This book provides a unified, practically-oriented treatment to many constrained control paradigms. Recently proposed control strategies are unified in a generalised framework to deal with different kinds of constraints. The book's solutions are based on reference conditioning ideas implemented by means of supervisory loops, and they are complementary to any other control technique used for the main control loop. Although design simplicity is a book priority, the use of well established sliding mode concepts for theoretical analysis make it also rigorous and self-contained.
The first part of the book focuses on providing a simple description of the method to deal with system constraints in SISO systems. It also illustrates the design and implementation of the developed techniques through several case studies. The second part is devoted to multivariable constrained control problems: improving system decoupling under different plant or controller constraints, and reducing the undesired effects caused by manual-automatic or controller switching. The key aim of this book is to reduce the gap between the available constrained control literature and industrial applications.
Applied Control Theory
J.R. Leigh The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1987 Library of Congress TJ213.L334 1987 | Dewey Decimal 629.8
'To the surprise of some undergraduates, processes do not carry labels marking their variables nor, alas, are they conveniently classified into linear, nonlinear, stochastic, etc., categories. The ability to come to terms with this situation is a prerequisite for anyone proposing to succeed in an industrial environment.' This quotation from Chapter 1 characterises the viewpoint of the book, which is concerned with the application of control theory to real problems in their industrial context.
The book is structured around the following beliefs:
(a) Economic aspects must be considered at an early stage of any project.
(b) Simple techniques and ready-made manufacturer's solutions should be applied wherever possible.
(c) More advanced techniques will be received enthusiastically in those applications where they can offer a genuine contribution.
(d) Control systems using distributed microprocessor power will have an impact that is difficult to exaggerate. Control engineers must become familiar with the concepts involved.
(e) Familiarity with a wide range of applications is indispensable in developing an efficient approach in the field of applied control theory.
This second edition includes new material and supporting references on:
programmable logic controllers
distributed computer control systems
The book should be accessible to a wide variety of engineers. Preferably they should have an elementary knowledge of automatic control theory.
The automotive industry appears close to substantial change engendered by “self-driving” technologies. This technology offers the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare—saving lives; reducing crashes, congestion, fuel consumption, and pollution; increasing mobility for the disabled; and ultimately improving land use. This report is intended as a guide for state and federal policymakers on the many issues that this technology raises.
Within the modern built environment, advanced engineering systems allow us to go about our daily lives in a relative degree of safety, comfort and security. Often, we do not give too much thought about what is happening behind the scenes.
Every engineering system needs an energy source and control input to provide the service it is designed for. Without some degree of management, those engineering systems may not perform quite as intended. It is often unreliable to depend solely on building occupiers to satisfactorily control these engineering systems purely by manual means, and hence make the best use of the engineering systems for the benefit of all.
The aim of this Code of Practice is to provide knowledge, understanding and good practice guidance on the design, evaluation, implementation and improvements on the use of automated controls used in mechanical and electrical engineering systems within the built environment.
The Code of Practice also aims to provide clear and concise information on building automation and control systems that can be developed and applied to several different installations. There is often no single solution and therefore building controls must be specifically tailored to meet specific user needs, local technical requirements and the constraints of budget and resources.
This book provides an introduction to many aspects of computer control. It covers techniques or control algorithm design and tuning of controllers; computer communications; parallel processing; and software design and implementation. The theoretical material is supported by case studies covering power systems control, robot manipulators, liquid natural as vaporisers, batch control of chemical processes; and active control of aircraft.
The book is suitable for practising engineers, postgraduate students and third year undergraduates specialising in control systems. It assumes some knowledge of control systems theory and computer hardware.
This book collects together in one volume a number of control engineering solutions, intended to be representative of solutions applicable to a broad class of control problems, and outlines possible alternative approaches to finding them. This is neither a control theory book nor a handbook of laboratory experiments, although it includes both the basic theory of control and practical laboratory set-ups to illustrate the solutions proposed.
