals the true nature, and the true cost, of reforms promoted by an alliance of a neoliberal government, nonprofits, community activists, and powerful real estate interests.
Arts organizations once sought patrons primarily from among the wealthy and well educated, but for many decades now they have revised their goals as they seek to broaden their audiences. Today, museums, orchestras, dance companies, theaters, and community cultural centers try to involve a variety of people in the arts. They strive to attract a more racially and ethnically diverse group of people, those from a broader range of economic backgrounds, new immigrants, families, and youth.
The chapters in this book draw on interviews with leaders, staff, volunteers, and audience members from eighty-five nonprofit cultural organizations to explore how they are trying to increase participation and the extent to which they have been successful. The insiders' accounts point to the opportunities and challenges involved in such efforts, from the reinvention of programs and creation of new activities, to the addition of new departments and staff dynamics, to partnerships with new groups. The authors differentiate between "relational" and "transactional" practices, the former term describing efforts to build connections with local communities and the latter describing efforts to create new consumer markets for cultural products. In both cases, arts leaders report that, although positive results are difficult to measure conclusively, long-term efforts bring better outcomes than short-term activities.
The organizations discussed include large, medium, and small nonprofits located in urban, suburban, and rural areas—from large institutions such as the Smithsonian, the Walker Art Center, the Museum of Fine Arts Houston, and the San Francisco Symphony to many cultural organizations that are smaller, but often known nationally for their innovative work, such as AS220, The Loft Literary Center, Armory Center for the Arts, Appalshop, and the Western Folklife Center.
A bold and provocative look at how the nonprofit sphere’s expansion has helped—and hindered—the LGBT cause
What if the very structure on which social movements rely, the nonprofit system, is reinforcing the inequalities activists seek to eliminate? That is the question at the heart of this bold reassessment of the system’s massive expansion since the mid-1960s. Focusing on the LGBT movement, Myrl Beam argues that the conservative turn in queer movement politics, as exemplified by the shift toward marriage and legal equality, is due mostly to the movement’s embrace of the nonprofit structure.
Based on oral histories as well as archival research, and drawing on the author’s own extensive activist work, Gay, Inc. presents four compelling case studies. Beam looks at how people at LGBT nonprofits in Minneapolis and Chicago grapple with the contradictions between radical queer social movements and their institutionalized iterations. Through interview subjects’ incisive, funny, and heartbreaking commentaries, Beam exposes a complex world of committed people doing the best they can to effect change, and the flawed structures in which they participate, rail against, ignore, and make do.
Providing a critical look at a social formation whose sanctified place in the national imagination has for too long gone unquestioned, Gay, Inc. marks a significant contribution to scholarship on sexuality, neoliberalism, and social movements.
Not-for-profit organizations play a critical role in the American economy. In health care, education, culture, and religion, we trust not-for-profit firms to serve the interests of their donors, customers, employees, and society at large. We know that such firms don't try to maximize profits, but what do they maximize?
This book attempts to answer that question, assembling leading experts on the economics of the not-for-profit sector to examine the problems of the health care industry, art museums, universities, and even the medieval church. Contributors look at a number of different aspects of not-for-profit operations, from the problems of fundraising, endowments, and governance to specific issues like hospital advertising.
The picture that emerges is complex and surprising. In some cases, not-for-profit firms appear to work extremely well: competition for workers, customers, and donors leads not-for-profit organizations to function as efficiently as any for-profit firm. In other contexts, large endowments and weak governance allow elite workers to maximize their own interests, rather than those of their donors, customers, or society at large.
Taken together, these papers greatly advance our knowledge of the dynamics and operations of not-for-profit organizations, revealing the under-explored systems of pressures and challenges that shape their governance.
The nonprofit sector is a vital component of our society and is allowed the greatest freedom to operate. The public understandably assumes that since nonprofit organizations are established to do good, the people who run nonprofits are altruistic, and the laws governing nonprofits have reflected this assumption. But as Marion Fremont-Smith argues, the rules that govern how nonprofits operate are inadequate, and the regulatory mechanisms designed to enforce the rules need improvement.
Despite repeated instances of negligent management, self-interest at the expense of the charity, and outright fraud, nonprofits continue to receive minimal government regulation. In this time of increased demand for corporate accountability, the need to strengthen regulation of nonprofits is obvious. Fremont-Smith addresses this need from a historical, legal, and organizational perspective. She combines summaries and analysis of the substantive legal rules governing the behavior of charitable officers, directors, and trustees with descriptions of the federal and state regulatory schemes designed to enforce these rules. Her unique and exhaustive historical survey of the law of nonprofit organizations provides a foundation for her analysis of the effectiveness of current law and proposals for its improvement.
