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Archaeology as a Process
Processualism and Its Progeny
Michael J O'Brien
University of Utah Press, 2007
The publication in 1962 of Lew Binford’s paper "Archaeology as Anthropology" is generally considered to mark the birth of processualism—a critical turning point in American archaeology. In the hands of Binford and other young University of Chicago graduates of the 1960s, this "new" archaeology became the mainstream approach in the U.S. The realignment that the processualists proposed was so thorough that its effects are still being felt today. Predictably, processualism also spun off a number of other "isms," several of which grew up to challenge its supremacy.

Archaeology as a Process traces the intellectual history of Americanist archaeology in terms of the research groups that were at the forefront of these various approaches, concentrating as much on the archaeologists as it does on method and theory, thus setting it apart from other treatments published in the last fifteen years.

Peppered with rare photographs of well-known archaeologists in some interesting settings, the book documents the swirl and excitement of archaeological controversy for the past forty years with over 1,600 references and an in-depth treatment of all the major intellectual approaches. The contributors examine how archaeology is conducted—the ins and outs of how various groups work to promote themselves—and how personal ambition and animosities can function to further rather than retard the development of the discipline.

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Becoming a Bilingual Family
Help Your Kids Learn Spanish (and Learn Spanish Yourself in the Process)
By Stephen Marks and Jeffrey Marks
University of Texas Press, 2013

Would you like your children to grow up bilingual, even if you aren’t yet? Then speak to your kids in Spanish as you learn the language along with them. Becoming a Bilingual Family gives English-speaking parents the tools to start speaking Spanish with their kids in their earliest years, when children are most receptive to learning languages. It teaches the vocabulary and idioms for speaking to children in Spanish and offers practical, proven ways to create a language-learning environment at home.

The first part of the book introduces parents to many resources—books, audio books, music, television, computer programs, childcare workers, school, and friends—that can help you establish a home environment conducive to the acquisition of Spanish. The second part is a Spanish phrasebook that takes you through all the typical activities that parents and children share, from getting up in the morning to going to bed at night. Few, if any, other Spanish study aids provide this much vocabulary and guidance for talking to small children about common daily activities. The authors also include a quick course in Spanish pronunciation and enough grammar to get a parent started. Spanish-language resources, kids’ names in Spanish, and an easy-to-use index and glossary complete the book.

Take the Markses’ advice and start talking to your kids in Spanish, even if it’s not perfect. You’ll learn the language together and share the excitement of discovering the peoples and cultures that make up the Spanish-speaking world.


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Becoming an Ex
The Process of Role Exit
Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh
University of Chicago Press, 1988
The experience of becoming an ex is common to most people in modern society. Unlike individuals in earlier cultures who usually spent their entire lives in one marriage, one career, one religion, one geographic locality, people living in today's world tend to move in and out of many roles in the course of a lifetime. During the past decade there has been persistent interest in these "passages" or "turning points," but very little research has dealt with what it means to leave behind a major role or incorporate it into a new identity. Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh's pathbreaking inquiry into the phenomenon of becoming an ex reveals the profundity of this basic aspect of establishing an identity in contemporary life.

Ebaugh is herself an ex, having left the life of a Catholic nun to become a wife, mother, and professor of sociology. Drawing on interviews with 185 people, Ebaugh explores a wide range of role changes, including ex-convicts, ex-alcoholics, divorced people, mothers without custody of their children, ex-doctors, ex-cops, retirees, ex-nuns, and—perhaps most dramatically—transsexuals. As this diverse sample reveals, Ebaugh focuses on voluntary exits from significant roles. What emerges are common stages of the role exit process—from disillusionment with a particular identity, to searching for alternative roles, to turning points that trigger a final decision to exit, and finally to the creation of an identify as an ex.

Becoming an Ex is a challenging and influential study that will be of great interest to sociologists, mental health counselors, members of self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Parents Without Partners, those in corporate settings where turnover has widespread implications for the organization, and for anyone struggling through a role exit who is trying to establish a new sense of self.

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The Concepts, Process and Methods of Social Impact Assessment
Rabel Burdge
University Press of Colorado, 2015

front cover of The Concepts, Process and Methods of Social Impact Assessment
The Concepts, Process and Methods of Social Impact Assessment
Rabel J. Burdge
University Press of Colorado, 2015
This Social Impact Assessment textbook provides the reader with details on the background and development of the SIA concept to include the methods, guidelines and principles for conducting an actual Social Impact Assessment. These sections are followed by actual SIA case studies to include the use of public involvement in the SIA process. The text concludes with the application of SIA outside the United States and international principles for doing Social Impact Assessment.

