For most of the twentieth century, maps were indispensable. They were how governments understood, managed, and defended their territory, and during the two world wars they were produced by the hundreds of millions. Cartographers and journalists predicted the dawning of a “map-minded age,” where increasingly state-of-the-art maps would become everyday tools. By the century’s end, however, there had been decisive shift in mapping practices, as the dominant methods of land surveying and print publication were increasingly displaced by electronic navigation systems.
In After the Map, William Rankin argues that although this shift did not render traditional maps obsolete, it did radically change our experience of geographic knowledge, from the God’s-eye view of the map to the embedded subjectivity of GPS. Likewise, older concerns with geographic truth and objectivity have been upstaged by a new emphasis on simplicity, reliability, and convenience. After the Map shows how this change in geographic perspective is ultimately a transformation of the nature of territory, both social and political.
As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction.
In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an international panel of experts explore the implications of ageing on biometric technologies, and how such factors can be managed in practical situations. Topics include understanding the impact of ageing on biometric measurements; age factors as barriers/opportunities in relation to performance; modality-related approaches to management of age factors; implications for practical application; and future trends and research challenges.
Age Factors in Biometric Processing provides an outstanding overview of this topic for the rapidly expanding community of stakeholders in biometrics based identification solutions in academia, industry and government.
Automating technologies threaten to usher in a workless future, but John Danaher argues that this can be a good thing. A world without work may be a kind of utopia, free of the misery of the job and full of opportunities for creativity and exploration. If we play our cards right, automation could be the path to idealized forms of human flourishing.
Distribution systems analysis employs a set of techniques that allow engineers to simulate, analyse, and optimise power distribution systems. Combined with automation, these techniques underpin the emerging concept of the 'smart grid', a digitally-enabled electrical supply grid that can monitor and respond to the behaviour of all its components in real time.
Distribution System Analysis and Automation provides a comprehensive guide to these techniques, with coverage including smart grid for distribution systems; introduction to distribution automation; network and radial load flow analysis; determination of the optimal topology for power electric systems; voltage VAR control and capacitor application; power quality and harmonics in distribution systems; harmonic filter design; distributionsystem restoration; short circuit analysis; arc flash concepts; numerical relaying and feeder protection; communication and control centres; and distributed energy resources. The book combines theoretical concepts with real-world applications, and includes MATLAB exercises.
Distribution systems analysis employs a set of techniques to simulate, analyse, and optimise power distribution systems. Combined with automation, these techniques underpin the concept of the smart grid. In recent years, distribution systems have been facing growing challenges, due to increasing demand as well as the rising shares of distributed and volatile renewable energy sources.
For this new edition, the chapters of the first edition have been revised and updated, and the topics of distribution system analysis and distribution automation combined. Coverage includes smart grid, load flow analysis, determination of optimal topology, voltage control and capacitor application, power quality and harmonics in distribution systems, distribution system restoration, numerical relaying and distribution feeder protection, distributed generation and microgrid technology.
New material related to renewable energy and microgrids are included, and maturity models and evaluation of smart grid projects are presented, along with material on the transition to the new distribution system technologies.
This book covers the development of electric cars from their early days to pure electric, fuel-cell and new hybrid models in production. It covers the latest technological issues faced by automotive engineers working on electric cars, including charging, infrastructure, safety and costs, as well as making predictions about future developments and vehicle numbers. Considerable work has gone into electric car and battery development in the last ten years, with the prospect of substantial improvements in range and performance in battery cars as well as in hybrids and those using fuel cells. The book comprehensively covers this important subject and will be of particular interest to engineers working on electric vehicle design, development and use, as well as managers interested in the key business factors vital for the successful transfer of electric cars into the mass market.
Fractional control techniques provide an effective way to control dynamic behaviours, using fractional differential equations. This can include the control of fractional plants, the control of a plant using a fractional controller, or the control of a plant so that the controlled system will have a fractional behaviour to achieve a performance that would otherwise be hard to come by.
An Introduction to Fractional Control outlines the theory, techniques and applications of fractional control. After an initial introduction to fractional calculus, the book explores many fractional control systems including fractional lead control, fractional lag control, first, second and third generation Crone control, fractional PID, PI and PD control, fractional sliding mode control, logarithmic phase Crone control, fractional reset control, fractional H2 and Hinfinity control, fractional predictive control, and fractional time-varying control.
Each chapter contains solved examples and references for further reading. Common definitions and proofs are included, along with a discussion of how MATLAB can be used to assist in the design and implementation of fractional control.
This book is an essential guide for researchers and advanced students of control engineering in academia and industry.