Table of Contents:
1. The Nonprofit Sector in the Twenty-First Century The Legal Meaning of Charity Size and Characteristics of the Nonprofit Sector Current Challenges for Specific Components of the Sector Religious Organizations Health Care Organizations Educational Organizations Human and Social Service Organizations Arts and Cultural Organizations Foundations and Other Grantmakers How Extensive Is Wrongdoing in the Sector? Policy Issues Facing the Nonprofit Sector in the Twenty-First Century
2. A Brief History of the Law of Charities Introduction Evolution of Charities in Early Society Islamic Foundations Charities in England Development of Trusts Restrictions on Charitable Gifts The Statute of Charitable Uses The Role of the Attorney General and the Charity Commission Regulation of Charities after 1950 Developments in Substantive Charity Law after 1601 Charitable Corporations Charities in the United States Development of the Law of Charitable Trusts Charitable Purposes Charitable Corporations State Regulation of Charities Federal Regulation of Charities: The Internal Revenue Code Deductibility of Contributions Federal Reporting and Disclosure Requirements Congressional Investigations of Charities prior to 1969 The Walsh Commission The Cox and Reece Committees The Patman Committee 1965 Treasury Department Report on Private Foundations Tax Reform Act of 1969 Reactions to the Tax Reform Act from the Nonprofit Sector The Peterson Commission The Filer Commission Congressional Activity after the Tax Reform Act of 1969 Private Foundations Lobbying by Public Charities Unfair Competition with Small Businesses Standards for Exemption of Hospitals Regulation of Church Activities Relief for Victims of the Terrorist Attacks of September 2001 The Effectiveness of the IRS as Regulator Major Expansion of Federal Regulation: Intermediate Sanctions for Excess Benefit Transactions Other Changes in Substantive Laws after 1970 Changing Parameters of the Definition of Charitable Purposes Application of the Public Policy Doctrine to Definitions of Charitable Purposes State Action Limitations on Charitable Purposes: The Subsidy Theory Lobbying UBIT and Commercial Activities Regulation of Public Companies and Auditing Firms in 2002 and 2003 Treasury Department Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines Conclusion
3. Creation, Administration, and Termination of Charities Charitable Purposes State Law Definitions Motives of Donors Gifts for Charitable and Noncharitable Purposes Charitable Purposes for Nonprofit Corporations Requirement of Indefinite Beneficiaries Definitions in State Tax Laws The Trust Form for Charities Creation of Charitable Trusts Restrictions on the Amount of Charitable Bequests Duration and Restrictions on Remoteness of Vesting Termination Accumulation of Income Administrative Duties of Trustees Administrative Powers of Trustees Discretionary Powers of Trustees Exercise of Powers by Majority of Trustees Compensation of Trustees Exculpatory Clauses Liability to Third Persons Court Supervision of Trusts The Corporate Form for Charities Development of a Model Nonprofit Corporation Act Creation of Charitable Corporations Power of the Legislature to Modify Corporate Charters Restrictions on Holdings of Charitable Corporations Duration Amendment, Merger, and Dissolution Accumulation of Income Internal Organization Administrative Duties of Directors Administrative Powers of Directors Discretionary Powers of Directors Compensation of Directors Ultra Vires Contracts Corporations Formed to Administer Charitable Trusts Trust Rules Inapplicable to Corporations Reporting Provisions The Doctrines of Cy Pres and Deviation Cy Pres Deviation Application to Charitable Corporations
4. Fiduciary Duties: State Law Standards Fiduciary Duties of Trustees: Prudence and Loyalty Duty of Prudence Investment of Trust Funds: The Modern Prudent Investor Rule Standards for Investments Investment of Trust Funds: Diversification Duty of Loyalty Liability of Trustees for Breach of Trust Exculpatory Clauses Fiduciary Duties of Corporate Directors: Care Duty of Care Reliance Review of Current Law The Business Judgment Rule Limitation on Liability The Duty of Care as Related to Investments The Modern Prudent Investor Rule The Uniform Management of Institutional Funds Act (UMIFA) Fiduciary Duties of Corporate Directors: Loyalty (Fair Dealing) Duty of Loyalty (Fair Dealing) Statutory Formulations of the Duty of Fair Dealing Definitions of Conflicts of Interest Procedures for Validating Conflicts Duty to Ã¢â‚¬Å“MissionÃ¢â‚¬? and the Cy Pres Doctrine Prohibition against Loans to Directors Statutory Relief from Liability Codification of the Business Judgment Rule Indemnification, Insurance, and Liability Shields Procedural Limits on Directors' Liability: Shifting the Burden of Proof State Prohibitions Based on Federal Tax Laws Protection of Volunteer Directors from Tort Liability Proposals for Reform Duty of Care Duty of Loyalty
