Although existing nanometer CMOS technology is expected to remain dominant for the next decade, new non-classical devices are being developed as the potential replacements of silicon CMOS, in order to meet the ever-present demand for faster, smaller, more efficient integrate circuits.
Many new devices are based on novel emerging materials such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional graphene, non-graphene two-dimensional materials, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Such devices use on/off operations based on quantum mechanical current transport, and so their design and fabrication require an understanding of the electronic structures of materials and technologies. Moreover, new electronic design automation (EDA) tools and techniques need to be developed based on integrating devices from emerging novel material-based technologies.
The aim of this book is to explore the materials and design requirements of these emerging integrated circuit technologies, and to outline their prospective applications. It will be useful for academics and research scientists interested in future directions and developments in design, materials and applications of novel integrated circuit technologies, and for research and development professionals working at the cutting edge of integrated circuit development.
State-of-the-art analogue integrated circuit design is receiving a tremendous boost from the development and application of current-mode approaches, which are rapidly superseding traditional voltage-mode techniques. This activity is linked to important advances in integrated circuit technologies, such as the 'true' complementary bipolar process; CMOS VLSI technology, which allows realisation of high-performance mixed analogue and digital circuits; and gallium arsenide processing, which has matured to a point where it can be used effectively in high-speed analogue circuit and system design. In this book, all three technologies are represented, with key building blocks, circuit designs and applications. Many very important, but recent, techniques are presented, including switched-current techniques for high-precision filtering and A/D and D/A conversion, current-based amplifying techniques, and neural networks. Translinear principles, current mirrors, and the current conveyor are also covered. This book draws together contributions from the world's most eminent analogue IC designers to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive text devoted to this important and exciting new area of analogue electronics.
The inexorable increase in levels of integration of electronic circuits has most often been exploited using digital signals. So much so that design engineers have sought to digitise analogue signals as early as possible in the signal processing chain, and performed digital processing wherever practicable.
However it is increasingly being accepted that such an approach is not appropriate for many applications, and that circuits which combine analogue and digital signals can provide superior solutions. There are at least three factors which support this trend. Firstly improved process technology giving better dimensional and parametric control and the availability of BiCMOS and CMOS processes able to support both analogue and digital components. Secondly the maturing of discrete time circuit techniques giving competitive high performance solutions. Thirdly the gain in terms of reliability and reduction in cost achieved by mixing analogue and digital signal processing and hence implementing 'systems' on a single substrate.
It is therefore timely that wide ranging books such as this one, on the subject of mixed analogue digital ASICs should appear. It comprises eighteen chapters contributed by leading academics and practising engineers in industry. The chapters are arranged in four sections: Processing technology; Circuit Techniques and Building Blocks; Design and Applications; and CAD and Supporting Tools.
As electronics continue to become faster, smaller and more efficient, development and research around clocking signals and circuits has accelerated to keep pace. This book bridges the gap between the classical theory of clocking circuits and recent technological advances, making it a useful guide for newcomers to the field, and offering an opportunity for established researchers to broaden and update their knowledge of current trends.
The book begins by introducing the theory of Fourier transform and power spectral density, then builds on this foundation in chapter 2 to define phase noise and jitter. Chapter 3 discusses the theory and primary implementation of CMOS oscillators, including LC oscillators and ring oscillators, and chapter 4 introduces techniques for analysing their phase noise and jitter. Chapters 5-7 cover conventional clocking circuits; phase-locked loop (PLL) and delay-locked loop (DLL), which suppress the phase noise of CMOS oscillators. The building blocks of conventional PLLs/DLLs are described, and the dynamics of the PLL/DLL negative feedback loop explored in depth, with practical design examples. Chapters 8-11 address state-of-the-art circuit techniques for phase noise suppression, presenting the principles and practical issues in circuit implementation of sub-sampling phase detection techniques, all-digital PLL/DLL, injection-locked oscillator, and clock multiplying DLL. Extensive survey and discussion on state-of-the-art clocking circuits and benchmarks are covered in an Appendix.