A number of control problems are identified and discussed, from the initial phase of experimental construction of a model of the process to the final steps of hardware and software implementation, for several illustrative applications including a motor drive and a small scale robot. PID tuning and anti-wind-up, disturbance rejection, time delays and distributed systems, state feedback and observer design, multiloop interaction, fault detection and supervision, and fuzzy logic control are some of the control issues treated.
Written by a team of European experts, the book should interest a broad audience. Control engineering students will find potential applications for control theory and workable examples of practical control problems. Most of the laboratory set-ups will be easy to replicate by control engineering teaching staff, enabling practical activity to complement theoretical and exercise class sessions. Applied control engineers will find guidelines to approach the solution of their own control problems, including discussion of alternative methods and results to be expected. The publication of this book represents the final outcome of a European TEMPUS project to improve educational practice in automation and control technology.
This book introduces researchers and advanced students with a basic control systems background to an array of control techniques which they can easily implement and use to meet the required performance specifications for their mechatronic applications. It is the result of close to two decades of work of the authors on modeling, simulating and controlling different mechatronic systems from the motion control, automotive control and micro and nano-mechanical systems control areas. The methods presented in the book have all been tested by the authors and a very large group of researchers, who have produced practically implementable controllers with highly successful results.
The approach that is recommended in this book is to first start with a conventional control method which may then be cascaded with a feedforward controller if the input is known or can be measured with a preview; to add a disturbance observer if unknown disturbances are to be rejected and if regulation of the uncertain plant about a nominal model is desired; and to add a repetitive controller to take care of any periodic inputs of fixed and known period. Case studies ranging from road vehicle yaw stability control and automated path following, to decoupling control of piezotube actuators in an atomic force microscope are presented. Parameter space based methods are used in the book for achieving robust controllers.
Control of Mechatronic Systems is essential reading for researchers and advanced students who want to be exposed to control methods that have been field tested in a wide variety of mechatronic applications, and for practicing engineers who design and implement feedback control systems.
J.R. Leigh The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2004 Library of Congress TJ213.L335 2004 | Dewey Decimal 629.8312
Concise highly readable book emphasising the concepts and principles that are prerequisite for understanding both traditional and recent control theory.
The text is enlivened by a large number of interesting interludes that complement the main text.
This second edition of Control Theory: A Guided Tour (IEE 1992) has been fully revised and enlarged and now contains an introduction to H infinity methods as well as a new chapter on Artificial Intellingence (AI) methods and a retrospective review of how control theory developed. All the topics covered can be taken further using the extensive annotated reference section.
Using clear tutorial examples, this fully updated new edition concentrates on explaining and illustrating the concepts that are at the heart of control theory.
It seeks to develop a robust understanding of the underlying principles around which the control subject is built. This simple framework is studded with references to more detailed treatments and also has interludes that are intended to inform and entertain.
The book is intended as a companion on the journey through control theory and although the early chapters concentrate on fundamental ideas such as feedback and stability, later chapters deal with more advanced topics such as state variables, optimisation, estimation, Kalman filtering and robust control.
This comprehensive book covers the state-of-the-art in control-oriented modelling and identification techniques. With contributions from leading researchers in the subject, Control-oriented Modelling and Identification: Theory and practice covers the main methods and tools available to develop advanced mathematical models suitable for control system design, including: object-oriented modelling and simulation; projection-based model reduction techniques; integrated modelling and parameter estimation; identification for robust control of complex systems; subspace-based multi-step predictors for predictive control; closed-loop subspace predictive control; structured nonlinear system identification; and linear fractional LPV model identification from local experiments using an H1-based glocal approach.
This book also takes a practical look at a variety of applications of advanced modelling and identification techniques covering spacecraft dynamics, vibration control, rotorcrafts, models of anaerobic digestion, a brake-by-wire racing motorcycle actuator, and robotic arms.