5. The Internal Revenue Code Permitted Purposes for Tax-Exempt Charities Basic Requirements for Exemption The Organizational Test The Operational Test Prohibition against Private Inurement Limitation on Private Benefit Prohibition against Excess Benefit Transactions Applicable to Publicly Supported Charities Disqualified Persons Excess Benefits Revenue-Sharing Arrangements Rebuttable Presumption of Reasonableness Excise Taxes on Disqualified Persons Excise Tax on Manager Applicable Organizations Early Experience Applying Excess Benefit Limitations Section 4958 and Revocation of Exemption Restrictions on Private Foundations Internal Revenue Code Definition of Private Foundations Governing Instrument Requirements and Termination Rules Disqualified Persons Self-Dealing Mandatory Distributions Excess Business Holdings Jeopardy Investments Taxable Expenditures Impact of Chapter 42 on Charitable Fiduciaries Reconciling Chapter 42 and the Excess Benefits Provisions Prohibition against Participation in Politicial Campaigns Restrictions on Lobbying Activities Unrelated Business Income Tax Joint Ventures and Taxable Subsidiaries Conducting Exempt Activities The Role of the Internal Revenue Code in Assuring Compliance with Fiduciary Duties
6. Regulation of Charities in the States The Courts The Attorney General Statutes Enhancing Attorney General's Enforcement Powers Registration and Reporting Requirements Power to Conduct Investigations Required Notice to Attorney General of Judicial Proceedings Power of the Attorney General over Conversions The Role of the Attorney General in Interstate Disputes Charities Operating in Several States Charities Seeking to Move Out of the State of Origin Charities Operating Outside Their State of Origin Standing to Sue to Enforce Duties of Charitable Fiduciaries Exclusion of the General Public Standing to Sue Granted to Certain Interested Parties Review of Recent Standing Cases Proposals for Reform of Standing Rules The Power of Visitation: Reserved Rights of Donors and Heirs Parties to Suits Involving Charities Necessary Parties Proper Parties Statutes of Limitations and Laches as Bars to Actions Effective State Enforcement Programs California New York Ohio Massachusetts Other Jurisdictions The Legislature Supervision by Other State Agencies Secretaries of State and Corporation Commissions Departments of Education, Health, and Similar Agencies Supervision of Bank and Trust Companies Departments of Tax and Revenue Regulation of Charitable Fundraising Proposals for Independent Boards for Charity Supervision
7. The Role of the Federal Government in the Regulation of Charities The Congress General Accounting Office The Treasury Promulgation of Regulations Treasury Oversight of Published Rulings Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration Treasury Department Antiterrorist Activities The Internal Revenue Service Regulation of Exempt Organizations in the Restructured IRS Role of IRS Counsel Commissioner's Advisory Committee on Tax-Exempt and Government Entities Components of IRS Regulation Revenue Rulings and Revenue Procedures Information Releases and Notices Private Letter Rulings, General Counsel Memoranda, and Technical Advice Memoranda Limits on Disclosure of IRS Actions Department of Justice and the Solicitor General The Courts Judicial Remedies Available Universally Declaratory Judgment Procedure on Denial or Loss of Exemption Appellate Courts Tax Regulation in Operation Determinations of Exemption (Form 1023) Information and Tax Returns Record Retention Document Availability and Disclosure Requirements Audit Process Appeals Process Standing to Sue Other Federal Agencies That Regulate Charities Federal-State Cooperation
8. Improving the Law and Regulation of Charities Effect of a Dual Legal System State Laws Governing Charities and Their Fiduciaries Enabling Statutes for Charitable Corporations Duty of Care Duty of Loyalty Indemnification, D&O Insurance, and Liability Shields Cy Pres; Deviation; Amendment Powers Rights and Duties of Members Powers of Donors State Regulation of Charities Regulation by the Office of the Attorney General Standing to Sue Other State Agencies Regulating Specific Charitable Activities Federal Laws Governing Charities and Their Fiduciaries Internal Revenue Code Provisions Recommendations for Changes in the Code and Regulations Financial Reporting The Effect of Privatization on Nonprofits Federal Regulation of Charities: The Internal Revenue Service as Regulator Proposals to Change the Situs of Regulation The Role of the Charitable Sector Organizational Components of the Current Infrastructure Organizations Monitoring and Studying Nonprofit Activity Measuring Performance The Future of the Law and Regulation of Charities
Appendix Table 1: State laws governing creation, administration, and dissolution of charities Table 2: Cy pres doctrine applicable to outright transfers and trusts Table 3: Fiduciary duties under state laws
Whether you call it civil society, social capital, or the nonprofit charitable sector, this vital and diverse sector deserves the highest quality of attention by democratic institutions, citizens, and scholars. Marion Fremont-Smith provides the single best resource for understanding the issues raised by government regulation of religions, foundations, social services agencies, hospitals, arts organizations, and other parts of the nonprofit sector. While making a compelling argument in favor of the trend toward federal regulation instead of the patchwork of state supervision and neglect that still exists, the book manifests clarity, erudition, and fairness on every page and should help elevate the study of this crucial part of society. --Martha Minow, Harvard Law School, and author of Partners, Not Rivals: Privatization and the Public Good
