Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems aim at improving the quality of life and supporting independent and healthy living of older or impaired people by using a distributed network of sensors and actuators to create a ubiquitous technological layer, able to interact transparently with the users, observing and interpreting their actions and intentions, learning their preferences and adjusting the parameters of the system to improve their quality of life and work. This book provides a comprehensive review of the technologies and applications for AAL.
Topics covered include the current state of the art of smart environments and labs from an AAL point of view; ambient and wearable sensors for human health monitoring; computer vision for active and assisted living; data fusion for identifying lifestyle patterns; interoperable enhanced living environments; reasoning systems for AAL; person-environment interaction; data analytics for enabling connected health; human gait analysis for frailty detection; fall prevention and detection; supporting activities of daily living; outdoor mobility assistance; location and orientation technologies based on WiFi systems; health, wellbeing and engagement in life through AAL; tablet-based clinical decision support system for hospitalised older adults; smart, age-friendly cities and communities; privacy and ethical issues; and human-centred design. The book concludes with a case study on the design and implementation of a smart home technological platform for the delivery of AAL services.
With a wide range of chapters from international contributors, this book is essential reading for researchers and students in academics and industry developing AAL technologies, healthcare practitioners, and engineers with an interest in the field.
Advances in telemedicine technologies have offered clinicians greater levels of real-time guidance and technical assistance for diagnoses, monitoring, operations or interventions from colleagues based in remote locations. The topic includes the use of videoconferencing, mentorship during surgical procedures, or machine-to-machine communication to process data from one location by programmes running in another.
This edited book presents a variety of technologies with applications in telemedicine, originating from the fields of biomedical sensors, wireless sensor networking, computer-aided diagnosis methods, signal and image processing and analysis, automation and control, virtual and augmented reality, multivariate analysis, and data acquisition devices. The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), surgical robots, telemonitoring, and teleoperation systems are also explored, as well as the associated security and privacy concerns in this field.
Topics covered include critical factors in the development, implementation and evaluation of telemedicine; surgical tele-mentoring; technologies in medical information processing; recent advances of signal/image processing techniques in healthcare; a real-time ECG processing platform for telemedicine applications; data mining in telemedicine; social work and tele-mental health services for rural and remote communities; applying telemedicine to social work practice and education; advanced telemedicine systems for remote healthcare monitoring; the impact of tone-mapping operators and viewing devices on visual quality of experience of colour and grey-scale HDR images; modelling the relationships between changes in EEG features and subjective quality of HDR images; IoMT and healthcare delivery in chronic diseases; and transform domain robust watermarking method using Riesz wavelet transform for medical data security and privacy.
Anonymity in donor conception hides the truth but anonymity in story-telling helps reveal it.
The Anonymous Us Project is a safety zone for real and honest opinions about reproductive technologies and family fragmentation. We aim to share the experiences of voluntary and involuntary participants in these technologies, while preserving the dignity and privacy for story tellers and their loved ones.
The Anonymous Us Project aims to fill out the conversation on reproductive technologies. The hope is that it will inspire more truth and transparency and help share healthier families and happier people.
Eugene C. Goldfield Harvard University Press, 2018 Library of Congress R856.G66 2018 | Dewey Decimal 610.28
Eugene Goldfield lays out principles of engineering found in the natural world, with a focus on how components of coordinated structures organize themselves into autonomous functional systems. This self-organizing capacity is one of many qualities which can be harnessed to design technologies that can interact seamlessly with human bodies.
Nanomaterials are able to penetrate nanoscale pores of tissues, possess prolonged circulation, enter cells, and have increased surface area per volume allowing for greater drug loading. For these reasons, nanomaterials are finding numerous uses in medicine including fighting cancer, promoting tissue regeneration, reversing aging, inhibiting infection, limiting inflammation or scar tissue growth, and many others.