This undergraduate textbook for electrical and computer engineering students is dedicated solely to digital CMOS electronics. It covers many of the topics of graduate level textbooks, but in an introductory style specifically crafted (and course tested) for undergraduates. Students will not need a prerequisite in analog electronics, allowing instructors flexibility in course scheduling. This book blends the academic and industrial experience of the authors to define a base of electronics instruction for the CMOS chip industry.
CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: A First Course teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology by focusing on central themes and avoiding excessive details. Extensive examples, self-exercises, and end-of chapter problems assist in teaching the current practices of industry and subjects taught by graduate courses in microelectronics. Computer engineering curriculums can remove the analog electronics prerequisite altogether when adopting this book.
CMOS technology written specifically for (and tested by) undergraduates.
Equal treatment to both types of MOSFET transistors that make up computer circuits.
Communications technology at a frequency range into Terahertz (THz) levels has attracted attention because it promises near-fibre-optic-speed wireless links for the 5G and post-5G world. Transmitter and receiver integrated circuits based on CMOS, which has the ability to realize such circuits with low power consumption at a low cost, are expected to become increasingly widespread, with much research into the underlying electronics currently underway.
This book describes recent research on terahertz CMOS design for high-speed wireless communication. The topics covered include fundamental technologies for terahertz CMOS design, amplifier design, physical design approaches, transceiver design, and future prospects. This concise source of key information, written by leading experts in the field, is intended for researchers and professional circuit designers working in RFIC and CMOS design for telecommunications.
This book discusses one possible solution to the key issue in electronics engineering - the approaching limits of CMOS scaling - by taking advantage of the tendency of Schottky contacts to form at channel interfaces in nanoscale devices. Rather than suppressing this phenomenon, a functionality-enhanced device exploits it to increase switching functionality. These devices are Multiple-Independent-Gate-Field-Effect-Transistors, and other related nanoscale devices, whose polarity is electrostatically controllable. The functionality enhancement of these devices increases computational performance (function) per unit area and leads to circuits with better density, performance and energy efficiency.
The book provides thorough and systematic coverage of enhanced-functionality devices and their use in proof-of-concept circuits and architectures. The theory and materials science behind these devices are addressed in detail, and various experimental fabrication techniques are explored. In addition, the potential applications of functionality-enhanced devices are outlined with a specific emphasis on circuit design, design automation and benchmarking.
Motivated by consumer demand for smaller, more portable electronic devices that offer more features and operate for longer on their existing battery packs, cutting edge electronic circuits need to be ever more power efficient. For the circuit designer, this requires an understanding of the latest low voltage and low power (LV/LP) techniques, one of the most promising of which makes use of the floating gate MOS (FGMOS) transistor.
Whilst a conventional MOS transistor has only one input, the FGMOS transistors often have several. This fact, along with some other remarkable properties of this very interesting device, offers the designer many extra degrees of freedom that can significantly improve power efficiency. By using FGMOS transistors in the right way – establishing appropriate relationships between their inputs - it is possible to achieve design trade-offs that are not possible with conventional MOS devices. This is especially true when power consumption and supply voltage are the main design constraints.
This book demonstrates how FGMOS transistors can be used in a low voltage and low power design context. The techniques shown provide innovative solutions, often in situations where the limits of the technology in question have been pushed far below the values recommended by the manufacturer.
This book presents a thorough and integrated treatment of key topics in the field of low-voltage, low-power, mixed-mode design for the manufacture of low-cost, high-performance, robust integrated circuits. It brings together innovative modelling, simulation and design techniques in CMOS, SOI, GaAs and BJT, optimally combining process, device and design knowledge of low-voltage, high-frequency systems, including smart sensors.
The book meets the needs of mixed-signal designers and reflects the rise in high-performance, ultra-low-power digital systems combined with wireless multimedia telecommunications. The text is supported throughout by realistic application examples from both industry and academia, and a wealth of references to literature including many Internet sources.
In addition to being an excellent reference work, the material is valuable to practising engineers and researchers in microelectronics, industrial and academic, as well as to senior students in this field.
The rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) materials, such as their viscosity and dynamic modulus, can be tuned or controlled by changing the intensity of the magnetic field using appropriate control schemes. Thanks to their robustness, performance and smart properties, numerous studies have been undertaken on the development of new MR materials, and microscopic and macroscopic modelling approaches. Novel applications include engine mounts and clutch systems in the automotive industry, shock absorbing safety devices for cockpit seats in aerospace, and shock absorption from movement in semi-active human prosthetic legs.
This book introduces magnetorheological fluids and elastomers, and explores their material properties, related modelling techniques and applications in turn. The book offers insights into the relationships between the properties and characterisation of MR materials and their current and future applications, making it useful reading for researchers, engineers and graduate students who work in the field of smart materials and structures.
Tai-Ran Hsu The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2004 Library of Congress TK7875.M4576 2004 | Dewey Decimal 621.381
Written as a collective work by 14 outstanding microsystems packaging specialists from US industries, government laboratories and universities, MEMS Packaging provides a comprehensive view of the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in the assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems. The book also addresses aspects of microassembly and testing technologies that are often overlooked.
Aimed at professional engineers, scientists and technologists from industry, research laboratories and universities, the book examines every aspect of the assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in the key industries of life sciences, telecommunication and aerospace engineering. The authors cover key topics such as bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, RF telecommunications and aerospace applications.
Negative Group Delay Devices: From concepts to applications introduces the theoretical concept, analysis, design methodology and implementation of negative group delay (NGD). The NGD concept is a recent topic in electrical and electronic engineering research based on an unconventional function; the generation of an output signal seemingly in time-advance of the input signal. The NGD function has been exploited to develop experimental high-performance electronic devices, and novel design features of radio frequency (RF) and microwave electronic devices, such as filters, power dividers and amplifiers. Examples include the realization of non-Foster reactive elements, shortening or reducing delay lines, enhancing the efficiency of feedforward linear amplifiers, improvement of phase shifters accuracy and bandwidth, equalization of electrical interconnect effects for the microwave, digital and mixed signal integrity improvement, and minimizing beam-squint in series-fed antenna arrays.
The aim of the book is to advance understanding of the NGD principle and its applications. Recent results and outcomes for the different methodologies used to elaborate the NGD function are shared in each chapter, and approaches relevant to various devices are described. This book will be of particular interest to researchers, academics and postdoctoral students interested in signal processing in electronic, radio frequency, microwave and optoelectronic devices, and particularly those investigating unconventional circuit and system design.
Phase-Locked Frequency Generation and Clocking covers essential topics and issues in current Phase-Locked Loop design, from a light touch of fundamentals to practical design aspects. Both wireless and wireline systems are considered in the design of low noise frequency generation and clocking systems. Topics covered include architecture and design, digital-intensive Phase-Locked Loops, low noise frequency generation and modulation, clock-and-data recovery, and advanced clocking and clock generation systems.
The book not only discusses fundamental architectures, system design considerations, and key building blocks but also covers advanced design techniques and architectures in frequency generation and clocking systems. Readers can expect to gain insights into phase-locked clocking as well as system perspectives and circuit design aspects in modern Phase-Locked Loop design.
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) can be seen as a 'light-based' analogue of an electronic circuit (i.e. where functionality occurs by manipulation of light rather than electrical current). Much research has gone into this area and this well-organised book sheds light on the technology behind PICs and the capabilities of the various platforms available. It provides an engineering approach to photonic integration technologies from the fundamental concepts, through to assembly issues and the integration strategies to combine different components in a single chip.
Photonic Integrated Circuits is the only book to provide comprehensive coverage of all three main platforms: PLC/silica/doped glass, silicon-on-insulator, and indium phosphide. It focusses on the available libraries of commercially available optical components, and is based on close collaboration with the suppliers of these technologies. It also includes application examples, describing how PICs are being used in real world scenarios which provide engineers with a feel of what the technology is capable of.
Topics covered include: an introduction to photonic integration technologies and circuits; wave-guiding; passive components including optical couplers, optical filtering, and integrated mirrors; lasers and amplifiers; modulators; photodetectors; photonic integrated circuit design; the PLC/silica/doped glass platform; the silicon-on insulator platform; the indium phosphide platform; hybrid and heterogeneous integration.