Marion Fremont-Smith's Governing Nonprofit Organizations is an impressive work of scholarship that will significantly add to the field of nonprofit literature. There is no other single volume that covers the range of the subjects dealt with in this book. There are general works about the history of philanthropy, the scope and functioning of the nonprofit sector, the economics or sociology of the nonprofit sector, and specific problems of the nonprofit sector, but there is no comprehensive volume which focuses on the history of the law of charities and of governmental regulation of the nonprofit sector, much less one that couples with that history a detailed examination of the problems inherent in the present regulatory structure. --Joel L. Fleishman, Duke University Law School
Marion Fremont-Smith's Governing Nonprofit Organizations is an important contribution to the understanding of nonprofit organizations. Dealing with their historical setting in a mixed economy, the rationale for their extensive subsidization, and the effectiveness of their regulation and how it can be improved, it will be must reading for trustees, managers, and lawyers in the mushrooming private nonprofit sector, as well as researchers and public policymakers. --Burton Weisbrod, Northwestern University, and author of The Nonprofit Economy
As an attorney who's spent most of his professional life representing nonprofit organizations, I can say without fear of significant contradiction that this book will be welcomed as an invaluable addition to the literature of the field. --Robert H. M. Ferguson, Patterson, Belknap, Webb, and Tyler, LLP
Green at Work, published by Island Press in 1992, was the first source of information to help nontechnical but environmentally concerned job seekers learn about career opportunities with environmental companies or within the newly emerging "green" corporate culture. Now entirely revised and expanded, this indispensable volume again offers invaluable tools and strategies for launching a green career.Susan Cohn has expanded her scope beyond the business world to examine environmentally focused, nontechnical careers in a wide variety of fields, including communications, banking and finance, consulting, public policy, the non-profit sector, and more. This completely updated edition includes: profiles of more than 70 individuals that illustrate how people have woven their skills, values, and passions into their work listings of more than 400 companies with contact names, addresses, phone numbers, information on what the company does, and its environmental programs and policies listings of more than 50 resources, including organizations, publications, and other sources of information a bibliography of recommended readings
Winner of the 2015 Margaret Mead Award from the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology
After Haiti’s 2010 earthquake, over half of U.S. households donated to thousands of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in that country. Yet we continue to hear stories of misery from Haiti. Why have NGOs failed at their mission?
Set in Haiti during the 2004 coup and aftermath and enhanced by research conducted after the 2010 earthquake, Killing with Kindness analyzes the impact of official development aid on recipient NGOs and their relationships with local communities. Written like a detective story, the book offers rich enthnographic comparisons of two Haitian women’s NGOs working in HIV/AIDS prevention, one with public funding (including USAID), the other with private European NGO partners. Mark Schuller looks at participation and autonomy, analyzing donor policies that inhibit these goals. He focuses on NGOs’ roles as intermediaries in “gluing” the contemporary world system together and shows how power works within the aid system as these intermediaries impose interpretations of unclear mandates down the chain—a process Schuller calls “trickle-down imperialism.”
Today, rarely is a significant land acquisition accomplished without at least one private- and one public-sector participant. This book provides a detailed, inside look at those public- private partnerships.
Through interviews conducted with nonprofit agency managers in the New York City metropolitan area, Susan Bernstein vividly describes their experiences with "contracting out," the principal way that the "reluctant" American welfare state has of providing public services through the private sector. The agency administrators look upon this as a nightmarish game and their stories illuminate how welfare state mechanisms work in practice as well as the tangled nature of bureaucracies Bernstein illustrates and analyzes these administrators’ strategies for managing the administrative, ethical, and political issues of contracted services. Managing Contracted Services is one of the first books to examine how administrators manage contracted services in a bureaucratic and political environment.
The Nonprofit Economy
Burton Allen Weisbrod Harvard University Press, 1988 Library of Congress HD2769.2.U6W45 1988 | Dewey Decimal 338.74
Nonprofit organizations are all around us. Many people send their children to nonprofit day-care centers, schools, and colleges, and their elderly parents to nonprofit nursing homes; when they are ill, they may well go to a nonprofit hospital; they may visit a nonprofit museum, read the magazine of the nonprofit National Geographic Society, donate money to a nonprofit arts organization, watch the nonprofit public television station, exercise at the nonprofit YMCA. Nonprofits surround us, but we rarely think about their role in the economy, or the possibility of their competing unfairly with private enterprise.