This book describes the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare. Topics covered include biomimetic coating of calcium phosphates on Ti metals; surface modifications of orthopedic implant materials using an electroplating process; design, fabrication and application of carbon-based nano biomaterials; usage of stem cells in bone and cartilage tissue engineering; nanobiomaterials and 3D bioprinting for osteochondral regeneration; self- assembled peptide hydrogels for biomedical applications; antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials; nanoparticle enhanced radiation therapy for bacterial infection; nanomaterials used in implant technology and their toxicity; challenges of risk assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products and current regulatory status; and the clinical rationale for silicon nitride bioceramics in orthopedics.
With contributions from an international selection of researchers this book is essential reading for researchers in industry and academia working at the interfaces of healthcare, engineering and nanotechnology.
This edited book brings together research from laboratories across the world, in order to offer a global perspective on advances in prosthetic hand control. State-of-the-art control of prosthetics in the laboratory and clinical spaces are presented and the challenges discussed, and the effect of user training on control of prosthetics to evaluate the translational efficacy and value for the end-user is highlighted.
The book begins with a chapter introducing the fundamental principles, engineering challenges and control solutions for prosthetic hands. Further chapters address methods to design bespoke sockets, magnetomyography, implantable technologies for closed-loop control of prostheses, direct neural control of prostheses via nerve implants as well as user-prosthesis co-adaptation, and two chapters on prosthetics for children. The book concludes with a chapter by Dr Nazarpour on the future of myoelectric prosthetics control, with particular focus on the successful translation of research advances into real clinical gains.
The book is essential reading for anyone involved in research or undertaking advanced courses in prosthetic design and control. It provides an in-depth exploration of this rewarding topic, by exploring technologies with the potential to improve the quality of life of upper-limb prosthetic users.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method used to record the brain activity in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. It records the electrical activity of the brain, is typically non-invasive with electrodes placed along the scalp, requires relatively simple and inexpensive equipment, and is easier to use than other methods.
EEG-based BCI methods provide modest speed and accuracy which is why multichannel systems and proper signal processing methods are used for feature extraction, feature selection and feature classification to discriminate among several mental tasks. This edited book presents state of the art aspects of EEG signal processing methods, with an emphasis on advanced strategies, case studies, clinical practices and applications such as EEG for meditation, auditory selective attention, sleep apnoea; person authentication; handedness detection, Parkinson's disease, motor imagery, smart air travel support and brain signal classification.
No longer confined to medical devices, medical software has become a pervasive technology giving healthcare operators access to clinical information stored in electronic health records and clinical decision support systems, supporting robot-assisted telesurgery, and providing the technology behind ambient assisted living. These systems and software must be designed, built and maintained according to strict regulations and standards to ensure that they are safe, reliable and secure.
Engineering High Quality Medical Software illustrates how to exploit techniques, methodologies, development processes and existing standards to realize high-confidence medical software. After an introductory survey of the topic the book covers global regulations and standards (including EU MDD 93/42/EEC, FDA Title 21 of US CFR, ISO 13485, ISO 14971, IEC 52304, IEEE 1012 and ISO/IEC 29119), verification and validation techniques and techniques, and methodologies and engineering tasks for the development, configuration and maintenance of medical software.
Enhanced living environments employ information and communications technologies to support true ambient assisted living for adults and people with disabilities. This book provides an overview of today's architectures, techniques, protocols, components, and cloud-based solutions related to ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments. Topics covered include: an introduction to enhanced living environments; pervasive sensing for social connectedness; ethics in information and communication technologies; service scenarios in smart personal environments; technological support to stress level monitoring; big data systems to improve healthcare information searching over the Internet; sensors for wireless body area networks; linear wireless sensor networks and protocols in next generation networks; model-compilation challenges for cyber-physical systems; health monitoring using wireless body area networks; wearable health care; and intelligent systems for after-stroke home rehabilitation.
From manipulated results and fake data to retouched illustrations and plagiarism, cases of scientific fraud have skyrocketed in the past two decades. In a damning exposé, Nicolas Chevassus-au-Louis details the circumstances enabling the decline in scientific standards and highlights efforts to curtail future misconduct.
