Tarski’s World is an innovative and exciting method of introducing students to the language of first-order logic. Using the courseware package, students quickly master the meanings of connectives and qualifiers and soon become fluent in the symbolic language at the core of modern logic. The program allows students to build three-dimensional worlds and then describe them in first-order logic. The program, compatible with Macintosh and PC formats, also contains a unique and effective corrective tool in the form of a game, which methodically leads students back through their errors if they wrongly evaluate the sentences in the constructed worlds.
A brand new feature in this revised and expanded edition is student access to Grade Grinder, an innovative Internet-based grading service that provides accurate and timely feedback to students whenever they need it. Students can submit solutions for the program’s more than 100 exercises to the Grade Grinder for assessment, and the results are returned quickly to the students and optionally to the teacher as well. A web-based interface also allows instructors to manage assignments and grades for their classes.
Intended as a supplement to a standard logic text, Tarski’s World is an essential tool for helping students learn the language of logic.
This volume brings together papers from linguists, logicians, and computer scientists from thirteen countries (Armenia, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, UK, and USA). This collection aims to serve as a catalyst for new interdisciplinary developments in language, logic and computation and to introduce new ideas from the expanded European academic community. Spanning a wide range of disciplines, the papers cover such topics as formal semantics of natural language, dynamic semantics, channel theory, formal syntax of natural language, formal language theory, corpus-based methods in computational linguistics, computational semantics, syntactic and semantic aspects of l-calculus, non-classical logics, and a fundamental problem in predicate logic.
The study of Bantu languages of sub-Saharan Africa has provided the basis for significant contributions to research in linguistics. In recent years they have been used to advance morphological as well as syntactic theory, and in the study of interface relations in grammatical theory. The papers assembled in this volume, contributed by leading scholars in Bantu and general linguistics, deal with various aspects of the structure of Bantu languages.
This book brings together a collection of papers focusing on the tonal systems of the Bantu languages of sub-Saharan Africa. These papers are alike in their attempt to fuse the description of Bantu tone with linguistic theory, but at the same time reflect a range of such theoretical perspectives (autosegmental phonology, lexical phonology, Optimality Theory, Optimal Domains Theory). Much new descriptive material is to be found in this collection, as well as attempts to bring Bantu tonology to bear on critical issues of phonological theory. This collection of papers stands as a testimony to the benefits to be gained from the marriage of theory and description.
This book provides new theoretical insights and analyses of the complexities known to characterize Bantu tone systems. Three of the articles indicate not only how one can apply the concepts of rapidly developing Optimality Theory, but also how the latter can be shaped by the unique features found in these languages. While two of the contributions use standard OT, the third by Cassimjee and Kisseberth provides a detailed introduction of Optimal Domains Theory (ODT) and its application to a number of Bantu tone systems. These and other articles provide new insights into the treatment of long-distance tonal effects, tonal domains, depressor consonants, and other issues known through the autosegmental and metrical literature on tone. The collection features contributors from both sides of the Atlantic and contributions that have both synchronic and diachronic significance for the field.
In Theory and Evidence in Semantics, editors Erhard W. Hinrichs and John Nerbonne present a series of state-of-the-art papers that investigate the interface of natural language semantics with other modules of grammar—such as morphology, syntax, and pragmatics—and pursue applications of semantic theory in computational linguistics. Written by some of the leading scholars in the field, and strongly influenced by the seminal work of David R. Dowty in model-theoretical semantics, the papers provide novel accounts of highly complex sets of semantic phenomena, including anaphora, coordination, ellipsis, interrogatives, and negative and collective predicates, as well as tense and aspect.
Our knowledge about the world is often expressed by generic sentences, yet their meanings are far from clear. This book provides answers to central problems concerning generics: what do they mean? Which factors affect their interpretation? How can one reason with generics? Cohen proposes that the meanings of generics are probability judgments, and shows how this view accounts for many of their puzzling properties, including lawlikeness. Generics are evaluated with respect to alternatives. Cohen argues that alternatives are induced by the kind as well as by the predicated property, and thus provides a uniform account of the varied interpretations of generics. He studies the formal properties of alternatives and provides a compositional account of their derivation by focus and presupposition. Cohen uses his semantics of generics to provide a formal characterization of adequate default reasoning, and proves some desirable results of this formalism.
Time Warps, String Edits and Macromolecules is a young classic in computational science. The computational perspective is that of sequence processing, in particular the problem of recognizing related sequences. The book is the first, and still best compilation of papers explaining how to measure distance between sequences, and how to compute that measure effectively. This is called string distance, Levenshtein distance, or edit distance. The book contains lucid explanations of the basic techniques; well-annotated examples of applications; mathematical analysis of its computational (algorithmic) complexity; and extensive discussion of the variants needed for weighted measures, timed sequences (songs), applications to continuous data, comparison of multiple sequences and extensions to tree-structures. This theory finds applications in molecular biology, speech recognition, analysis of bird song and error correcting in computer software.
Lauri Karttunen has done groundbreaking work in theoretical and computational linguistics. The papers in this volume present new, state-of-the-art work building on his numerous contributions. The first part includes papers on formal semantics, the focus of Karttunen's early career to which he has returned in recent years. The second part provides a natural extension of his semantic work: the formal analysis of meaning and reasoning and the integration of the lexical and ontological components to enable reasoning by computational systems. The third part focuses on syntactic analyses, including the structure of non-finite clauses and sentence embedding predicates and factivity. The final part of the volume deals with finite state methods and grammars, reflecting Karttunen's extensive contributions to finite state theory and technology and its application to natural language.
Only recently discovered by linguistic scholars, Tondi Songway Kiini (TSK) is a tonal language spoken in the small country of Mali in western Africa. Unlike other Songhay languages, TSK preserves the lexical and grammatical tones of its proto-language and also exhibits unique systems for the expression of focalization and relativization. Tondi Songway Kiini is a valuable overview of the grammar of an African language with a tone system quite different from that of the more familiar Bantu system. It is also an irreplaceable guide to the grammar and meanings of this unusual African language.
Martin Kay CSLI, 2017 Library of Congress P306.K39 2017 | Dewey Decimal 418.02
Martin Kay’s Translation is concerned with the fundamental underpinnings of the titular subject. Kay argues that the primary responsibility of the translator is to the referents of words themselves. He shows how a pair of sentences that might have widely different meanings in isolation could have similar meanings in some contexts. Exploring such key subjects as how to recognize when a pair of texts might be translations of each other, Kay attempts to answer the essential question: What is translation anyway?
Past research conducted on natural language syntax has occasionally employed the well-known mathematical formalism Context-Free Grammar, defined by Noam Chomsky in 1957. But recent studies have indicated that this approach may not always be ideal in analyzing all types of natural languages. Researchers in theoretical linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive science, and in natural language processing have recently converged on a collective insight: formalizing the syntax of words is central to describing, understanding, and analyzing language. This insight has sparked considerable interest in Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG). Unlike traditional approaches for analyzing natural language syntax, TAG is a lexically-oriented mathematical formalism that can precisely capture the syntactic properties of natural languages such as English, French, and Korean. Tree Adjoining Grammars is the first ever collection of works that discusses the use of the TAG framework in natural language research. The volume begins with an introductory chapter that provides an overview of TAG and key research projects that have utilized the TAG framework in the past. Contributors discuss the formalism itself, its use in analyzing linguistic phenomena, and its use in building natural language processing systems. A glossary and extensive bibliography is included, allowing the volume to be accessible to a broad audience. The selection of works in this volume were presented at the Third International Workshop in Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms held in Paris in 1994.