Burton Weisbrod asks the important questions: What is the rationale for public subsidy of nonprofit organizations? In which sectors of the economy are they of real importance? Why do people contribute money and time to them and why should donations be tax deductible? What motivates managers of nonprofits? Why are these organizations exempt from taxes on income, property, and sales? When the search for revenue brings nonprofits into competition with proprietary firms—as when colleges sell computers or museum gift shops sell books and jewelry—is that desirable?
Weisbrod examines the raison d’être for nonprofits. The evidence he assembles shows that nonprofits are particularly useful in situations where consumers have little information on what they are purchasing and must therefore rely on the probity of the seller.
Written in a clear, direct style without technicalities, The Nonprofit Economy is addressed to a broad audience, dealing comprehensively with what nonprofits do, how well they do it, how they are financed, and how they interact with private enterprises and government. At the same time, the book presents important new evidence on the size and composition of the nonprofit part of the economy, the relationship between financial sources and outputs, and the different roles of nonprofits and for-profit organizations in the same industries. The Nonprofit Economy will become a basic source for anyone with a serious interest in nonprofit organizations.
This thorough volume offers up-to-date information and practical guidelines for board members and executives of nonprofit organizations large and small. Among the topics addressed are the historical roots of the voluntary sector in America, a complete discussion of the key responsibilities of nonprofit boards, suggestions for board organization, appropriate protocol for meetings, legal issues affecting nonprofit groups, and useful tools for self-assessment. This guide will be indispensable to the almost two million nonprofit organizations existing in the United States today.
This concise and illuminating book provides a road map to the evolving conceptual and policy terrain of the nonprofit sector. Drawing on prominent economic, political, and sociological explanations of nonprofit activity, Peter Frumkin focuses on four important functions that have come to define nonprofit organizations. The author clarifies the debate over the underlying rationale for the nonprofit and voluntary sector's privileged position in America by examining how nonprofits deliver needed services, promote civic engagement, express values and faith, and channel entrepreneurial impulses. He also exposes the difficult policy questions that have emerged as the boundaries between the nonprofit, business, and government sectors have blurred. Focusing on nonprofits' growing dependence on public funding, tendency toward political polarization, often idiosyncratic missions, and increasing commercialism, Peter Frumkin argues that the long-term challenges facing nonprofit organizations will only be solved when they achieve greater balance among their four central functions. By probing foundational thinking as well as emergent ideas, the book is an essential guide for nonprofit novitiates and experts alike who want to understand the issues propelling public debate about the future of their sector. By virtue of its breadth and insight, Frumkin's book will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in understanding the complex interplay of public purposes and private values that animate nonprofit organizations.
The Ownership of Enterprise
Henry Hansmann Harvard University Press, 2000 Library of Congress HD2785.H32 1996 | Dewey Decimal 338.70973
The investor-owned corporation is the conventional form for structuring large-scale enterprise in market economies. But it is not the only one. Even in the United States, noncapitalist firms play a vital role in many sectors. Employee-owned firms have long been prominent in the service professions--law, accounting, investment banking, medicine--and are becoming increasingly important in other industries. The buyout of United Airlines by its employees is the most conspicuous recent instance. Farmer-owned produce cooperatives dominate the market for most basic agricultural commodities. Consumer-owned utilities provide electricity to one out of eight households. Key firms such as MasterCard, Associated Press, and Ace Hardware are service and supply cooperatives owned by local businesses. Occupant-owned condominiums and cooperatives are rapidly displacing investor-owned rental housing. Mutual companies owned by their policyholders sell half of all life insurance and one-quarter of all property and liability insurance. And nonprofit firms, which have no owners at all, account for 90 percent of all nongovernmental schools and colleges, two-thirds of all hospitals, half of all day-care centers, and one-quarter of all nursing homes.
Henry Hansmann explores the reasons for this diverse pattern of ownership. He explains why different industries and different national economies exhibit different distributions of ownership forms. The key to the success of a particular form, he shows, depends on the balance between the costs of contracting in the market and the costs of ownership. And he examines how this balance is affected by history and by the legal and regulatory framework within which firms are organized.
With noncapitalist firms now playing an expanding role in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia as well as in the developed market economies of the West, The Ownership of Enterprise will be an important book for business people, policymakers, and scholars.
Public-service executives, both elected and appointed within the public and nonprofit sectors, are retiring at record levels, and the number of Americans reaching age sixty-five annually will continue to rise over the next decade and is expected to surpass four million in 2020. Finding qualified, motivated leaders to fill vital public-service positions will challenge the public and nonprofit sectors.
Unfortunately, recent studies show that few proactive steps are being taken by public-service organizations to plan for the next generation. Passing the Torch: Planning for the Next Generation of Public-Service Leaders provides an outline for those who will be facing and managing these looming changes.