Computerized processes are everywhere in our society. They are the automated phone messaging systems that businesses use to screen calls; the link between student standardized test scores and public schools’ access to resources; the algorithms that regulate patient diagnoses and reimbursements to doctors. The storage, sorting, and analysis of massive amounts of information have enabled the automation of decision-making at an unprecedented level. Meanwhile, computers have offered a model of cognition that increasingly shapes our approach to the world. The proliferation of “roboprocesses” is the result, as editors Catherine Besteman and Hugh Gusterson observe in this rich and wide-ranging volume, which features contributions from a distinguished cast of scholars in anthropology, communications, international studies, and political science.
Although automatic processes are designed to be engines of rational systems, the stories in Life by Algorithms reveal how they can in fact produce absurd, inflexible, or even dangerous outcomes. Joining the call for “algorithmic transparency,” the contributors bring exceptional sensitivity to everyday sociality into their critique to better understand how the perils of modern technology affect finance, medicine, education, housing, the workplace, food production, public space, and emotions—not as separate problems but as linked manifestations of a deeper defect in the fundamental ordering of our society.
Catherine Besteman, Alex Blanchette, Robert W. Gehl, Hugh Gusterson, Catherine Lutz, Ann Lutz Fernandez, Joseph Masco, Sally Engle Merry, Keesha M. Middlemass, Noelle Stout, Susan J. Terrio
Thomas Pringle University of Minnesota Press, 2019 Library of Congress T14.5.M314 2018 | Dewey Decimal 601
On the social consequences of machines
Automation, animation, and ecosystems are terms of central media-philosophical concern in today’s society of humans and machines. This volume describes the social consequences of machines as a mediating concept for the animation of life and automation of technology. Bernard Stiegler’s automatic society illustrates how digital media networks establish a new proletariat of knowledge workers. Gertrud Koch offers the animation of the technical to account for the pathological relations that arise between people and their devices. And Thomas Pringle synthesizes how automation and animation explain the history of intellectual exchanges that led to the hybrid concept of the ecosystem, a term that blends computer and natural science. All three contributions analyse how categories of life and technology become mixed in governmental policies, economic exploitation and pathologies of everyday life thereby both curiously and critically advancing the term that underlies those new developments: ‘machine.’
Robots and Automated Manufacture
J. Billingsley The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1985 Library of Congress TS191.8.R6367 1985 | Dewey Decimal 670.427
To serve its purpose, an industrial robot must be harnessed to a manufacturing task, be it welding, assembly, adjustment or the inspection of food products. Complex tasks are likely to require offline programming, both for economy of equipment use and to permit computer simulations for collision avoidance. Vision and other sensory systems are helping to extend the capabilities of robots, while advanced programming techniques are making their use more accessible to the shop floor.
The authors have addressed these and many other subjects in a volume which will be of value to industry and to robotic researchers alike.
In recent decades digital devices have reshaped daily life, while tech companies’ stock prices have thrust them to the forefront of the business world. In this rapid, global development, the promise of a new machine age has been accompanied by worries about accelerated joblessness thanks to new forms of automation. Jason E. Smith looks behind the techno-hype to lay out the realities of a period of economic slowdown and expanding debt: low growth rates and an increase of labor-intensive jobs at the bottom of the service sector. He shows how increasing inequality and poor working conditions have led to new forms of workers’ struggles. Ours is less an age of automation, Smith contends, than one in which stagnation is intertwined with class conflict.
In Surrogate Humanity Neda Atanasoski and Kalindi Vora trace the ways in which robots, artificial intelligence, and other technologies serve as surrogates for human workers within a labor system entrenched in racial capitalism and patriarchy. Analyzing myriad technologies, from sex robots and military drones to sharing-economy platforms, Atanasoski and Vora show how liberal structures of antiblackness, settler colonialism, and patriarchy are fundamental to human---machine interactions, as well as the very definition of the human. While these new technologies and engineering projects promise a revolutionary new future, they replicate and reinforce racialized and gendered ideas about devalued work, exploitation, dispossession, and capitalist accumulation. Yet, even as engineers design robots to be more perfect versions of the human—more rational killers, more efficient workers, and tireless companions—the potential exists to develop alternative modes of engineering and technological development in ways that refuse the racial and colonial logics that maintain social hierarchies and inequality.
Wiring The Writing Center
Eric Hobson Utah State University Press, 1998 Library of Congress PE1404.W56 1998 | Dewey Decimal 808.0420285
Published in 1998, Wiring the Writing Center was one of the first few books to address the theory and application of electronics in the college writing center. Many of the contributors explore particular features of their own "wired" centers, discussing theoretical foundations, pragmatic choices, and practical strengths. Others review a range of centers for the approaches they represent. A strong annotated bibliography of signal work in the area is also included.