Interest in Information and Communication Technologies for human monitoring, smart health and assisted living is growing due to the significant impact that these technologies are expected to have on improving the quality of life of ageing populations around the world. This book brings together chapters written by a range of researchers working in these topics, providing an overview of the areas and covering current research, developments and applications for a readership of researchers and research-led engineering practitioners. It discusses the promises and the possible advantages of these technologies, and also indicates the challenges for the future.
Topics covered include: personal monitoring and health data acquisition in smart homes; contactless monitoring of respiratory activity; technology-based assistance of people with dementia; wearable sensors for gesture analysis; design and prototyping of home automation systems for the monitoring of elderly people; multi-sensor platform for circadian rhythm analysis; smart multi-sensor solutions for activity detection; human monitoring based on heterogeneous sensor networks; mobile health for vital signs and gait monitoring systems; and smartphone-based blood pressure monitoring for falls risk assessment.
Introduction to Biomechatronics
Graham M. Brooker The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012 Library of Congress R856.B77 2012 | Dewey Decimal 610.285
This is the age of biomechatronics, a time where mechanics and electronics can interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems to assist or replace limbs, senses, and even organs damaged by trauma, birth defects, or disease. Introduction to Biomechatronics provides biomedical engineering students and professionals with the fundamental mechatronic (mechanics, electronics, robotics) engineering knowledge they need to analyze and design devices that improve lives. The first half of the book provides the engineering background to understand all the components of a biomechatronic system: the human subject, stimulus or actuation, transducers and sensors, signal conditioning elements, recording and display, and feedback elements. It also includes the major functional systems of the body to which biomechatronics can be applied including: biochemical, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal. The second half discusses five broadly based inventions from a historical perspective and supported by the relevant technical detail and engineering analysis. It begins with the development of hearing prostheses including middle-ear implantable hearing devices and the amazingly successful cochlear implant. This is followed by sensory substitution and visual prostheses that researchers hope will do the same for the blind as the cochlear implant has done for the deaf. The last three chapters are more mechatronic in focus, examining artificial hearts, respiratory aids from the iron lung to the latest CPAP devices, and finally artificial limbs from the first hooks and peg legs to limbs that move and have a sense of touch.
Introduction to Biomechatronics provides readers with the engineering background to analyze and design biomechatronic devices, and inspires them to greater designs by discussing successful inventions that have done the most to improve our lives.
Thirty years ago, the most likely place to find a biologist was standing at a laboratory bench, peering down a microscope, surrounded by flasks of chemicals and petri dishes full of bacteria. Today, you are just as likely to find him or her in a room that looks more like an office, poring over lines of code on computer screens. The use of computers in biology has radically transformed who biologists are, what they do, and how they understand life. In Life Out of Sequence, Hallam Stevens looks inside this new landscape of digital scientific work.
Stevens chronicles the emergence of bioinformatics—the mode of working across and between biology, computing, mathematics, and statistics—from the 1960s to the present, seeking to understand how knowledge about life is made in and through virtual spaces. He shows how scientific data moves from living organisms into DNA sequencing machines, through software, and into databases, images, and scientific publications. What he reveals is a biology very different from the one of predigital days: a biology that includes not only biologists but also highly interdisciplinary teams of managers and workers; a biology that is more centered on DNA sequencing, but one that understands sequence in terms of dynamic cascades and highly interconnected networks. Life Out of Sequence thus offers the computational biology community welcome context for their own work while also giving the public a frontline perspective of what is going on in this rapidly changing field.
This book provides a snapshot of the state of current research at the interface between machine learning and healthcare with special emphasis on machine learning projects that are (or are close to) achieving improvement in patient outcomes. The book provides overviews on a range of technologies including detecting artefactual events in vital signs monitoring data; patient physiological monitoring; tracking infectious disease; predicting antibiotic resistance from genomic data; and managing chronic disease.