In this valuable guide, the factors that influence selection of a career in public service are explored through the authors’ years of experience as leaders in public-service organizations and through interviews with other public-service professionals. Passing the Torch will be essential for leaders of nonprofit organizations, university faculty, researchers in the field of nonprofit management, and students in nonprofit management courses.
Given their tendency to splinter over tactics and goals, social movements are rarely unified. Following the modern Western animal rights movement over thirty years, Corey Lee Wrennapplies the sociological theory of Bourdieu, Goffman, Weber, and contemporary social movement researchers to examine structural conditions in the animal rights movement, facilitating factionalism in today’s era of professionalized advocacy.
Modern social movements are dominated by bureaucratically oriented nonprofits, a special arrangement that creates tension between activists and movement elites who compete for success in a corporate political arena. Piecemeal Protest examines the impact of nonprofitization on factionalism and a movement’s ability to mobilize, resonate, and succeed. Wrenn’sexhaustive analysis of archival movement literature and exclusive interviews with movement leaders illustrate how entities with greater symbolic capital are positioned to monopolize claims-making, disempower competitors, and replicate hegemonic power, eroding democratic access to dialogue and decision-making essential for movement health.
Piecemeal Protest examines social movement behavior shaped by capitalist ideologies and state interests. As power concentrates to the disadvantage of marginalized factions in the modern social movement arena, Piecemeal Protest shines light on processes of factionalism and considers how, in the age of nonprofits, intra-movement inequality could stifle social progress.
Exhorting people to volunteer is part of the everyday vocabulary of American politics. Routinely, members of both major parties call for partnerships between government and nonprofit organizations. These entreaties increase dramatically during times of crisis, and the voluntary efforts of ordinary citizens are now seen as a necessary supplement to government intervention.
But despite the ubiquity of the idea of volunteerism in public policy debates, analysis of its role in American governance has been fragmented. Bringing together a diverse set of disciplinary approaches, Politics and Partnerships is a thorough examination of the place of voluntary associations in political history and an astute investigation into contemporary experiments in reshaping that role. The essays here reveal the key role nonprofits have played in the evolution of both the workplace and welfare and illuminate the way that government’s retreat from welfare has radically altered the relationship between nonprofits and corporations.
Social enterprise—the use of market-based, civil society approaches to address social issues—has been a growing phenomenon for over twenty years. Gathering essays by researchers and practitioners from around the globe, this volume examines, from a local perspective, the diverse ways in which social enterprise has emerged in different regions. Each chapter examines the conceptualization, history, legal and political frameworks, supporting institutions, and latest developments and challenges for social enterprise in a given region or country. In the final chapter, Janelle A. Kerlin presents a comparative analysis of the various models and contexts for social enterprise, showing how particular strengths in each environment lead to different enterprise initiative models.
Starting and Running a Nonprofit Organization is a book for people who are forming new small nonprofits; thinking about converting an informal, grassroots group into tax-exempt status; reorganizing an existing agency; or currently managing a nonprofit. It provides practical and basic how-to information on legal, tax, organizational, and other issues particular to nonprofits.
This one-of-a-kind resource has been a valuable guide to nonprofit management for decades. While much of the information originated in an earlier era of nonprofit formation, it remains highly useful for gaining an overview and creating an action plan for people entering this realm of organizational management. Its compact format provides information in an easy-to-understand style. The book describes, step-by-step, the typical phases of creating and operating a new nonprofit, including incorporation, establishing a board of directors, writing bylaws, obtaining tax-exempt status, creating a strategic plan, budgeting and grant seeking, understanding accounting principles, managing human resources, and creating a community relations plan.
The Center for Nonprofit Management is a department of the Graduate School of Business at the University of St. Thomas in Minneapolis and St. Paul. It provides training and guidance in all aspects of the nonprofit sector to existing organizations as well as individuals or groups who are seeking help in starting a nonprofit.
A best-selling resource on nonprofit management.
Starting and Running a Nonprofit Organization is a book for people who are forming new nonprofits; thinking about converting an informal, grassroots group into tax-exempt status; reorganizing an existing agency; or currently managing a nonprofit. It provides practical and basic how-to information on legal, tax, organizational, and other issues particular to nonprofits.
This one-of-a-kind resource has been an invaluable guide to nonprofit management for more than fifteen years. Its unique, compact format provides all of the necessary information in an easy-to-understand style. The long-awaited revised edition retains all of the useful features of the original, adding important new insights and strategies for the challenges of today's nonprofit operating climate.
The book describes, step-by-step, all of the phases of creating and operating a new nonprofit, including incorporation, establishing a board of directors, writing bylaws, obtaining tax-exempt status, creating a strategic plan, budgeting and grant seeking, understanding accounting principles, managing human resources, and creating a community relations plan. The information provided is specific enough to be immediately useful, yet can be generalized to any nonprofit practitioner in any state. Handy checklists and worksheets, as well as a list of sources for assistance and management development and a bibliography on nonprofit management, make Starting and Running a Nonprofit Organization a valuable and unique resource.