This book presents developments in analysis and design techniques for control systems. Included are exciting results for feedback systems using complex variable methods, the important concept of robustness in controller design and the increasingly important topic of decentralized control for large scale systems. These and many other contributions illustrate the great activity and rapid progress which has taken place in the subject over the past few years. Only by bringing these contributions together under one cover can the practising engineer in industry and indeed the engineer in university or polytechnic keep fully informed on the 'state of the art' on a number of different fronts. Application of the theoretical developments and practical aspects of the subject are not forgotten; analysis and design of a nuclear boiler and some direct digital control system design procedures are but two topics discussed in the present book. Several of the chapters are followed by problems on the subject matter and worked solutions to most of these problems are given at the end of the book. This aspect will find favour with many readers since such contributions are often a great help in the understanding of the subject matter.
One of the main fields of study in the control of dynamical systems has been the effective control of time-varying systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbances. In contrast to stochastic adaptive controllers with identification algorithms, the deterministic control of uncertain time-varying systems has a fixed nonlinear feedback controller, which operates effectively over a specified magnitude range of a class of system variations. If the variations satisfy certain matching conditions, complete insensitivity to system uncertainties can be achieved. The two main approaches are Variables Structure and Lyapunov control. The contents of this book reflect the research output of many authors. The chapters include material of an introductory nature as well as some of the latest research results. Attention has also been focussed upon some of the main areas of application, which include electric motor drives, robotics and flight control systems. The book should prove useful to control designers, theoreticians and graduate students.
In recent years technological advancements in the design and fabrication of integrated circuits have led to the development of cost effective, low power, thumb-size devices that can be used for sensing/actuating, communication and computing. This trend is enabling a surge of new applications for which pervasive network architectures are being developed. A key feature of these systems is that they are decentralized and communication among different subsystems may be unreliable. From an engineering viewpoint, to ensure correct operation, the theoretical analysis requires a fundamental paradigm shift, as many of the typical assumptions of systems and control theory cease to hold.
Distributed Control and Filtering for Industrial Systems provides an introduction to the control and filtering algorithms devised for distributed environments, with a particular emphasis on industrial applications. Topics covered include control architectures for interconnected systems, recent developments in distributed model predictive control for interconnected networked systems, methods for designing distributed linear quadratic controllers for various classes of systems, designing distributed dynamic output-feedback controllers, characterization of distributed consensus control methods, distributed estimation techniques, distributed Kalman filtering methods, experimental setups and simulation of pilot-scale industrial processes.
How safe should highly automated vehicles (HAVs) be before they are allowed on the roads for consumer use? In this report, RAND researchers use the RAND Model of Automated Vehicle Safety to compare road fatalities over time under a policy that allows HAVs to be deployed when their safety performance is just moderately better than human drivers and a policy that waits to deploy HAVs only once their performance is nearly perfect.
Industrial automation is driving the development of robot manipulators in various applications, with much of the research effort focussed on flexible manipulators and their advantages compared to their rigid counterparts. This book reports recent advances and new developments in the analysis and control of these robot manipulators.
After a general overview of flexible manipulators the book introduces a range of modelling and simulation techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, neuro-modelling approaches, and numerical techniques for dynamic characterisation using finite difference and finite element techniques. Control techniques are then discussed, including a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern control methods including neuro and iterative control, and a range of soft-computing control techniques based on fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary and bio-inspired optimisation paradigms. Finally the book presents SCEFMAS, a software environment for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
Flexible Robot Manipulators is essential reading for advanced students of robotics, mechatronics and control engineering and will serve as a source of reference for research in areas of modelling, simulation and control of dynamic flexible structures in general and, specifically, of flexible robotic manipulators.
The ever increasing utilisation of robotic manipulators for various applications in recent years has been motivated by the requirements and demands of industrial automation. Among these, attention is focused more towards flexible manipulators, due to various advantages they offer compared to their rigid counterparts. Flexural dynamics have constituted the main research challenge in modelling and control of such systems; research activities have accordingly concentrated on the development of methodologies to cope with this.
The book reports recent and new developments in modelling, simulation and control of flexible robot manipulators. The material is presented in four distinct components: (i) a range of modelling approaches including classical techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, and neuro-modelling approaches; (ii) numerical modelling/ simulation techniques for dynamic characterisation of flexible manipulators using the finite difference, finite element, symbolic manipulation and customised software techniques; (iii) a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern intelligent control methods including soft-computing and smart structures for flexible manipulators; and (iv) software environments for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
The book can serve as a teaching resource as well as a reference text for research.
