Research on human intelligence has postulated that studying the structure and use of stories can provide important insight into the roots of self and the nature of thinking. In that spirit, this volume focuses on narrative as a crossroads where cognitive and social psychology, linguistics, literary theory, and the recent hybrid called "cognitive narratology" intersect, suggesting new directions for the cognitive sciences. The ideas contained here demonstrate the importance of narrative as a cognitive style, a genre of discourse, and a resource for literary writing and other forms of communication.
This book offers a unique synthesis of past and current work on the structure, meaning, and use of negation and negative expressions, a topic that has engaged thinkers from Aristotle and the Buddha to Freud and Chomsky. Horn's masterful study melds a review of scholarship in philosophy, psychology, and linguistics with original research, providing a full picture of negation in natural language and thought; this new edition adds a comprehensive preface and bibliography, surveying research since the book's original publication.
Elegant analyses by linguists have been a point of pride since the time of the Neogrammarians. But ever since Chomsky's pioneering work on the goals of linguistic theory, this descriptive emphasis has shifted to focus on explanation. What, the contributors to this volume ask, renders a linguistic account explanatorily adequate? What are the empirical and theoretical trade-offs that come into play when linguists aim for explanation? Renowned scholars weigh in here, offering insightful answers to these questions.
The Master Argument, recorded by Epictetus, indicates that Diodorus had deduced a contradiction from the conjoint assertion of three propositions. The Argument, which has to do with necessity and contingency and therefore with freedom, has attracted the attention of logicians above all. There have been many attempts at reconstructing it in logical terms, without excessive worry about historical plausibility and with the foregone conclusion that it was sophistic since it directly imperilled our common sense notion of freedom. This text takes exception to recent tradition, translating the propositions into logical terms. The propositions figuring in The Master Argument are interpreted in terms of temporal modal logic where both the modalities and the statements they govern have chronological indices. This means that the force of the argument comes not from purely logical or modal considerations, but from our experience of time.
Case is one of the central concepts in modern generative syntax, doing the work of linking arguments to predicates, moving nominal expressions, and in some languages connecting the referential properties of nominal expressions. Different languages, however, make use of overt case distinctions to very different degrees, leaving the principles of case with many open questions. This volume offers analyses of case phenomena in a broad range of languages and frameworks, including some novel approaches to case that will invite much discussion.
New Studies in Weak Arithmetics
Edited by Patrick Cégielski, Charalampos Cornaros, and Costas Dimitracopoulos CSLI, 2013 Library of Congress QA241.N465 2013 | Dewey Decimal 512.7
The field of weak arithmetics is an application of logical methods to number theory that was developed by mathematicians, philosophers, and theoretical computer scientists. New Studies in Weak Arithmetics is dedicated to late Australian mathematician Alan Robert Woods (1953-2011), whose seminal thesis is published here for the first time. This volume also contains the unpublished but significant thesis of Hamid Lesan (1951-2006) as well as other original papers on topics addressed in Woods’s thesis and life’s work that were first presented at the 31st Journées sur les Arithmétiques Faibles meeting held in Samos, Greece, in 2012.
The study of nominals—lingustic expressions whose core constituent is characteristically a noun—is of great interest to both theoretical and computational linguistics. Their internal structure, meaning, and use address intriguing issues of semantics and pragmatics that are intrinsically related to syntactic matters. Dimitra Kolliakou provides a detailed description and formal analysis of a wide range of intricate linguistic phenomena concerning nominal constructions in Modern Greek, while exploring the implications of those phenomena for the architecture of grammar both at a theoretical and computational level. In particular, this book supports the integration of semantic and contextual information in the grammar, formalizing it within the multi-dimensional framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.
Nominals: Inside and Out
Edited by Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King CSLI, 2003 Library of Congress P271.N66 2003 | Dewey Decimal 415
Since the early 1970s, the proper treatment and nominals and nominalization has been fundamental to syntactic theory. And yet a satisfactory approach continues to prove elusive. Working within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar, this book discusses the precise reasons why pronouns show particular distributions, why nominalized verbs inherit the predicational power of the verbs they're derived from, and what kind of syntactic category derived nominals should be assigned. Recent developments in LFG make it possible to examine discourse clitics and case markers as well, meaning this collection can address both "classic" nominal issues and novel new perspectives.
Nonmonotonic reasoning is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence trying to find more realistic formal models of reasoning than classical logic. In common sense reasoning one often draws conclusions that have to be withdrawn when further information is obtained. The set of conclusions thus does not grow monotonically with the given information. It is this phenomenon that nonmonotonic reasoning methods try to formalize. This volume gives an overview on recent results in the field and points to relevant literature for further study.
This up-to-date survey of research in the area of nonmonotonic reasoning includes a concise description of the most influential nonmonotonic logics (e.g. circumscription, autoepistemic logic and default logic), a presentation of recent research in abduction, as well as an overview of semantics for logic programs with default negation. The primary goal of this volume is to make recent results in the field more accessible. An extensive bibliography is included.
Non-well-founded structures arise in a variety of ways in the semantics of both natural and formal languages. Two examples are non-well-founded situations and non-terminating computational processes. A natural modelling of such structures in set theory requires the use of non-well-founded sets. This text presents the mathematical background to the anti-foundation axiom and related axioms that imply the existence of non-well-founded sets when used in place of the axiom of foundation in axiomatic set theory.