This book will be essential reading for photonic circuit designers in industry and academia. Postgraduate students in electrical engineering and PhD students in the field of photonics and telecommunications will find it useful. This is also an important text for research engineers in industry who want to understand the potential of applying this technology to their field, and physicists who want to transfer their optical and photonic technologies out of the laboratory.
RFIC and MMIC technology provides the core components for many microwave and millimetre-wave communications, radar and sensing systems. Recent years have seen exciting developments, such as circuits operating to over 200 GHz, millimetre-wave micromachined antenna arrays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). At the same time, the rapid growth of wireless communications in the 1 to 6 GHz range has seen a dramatic shift towards advanced silicon technology. It is timely, therefore, to introduce this fully up-to-date second edition of a world-renowned standard text.
With over 1000 references and 350 figures, the book gives an in-depth account of GaAs, InP, Si and SiGe technologies and describes all the key techniques for the design of amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, switches, variable attenuators, phase shifters, integrated antennas and complete monolithic transceivers. It is essential reading as both a tutorial guide for those new to RFIC and MMIC design and as a circuit design handbook for experienced engineers.
Silicide Technology for Integrated Circuits focuses on the task of developing and applying metal silicide technology as it emerges from the scientific to the prototype and manufacturing stages and provides guidance on the application of the latest emerging technology.
The book begins with an overview of silicide technology and moves on to provide the fundamentals of silicide formation, including various processing methods. Topics such as the optical emission properties of Fe silicide and their importance for Si-based optoelectronics are discussed, along with Si-Ge and SOI, which represent two possible substrate frames for the next-generation of Si-based device technology. This invaluable publication also provides comprehensive coverage of the characterisation methods used in silicide technology.
Technology Computer Aided Design for Si, SiGe and GaAs Integrated Circuits is the first book that deals with a broad spectrum of process and device design, and modelling issues related to various semiconductor devices. This monograph attempts to bridge the gap between device modelling and process design using TCAD. Many simulation examples for different types of Si-, SiGe-, GaAs- and InP-based heterostructure MOS and bipolar transistors are given and compared with experimental data from state-of-the-art devices. Bringing various aspects of silicon heterostructures into one resource, this book also presents a comprehensive perspective of the emerging field and covers topics ranging from materials to fabrication, devices, modelling and applications.
The monograph is aimed at research and development engineers and scientists who are actively involved in microelectronics technology and device design via Technology CAD. It will also serve as a reference for postgraduate and research students in the field of electrical engineering and solid-state physics, and for TCAD engineers and developers.
Systems on Chip (SoC) for communications, multimedia and computer applications have recently received much international attention; one such example being the single-chip transceiver. Modern microelectronic design adopts a mixed-signal approach as a complex SoC is a mixed-signal system including both analogue and digital circuits. Automatic testing becomes crucially important to drive down the overall cost of next generation SoC devices. Test and fault diagnosis of analogue, mixed-signal and RF circuits, however, proves much more difficult than that of digital circuits due to tolerances, parasitics and nonlinearities and therefore, together with challenging tuning and calibration, remains the bottleneck for automatic SoC testing. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of automatic testing, diagnosis and tuning of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits, and systems in a single source. The book contains eleven chapters written by leading researchers worldwide. As well as fundamental concepts and techniques, the book reports systematically the state of the arts and future research directions of these areas. A complete range of circuit components are covered and test issues are also addressed from the SoC perspective. An essential reference companion to researchers and engineers in mixed-signal testing, the book can also be used as a text for postgraduate and senior undergraduate students.
This book presents a state of the art review of integrated circuits, systems and transceivers for wireless and mobile communications. Contributions from world-class researchers focus upon the most recent developments in key RF, IF and baseband components and subsystems and transceiver architecture in CMOS technology. Adopting a top-down approach from wireless communications systems, mobile terminals and transceivers, to constituent components, this book covers the whole range of baseband, IF and RF issues in a systematic way. Circuit and system techniques for design and implementation of reconfigurable low voltage and low power single-chip CMOS transceivers for both mobile cellular and wireless LAN applications are included.