With contributions from an international panel of leading researchers, this book will find a place on the bookshelves of academic and industrial researchers and advanced students working in healthcare technologies, biomedical engineering, and machine learning.
This edited book explores the use of mobile technologies such as phones, drones, robots, apps, and wearable monitoring devices for improving access to healthcare for socially disadvantaged populations in remote, rural or developing regions. This book brings together examples of large scale, international projects from developing regions of China and Belt and Road countries from researchers in Australia, Bangladesh, Denmark, Norway, Japan, Spain, Thailand and China. The chapters discuss the challenges presented to those seeking to deploy emerging mobile technologies (e.g., smartphones, IoT, drones, robots etc.) for healthcare (mHealth) in developing countries and discuss the solutions undertaken in these case study projects.
This book brings together joint work in mHealth projects across multiple disciplines (software, healthcare, mobile communications, entrepreneurship and business and social development). Bringing together research from different institutions and disciplines, the editors illustrate the technical and entrepreneurial aspects of using mobile technologies for healthcare development in remote regions. Chapters are grouped into five key themes: the global challenge, portable health clinics, sustainable and resilient mHealth services, mHealth for the elderly, and mHealth for chronic illnesses.
The book will be of particular interest to engineers, entrepreneurs, NGOs and researchers working in healthcare in sustainable development settings.
Nanobiosensors have been successful for in vitro as well as in vivo detection of several biomolecules and it is expected that this technology will revolutionize point-of-care and personalized diagnostics, and will be extremely applicable for early disease detection and therapeutic applications. This book describes the emerging nanobiosensor technologies which are geared towards onsite clinical applications and those which can be used as a personalised diagnostic device. Biosensor technologies and materials covered include electrochemical biosensors; implantable microbiosensors; microfluidic technology; surface plasmon resonance-based technologies; optical and fibre-optic sensors; lateral flow biosensors; lab on a chip; nanomaterials based (graphene, nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and other carbon nanomaterial) sensors; metallic nanobiosensors; wearable and doppler-based non-contact vital signs biosensors; and technologies for smartphone based disease diagnosis. Clinical applications of these technologies covered in this book include detection of various protein biomarkers, small molecules, cancer and bacterial cells; detection of foodborne pathogens; generation and optimisation of antibodies for biosensor applications; microRNAs and their applications in diagnosis for osteoarthritis; detection of circulating tumor cells; online heartbeat monitoring; analysis of drugs in body fluids; sensing of nucleic acids; and monitoring oxidative stress.
Patient-Centered Digital Healthcare Technology explores the creative intersection of novel, emerging technologies and medicine. This convergence is transforming the landscape of healthcare with the single overarching objective of improving clinical outcomes and advocating wellness. The idea of encountering or treating a medical condition when it has already become disturbingly manifest is being replaced by earlier awareness, diagnosis, and proactive intervention by using technologies.
This book features a range of innovations in health information systems and big data, artificial intelligence and machine learning, real-time home monitoring tools, smartphone apps, medical robotics and intelligent machines, virtual and augmented realities, genome sequencing, blockchain applications and gamification in healthcare.
Intuitive digital health devices enable end-users to become active partners in their care, thus enhancing patient involvement and empowerment. This may perhaps lead to yet the most remunerative consequence of novel and emerging technologies: the democratization of healthcare.
The topics offer a valuable resource for medical providers, engineers, data and computer scientists, researchers, practitioners in academia, biomedical industry and clinical settings across a range of disciplines, including computing, networking, wireless and mobile communications, robotic sensing that collectively focus on healthcare access and delivery.
Portable Biosensors and Point-of-Care Systems describes the principles, design and applications of a new generation of analytical and diagnostic biomedical devices, characterized by their very small size, ease of use, multi-analytical capabilities and speed to provide handheld and mobile point-of-care (POC) diagnostics.