Handbook of Vehicle Suspension Control Systems surveys the state-of-the-art in advanced suspension control theory and applications. Topics covered include an overview of intelligent vehicle suspension control systems; intelligence-based vehicle active suspension adaptive control systems; robust active control of an integrated suspension system; an interval type-II fuzzy controller for vehicle active suspension systems; active control for actuator uncertain half-car suspension systems; active suspension control with finite frequency approach; fault-tolerant control for uncertain vehicle suspension systems via fuzzy control approach; h-infinity fuzzy control of suspension systems with actuator saturation; design of sliding mode controllers for semi-active suspension systems with magnetorheological dampers; joint design of controller and parameters for active vehicle suspension; an LMI approach to vibration control of vehicle engine-body systems with time delay; and frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear vehicle suspension systems.
With contributions from an international selection of researchers, Handbook of Vehicle Suspension Control Systems will find a place on the bookshelves of academic researchers and industrial practitioners in control engineering, particularly those working on applications for the automotive industry.
Fractional control techniques provide an effective way to control dynamic behaviours, using fractional differential equations. This can include the control of fractional plants, the control of a plant using a fractional controller, or the control of a plant so that the controlled system will have a fractional behaviour to achieve a performance that would otherwise be hard to come by.
An Introduction to Fractional Control outlines the theory, techniques and applications of fractional control. After an initial introduction to fractional calculus, the book explores many fractional control systems including fractional lead control, fractional lag control, first, second and third generation Crone control, fractional PID, PI and PD control, fractional sliding mode control, logarithmic phase Crone control, fractional reset control, fractional H2 and Hinfinity control, fractional predictive control, and fractional time-varying control.
Each chapter contains solved examples and references for further reading. Common definitions and proofs are included, along with a discussion of how MATLAB can be used to assist in the design and implementation of fractional control.
This book is an essential guide for researchers and advanced students of control engineering in academia and industry.
Expert and knowledge-based systems have great potential for industrial control systems, particularly in the process industries. Recognising the importance of this emerging area, the Institution of Electrical Engineers organised a Vacation School on the subject, for engineers from industry and academia, at the University of Strathclyde in September 1990.
The course and this resulting text cover four main issues: the background of knowledge-based control, artificial intelligence, applications of knowledge expertise, and deductive control.
The background material presents knowledge based control from the perspective of Systems Engineering and Information Technology. When combined with an introduction to both artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic, a firm foundation is laid for consolidation of the later material of the book.
The importance of fuzzy control is considered and the use of expert systems in self-tuning control is discussed. The use of real-time knowledged based systems in Fermentation supervisory control is described and the impact of neural networks in process modelling is also considered. The development of COGSYS which is an environment for building expert systems and its applications is described, together with its application to a gas processing plant.
Case studies in condition monitoring are presented. The development of qualitative models for physical systems which is currently attracting considerable interest from the Al community is considered. The design of multivariable control systems and other aspects of process control are also covered.
Neural networks are an exciting technology of growing importance in real industrial situations, particularly in control and systems. This book aims to give a detailed appreciation of the use of neural nets in these applications; it is aimed particularly at those with a control or systems background who wish to gain an insight into the technology in the context of real applications.
The book introduces a wide variety of network types, including Kohenen nets, n-tuple nets and radial basis function networks, as well as the more usual multi-layer perception back-propagation networks. It begins by describing the basic principles and some essential design features, then goes on to examine in depth several application studies illustrating a range of advanced approaches to the topic.
This book aims to demonstrate the power and breadth of polynomial methods in control and filtering. Direct polynomial methods have previously received little attention compared with the alternative Wiener-Hopf transfer-function method and the statespace methods which rely on Riccati equations.
The book provides a broad coverage of the polynomial equation approach in a range of linear control and filtering problems. The principal feature of the approach is the description of systems in fractional form using transfer functions. This representation leads quite naturally and directly to the parameterisation of all 'acceptable' feedback controllers for a given problem in the form of a Diophantine equation over polynomials. In the polynomial equation approach, this direct parameterisation is explicitly carried through to the synthesis of controllers and filters and, further, to the computer implementation of numerical algorithms.