"The book emphasizes small non-profit groups, and it covers bylaws, registration requirements, accounting procedures, strategic planning, fund raising, public relations, and assembling a board of directors. Ms. Hummel includes rudimentary work sheets on budgeting, shoring up mission objectives. and taking advantage of news-media opportunities." --The Chronicle of Philanthropy
"A valuable and unique resource." --Nonprofit Management News
Joan M. Hummel has served as both staff and board member for a number of nonprofit organizations, as well as working with foundations and other supporters of nonprofits.
The Center for Nonprofit Management is a department of the Graduate School of Business at the University of St. Thomas in Minneapolis and St. Paul. It provides training and guidance in all aspects of the nonprofit sector to existing organizations as well as individuals or groups who are seeking help in starting a nonprofit.
State of Giving is at once an authoritative overview of Oregon’s toughest challenges and a
much-needed manifesto for greater civic engagement. Chaillé and Anderson highlight the crucial
role that nonprofits play as pillars of Oregon’s civic structure through their engaging profiles of
the charismatic civic leaders, grassroots organizations, donors, and volunteers who are working
to combat some of Oregon’s most enduring problems, including:
• Education Inequity
• Environmental Conservation
• Social Inequity and Discrimination
• Hunger and Homelessness
• The Urban/Rural Divide
• Arts, Culture, and Heritage Funding
Traversing the state from a remote Great Basin field station to an intercultural center in north
Portland, State of Giving shows the many faces of public engagement in people like education
activist Ron Herndon, volunteer historians Gwen Carr and Willie Richardson, and Wallowa
County philanthropist and rancher Doug McDaniel. Their stories reveal that there are ways
in which we all—regardless of wealth, location, age, or background—can give back to our
In addition to introducing Oregon’s key areas of need and demonstrating diverse pathways
into civic engagement, the book provides extensive resources for prospective volunteers and
donors. Rousing, accessible, and enlivened by photographs of its people and places, State of Giving
is an essential reference for anyone interested in building a better Oregon, starting today.
The philanthropic landscape is changing dramatically as a new generation of wealthy donors seeks to leave its mark on the public sphere. Peter Frumkin reveals in Strategic Giving why these donors could benefit from having a comprehensive plan to guide their giving. And with this thoughtful and timely book, he provides the much-needed framework to understand and develop this kind of philanthropic strategy.
After listening for years to scores of individual and institutional funders discuss the challenges of giving wisely, Frumkin argues here that contemporary philanthropy requires a thorough rethinking of its underlying logic. Philanthropy should be seen, he contends, as both a powerful way to meet public needs and a meaningful way to express private beliefs and commitments. He demonstrates that finding a way to simultaneously fulfill both of these functions is crucial to the survival of philanthropy and its potential to support pluralism in society. And he goes on to identify the five essential elements donors must consider when developing a philanthropic strategy—the vehicle through which giving will flow, the way impact will be achieved, the level of engagement and profile sought, the time frame for giving, and the underlying purpose of the gift. Frumkin’s point is that donors must understand strategic giving as the integration of these five critical dimensions to giving.
Essential reading for donors, researchers, and anyone involved with the world of philanthropy, Strategic Giving provides a new basis for understanding philanthropic effectiveness and a promising new way for philanthropy to achieve the legitimacy that has at times eluded it.
Civil society organizations, nonprofits, national and international nongovernmental organizations, and a variety of formal and informal associations have coalesced into a world political force. Though the components of this so-called third sector vary by country, their cumulative effects play an ever-greater role in global affairs. Looking at relief and welfare organizations, innovation organizations, social networks, and many other kinds of groups, Meghan Elizabeth Kallman and Terry Nichols Clark explore the functions, impacts, and composition of the nonprofit sector in six key countries. Chinese organizations, for example, follow the predominantly Asian model of government funding that links their mission to national political goals. Western groups, by contrast, often explicitly challenge government objectives, and even gain relevance and cache by doing so. In addition, Kallman and Clark examine groups in real-world contexts, providing a wealth of political-historical background, in-depth consideration of interactions with state institutions, region-by-region comparisons, and suggestions for how groups can borrow policy options across systems. Insightful and forward-seeing, The Third Sector provides a rare international view of organizations and agendas driving change in today's international affairs.
Trying to do good deeds does not guarantee that a nonprofit organization will succeed. The organization must do good deeds well. This textbook offers a blueprint for nonprofit success, adopting a strategic perspective that assumes vision, mission, strategy, and execution as the pillars upon which success is built.
