Since World War I, the Natuurkundig Laboratorium has been a crucial center of industrial research for Philips, one of the world’s largest electronics companies. In this study, Marc J. de Vries demonstrates how the history of the laboratory can help us understand important changes in the production and uses of technology in the twentieth century.
Breaking their study into three periods, each characterized by different research goals and approaches, the authors augment this general history with detailed case studies. The result will be of value to anyone studying the history and philosophy of technology.
The Lab explains the idea of the “culture lab,” Edwards’ concept for experimental art and design centers like those he recently founded in Paris and at Harvard. He presents the lab as a new kind of educational art studio based on a contemporary science lab model, and he shows how students learn by translating ideas alongside experienced creators by exhibiting risky experimental processes in gallery settings.
Zvi Griliches, a world-renowned pioneer in the field of productivity growth, has compiled in a single volume his pathbreaking research on R&D and productivity. Griliches addresses the relationship between research and development (R&D) and productivity, one of the most complex yet vital issues in today's business world. Using econometric techniques, he establishes this connection and measures its magnitude for firm-, industry-, and economy-level data.
Griliches began his studies of productivity growth during the 1950s, adding a variable of "knowledge stock" to traditional production function models, and his work has served as the point of departure for much of the research into R&D and productivity. This collection of essays documents both Griliches's distinguished career as well as the history of this line of thought.
As inputs into production increasingly taking the form of "intellectual capital" and new technologies that are not as easily measured as traditional labor and capital, the methods Griliches has refined and applied to R&D become crucial to understanding today's economy.