The book is likely to be of interest to students, researchers and engineers with some control and systems theory or signal processing background. It could be used as the basis of a graduate-level course in optimal control and filtering. The book proceeds from the necessary background material presented at a tutorial level, through recent theoretical and practical developments, to a detailed presentation of numerical algorithms.
In the years since the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity first began transmitting images from the surface of Mars, we have become familiar with the harsh, rocky, rusty-red Martian landscape. But those images are much less straightforward than they may seem to a layperson: each one is the result of a complicated set of decisions and processes involving the large team behind the Rovers.
With Seeing Like a Rover, Janet Vertesi takes us behind the scenes to reveal the work that goes into creating our knowledge of Mars. Every photograph that the Rovers take, she shows, must be processed, manipulated, and interpreted—and all that comes after team members negotiate with each other about what they should even be taking photographs of in the first place. Vertesi’s account of the inspiringly successful Rover project reveals science in action, a world where digital processing uncovers scientific truths, where images are used to craft consensus, and where team members develop an uncanny intimacy with the sensory apparatus of a robot that is millions of miles away. Ultimately, Vertesi shows, every image taken by the Mars Rovers is not merely a picture of Mars—it’s a portrait of the whole Rover team, as well.
Many realistic engineering systems are large in dimension and stiff for computation. Their analysis and control require extensive numerical algorithms. The methodology of singular perturbations and time scales (SPTS), crowned with the remedial features of order reduction and stiffness relief is a powerful technique to achieve computational simplicity.
This book presents the twin topics of singular perturbation methods and time scale analysis to problems in systems and control. The heart of the book is the singularly perturbed optimal control systems, which are notorious for demanding excessive computational costs.
The book addresses both continuous control systems (described by differential equations) and discrete control systems (characterised by difference equations). Another feature is the extensive bibliography, which will hopefully be of great help for future study and research. Also of particular interest is the categorisation of an impressive record of applications of the methodology of SPTS in a wide spectrum of fields, such as circuits and networks, fluid mechanics and flight mechanics, biology and ecology, and robotics.
This book is aimed at graduate students, applied mathematicians, scientists and engineers working in universities and industry.
Stepping motor technology is well established and used for motion control, most notably for computer peripherals but also wherever digital control is employed. This book provides an introductory text which will enable the reader to both appreciate the essential characteristics of stepping motor systems and understand how these characteristics are being exploited in the continuing development of new motors, drives and controllers. A basic theoretical approach relating to the more significant aspects of performance is presented, although it is assumed throughout that the reader has no previous experience of electrical machines and is primarily interested in the applications of stepping motors. Paul Acarnley's outstanding reference book is widely known and used, and this, the 4th edition, has been significantly updated to include many new applications that have emerged since the previous edition was published. Coverage includes: drive circuits, accurate load positioning, static torque characteristics, multi-step operation, torque/ speed characteristics, high-speed operation, open-loop control, closed-loop control and microprocessor-based stepping motor systems.
Symbolic computing has made a significant impact in the field of control engineering. This book, which brings together contributions from leading international experts in the field, provides an up-to-date treatment of various issues in system modelling, analysis, design and synthesis methods.
the application of multidimensional Laplace transforms to the modelling of nonlinear elements
a survey of customised computer algebra modelling programs for multibody dynamical systems
central results for the analysis and robust control of single-input single-output linear systems using a new linear programming approach
differential and real algebra for dealing with systems of polynomial equations and inequalities for nonlinear systems, and the computational aspects of algebraic and geometric invariants for both certain and uncertain systems
the dynamic sliding mode approach to the robust control of both linear and nonlinear systems, and robust pole assignment for parametric uncertain linear systems
the development and testing of a new branch-and-bound algorithm for global optimisation, using symbolic algebra techniques
an overview and assessment of the use of symbolic computation programs in the analysis and design of control systems.
The book will be of interest to postgraduate students and researchers in control engineering.