While many experts on nonprofits argue that fundraising is the single key to success, William B. Werther Jr., and Evan M. Berman show that effective fundraising depends largely on how the nonprofit is positioned and how it performs. They address such issues as leadership and board development, strategic planning, staffing, fundraising, partnering, productivity improvement, and accountability.
Emphasizing the context of nonprofits and detailing improvements than can be made by managers at all levels, the book strikes a balance between policy discussion and practical usefulness. Written for use in graduate courses in nonprofit management, Third Sector Management will also be invaluable to directors, staff, volunteers, and board members of nonprofit organizations.
Uncharitable goes where no other book on the nonprofit sector has dared to tread. Where other texts suggest ways to optimize performance inside the existing paradigm, Uncharitable suggests that the paradigm itself is the problem and calls into question our fundamental canons about charity. Author Dan Pallotta argues that society’s nonprofit ethic acts as a strict regulatory mechanism on the natural economic law. It creates an economic apartheid that denies the nonprofit sector critical tools and permissions that the for-profit sector is allowed to use without restraint (e.g., no risk-reward incentives, no profit, counterproductive limits on compensation, and moral objections to the use of donated dollars for anything other than program expenditures). These double-standards place the nonprofit sector at extreme disadvantage to the for profit sector on every level. While the for profit sector is permitted to use all the tools of capitalism to advance the sale of consumer goods, the nonprofit sector is prohibited from using any of them to fight hunger or disease. Capitalism is blamed for creating the inequities in our society, but charity is prohibited from using the tools of capitalism to rectify them. Ironically, this is all done in the name of charity, but it is a charity whose principal benefit flows to the for-profit sector and one that denies the nonprofit sector the tools and incentives that have built virtually everything of value in society. The very ethic we have cherished as the hallmark of our compassion is in fact what undermines it. This irrational system, Pallotta explains, has its roots in 400-year-old Puritan ethics that banished self-interest from the realm of charity. The ideology is policed today by watchdog agencies and the use of “efficiency” measures, which Pallotta argues are flawed, unjust, and should be abandoned. By declaring our independence from these obsolete ideas, Pallotta theorizes, we can dramatically accelerate progress on the most urgent social issues of our time. Pallotta has written an important, provocative, timely, and accessible book—a manifesto about equal economic rights for charity. Its greatest contribution may be to awaken society to the fact that they were so unequal in the first place.
In Uncivil Youth, Soo Ah Kwon explores youth of color activism as linked to the making of democratic citizen-subjects. Focusing attention on the relations of power that inform the social and political practices of youth of color, Kwon examines how after-school and community-based programs are often mobilized to prevent potentially "at-risk" youth from turning to "juvenile delinquency" and crime. These sorts of strategic interventions seek to mold young people to become self-empowered and responsible citizens. Theorizing this mode of youth governance as "affirmative governmentality," Kwon investigates the political conditions that both enable youth of color to achieve meaningful change and limit their ability to do so given the entrenchment of nonprofits in the logic of a neoliberal state. She draws on several years of ethnographic research with an Oakland-based, panethnic youth organization that promotes grassroots activism among its second-generation Asian and Pacific Islander members (ages fourteen to eighteen). While analyzing the contradictions of the youth organizing movement, Kwon documents the genuine contributions to social change made by the young people with whom she worked in an era of increased youth criminalization and anti-immigrant legislation.
The book describes the “nation-building” strategy by which an increasing number of Native communities have set about reclaiming powers of self-determination, strengthening their cultures, and developing their economies. A piece of this movement has been the establishment of new models for tribally-driven and requested relations between universities and American Indian/Alaskan Native communities and organizations.
Building on the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development’s experience with more than 120 nation-building projects over two decades, Universities and Indian Country posits that the tenets of nation building can provide a strategy for expanding and diversifying universities’ perspectives of knowledge in a multicultural world, while also producing results that are requested by and useful to Native communities.
This groundbreaking volume extends the dialogue begun by the Harvard project, providing another venue for the sharing of knowledge and information. The projects presented address a wide range of topics, including the regulation of genetic research, human resource development, tribal fund-raising, development of tribal museums, and freedom of the press in Indian Country.
Universities and Indian Country’s focus on the concerns and questions of Native communities themselves, provides insight not only into how projects came together, but also into what significance they have to the tribal partners. This compilation is a valuable resource for any student, professional, or community member concerned with issues of nation building and self-determination.
This accessible study examines all the major elements of the nonprofit sector of the economy of the United States —health services, educational and research institutions, religious organizations, social services, arts and cultural organizations, and foundations—describing the institutions and their functions, and then exploring how their benefits are distributed across various economic classes. The book's findings indicate that while few institutions serve primarily the poor, there is no evidence of a gross distribution of benefits upward toward the more affluent. The analysis of this data makes for a book with profound implications for future social and tax policy.