The book is divided in four Parts. Part I is an in-depth analysis of the various technologies upon which portable diagnostic devices and biosensors are built. In Part II, advances in the design and optimization of special components of biosensor systems and handheld devices are presented. In Part III, a wide scope of applications of portable biosensors and handheld POC devices is described, ranging from the support of primary healthcare to food and environmental safety screening. Diverse topics are covered, including counterterrorism, travel medicine and drug development. Finally, Part IV of the book is dedicated to the presentation of commercially available products including a review of the products of point-of-care in-vitro-diagnostics companies, a review of technologies which have achieved a high Technology Readiness Level, and a special market case study of POC infusion systems combined with intelligent patient monitoring.
This book is essential reading for researchers and experts in the healthcare diagnostic and analytical sector, and for electronics and material engineers working on portable sensors.
In The Social Life of Biometrics, biometrics is loosely defined as a discrete technology of identification that associates physical features with a legal identity. Author George Grinnell considers the social and cultural life of biometrics by examining what it is asked to do, imagined to do, and its intended and unintended effects. As a human-focused account of technology, the book contends that biometrics needs to be understood as a mode of thought that informs how we live and understand one another; it is not simply a neutral technology of identification. Placing our biometric present in historical and cultural perspective, The Social Life of Biometrics examines a range of human experiences of biometrics. It features individual stories from locations as diverse as Turkey, Canada, Qatar, Six Nations territory in New York State, Iraq, the skies above New York City, a university campus and Nairobi to give cultural accounts of identification and look at the ongoing legacies of our biometric ambitions. It ends by considering the ethics surrounding biometrics and human identity, migration, movement, strangers, borders, and the nature of the body and its coherence. How has biometric thought structured ideas about borders, race, covered faces, migration, territory, citizenship, and international responsibility? What might happen if identity was less defined by the question of “who’s there?” and much more by the question “how do you live?”
Robot-assisted healthcare offers benefits for repetitive, intensive and task specific training compared to traditional manual manipulation performed by physiotherapists. However, a majority of existing rehabilitation devices use rigid actuators such as electric motors or hydraulic cylinders which cannot guarantee the safety of patients; novel soft robots combining soft and compliant actuators with stiff skeletons offer a better alternative. This book focuses on the development of these soft robotics for rehabilitation purposes.
Topics covered include an introduction to soft robots and the state of the art of their use in healthcare; concept and modelling of a soft rehabilitation actuator - the Peano muscle; design of the reactive Peano muscle; soft wrist rehabilitation robot; development and control of a soft ankle rehabilitation robot (SARR); design, modelling and control strategies of a gait rehabilitation exoskeleton (GAREX); and conclusions and future work.
This book presents novel applications of mechatronics to provide better clinical rehabilitation services and new insights into emerging technologies utilized in soft robots for healthcare, and is essential reading for researchers and students working in these and related fields.
In the final years of the twentieth century, émigrés from engineering and computer science devoted themselves to biology and resolved that if the aim of biology is to understand life, then making life would yield better theories than experimentation. Armed with the latest biotechnology techniques, these scientists treated biological media as elements for design and manufacture: viruses named for computers, bacterial genomes encoding passages from James Joyce, chimeric yeast buckling under the metabolic strain of genes harvested from wormwood, petunias, and microbes from Icelandic thermal pools.
In Synthetic: How Life Got Made, cultural anthropologist Sophia Roosth reveals how synthetic biologists make new living things in order to understand better how life works. The first book-length ethnographic study of this discipline, Synthetic documents the social, cultural, rhetorical, economic, and imaginative transformations biology has undergone in the post-genomic age. Roosth traces this new science from its origins at MIT to start-ups, laboratories, conferences, and hackers’ garages across the United States—even to contemporary efforts to resurrect extinct species. Her careful research reveals that rather than opening up a limitless new field, these biologists’ own experimental tactics circularly determine the biological features, theories, and limits they fasten upon. Exploring the life sciences emblematic of our time, Synthetic tells the origin story of the astonishing claim that biological making fosters biological knowing.