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Demystifying Online Instruction in Libraries
People, Process, and Tools
Dominique Turnbow and Amanda Roth
American Library Association, 2019

The design of information literacy instruction and the building of it are two distinct skillsets and processes; yet all too often everything gets mashed together, creating needless confusion and stress. In this book Turnbow, an instructional designer, and Roth, an instructional technologist, suggest a better way to organize the work. They shed light on the people, processes, and resources required to create a sustainable portfolio of online instruction. With the goal of fostering conversations in your library about the most streamlined and effective ways to get the work done, they provide guidance on such topics as

  • design and development processes, complete with “I.D. in Action” examples and sample design documents;
  • thumbnail descriptions of ADDIE, SAM, and design thinking methods;
  • creating learning objects;
  • types of software tools and how to evaluate them;
  • crafting the best documentation of your work for efficient maintenance and reuse;
  • adapting assessment to your learning outcomes and purpose;
  • when to design for performance support, an underutilized method in libraries; and
  • starting points for those interested in developing instructional design and development skills.

Demystifying the instructional design and development process used to create online learning objects, this book will help you understand how instructional design principles and approaches can benefit your learners.


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Drawing -- The Process
Edited by Jo Davies and Leo Duff
Intellect Books, 2005

Drawing - The Process is a collection of papers, theories and interviews based on the conference and exhibition of the same name held at Kingston University in 2003.

Much debate and research is currently undertaken in this area and it is the intention of the book to galvanize this, while providing a vehicle for deep enquiry. The publication will firstly comprise a collection of refereed papers representing a breadth of activity and research around the issues of drawing within the broad context of art and design activity. The second dimension of the book will be an examination of the drawing processes of high profile practitioners.

The publication will encompass the best contemporary investigation of a subject pivotal to art and design activity, and should be recognized as a fundamental text for students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.


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During the Dissertation
A Textual Mentor for Doctoral Students in the Process of Writing
Christine Pearson Casanave
University of Michigan Press, 2020
"A textual mentor like During the Dissertation can fill a void in writers’ lives at a time of solitude, uncertainty, and anxiety. Keep it under your pillow.”
This volume is a sequel to Casanave’s popular Before the Dissertation. Like that volume, this book is designed as a companion for doctoral dissertation writers of qualitative or mixed methods work in fields related to language education. It could also benefit those writing master’s theses and those writing in other social science fields. It is meant to be consulted once the writing has begun—once students have settled on a topic, designed the project, or collected the data—because this is the time when they are analyzing, drafting, revising, polishing, and probably fretting, deleting, reconstructing, and even losing sleep. Also, like its predecessor, it is not designed to teach anyone how to write a dissertation as there are plenty of those available elsewhere.
            For most doctoral students, writing will happen at different stages of the project. Strategies for timing of these kinds of writing differ across students, and also across supervisors and advisers. If dissertation writers do not know by the time they start writing which strategies and issues pertain to them, this book can help them craft some approaches to suit their own personalities, preferred practices, and individual goals and visions, as well as help them figure out how dissertation writing might fit into the real-life intrusions of work and family.
          Issues covered in the book are: starting to write, envisioning the project as a whole, relationships with supervisors, perfectionism and other maladies, health, low- and high-IQ days, loneliness and isolation, distractions and interruptions, revising, and knowing when to stop.

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The Evolving Self
Problem and Process in Human Development
Robert Kegan
Harvard University Press, 1982

The Evolving Self focuses upon the most basic and universal of psychological problems—the individual’s effort to make sense of experience, to make meaning of life. According to Robert Kegan, meaning-making is a lifelong activity that begins in earliest infancy and continues to evolve through a series of stages encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The Evolving Self describes this process of evolution in rich and human detail, concentrating especially on the internal experience of growth and transition, its costs and disruptions as well as its triumphs.

At the heart of our meaning-making activity, the book suggests, is the drawing and redrawing of the distinction between self and other. Using Piagetian theory in a creative new way to make sense of how we make sense of ourselves, Kegan shows that each meaning-making stage is a new solution to the lifelong tension between the universal human yearning to be connected, attached, and included, on the one hand, and to be distinct, independent, and autonomous on the other. The Evolving Self is the story of our continuing negotiation of this tension. It is a book that is theoretically daring enough to propose a reinterpretation of the Oedipus complex and clinically concerned enough to suggest a variety of fresh new ways to treat those psychological complaints that commonly arise in the course of development.

Kegan is an irrepressible storyteller, an impassioned opponent of the health-and-illness approach to psychological distress, and a sturdy builder of psychological theory. His is an original and distinctive new voice in the growing discussion of human development across the life span.


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Experimentation with Human Beings
The Authority of the Investigator, Subject, Professions, and State in the Human Experimentation Process
Jay Katz
Russell Sage Foundation, 1972
In recent years, increasing concern has been voiced about the nature and extent of human experimentation and its impact on the investigator, subject, science, and society. This casebook represents the first attempt to provide comprehensive materials for studying the human experimentation process. Through case studies from medicine, biology, psychology, sociology, and law—as well as evaluative materials from many other disciplines—Dr. Katz examines the problems raised by human experimentation from the vantage points of each of its major participants—investigator, subject, professions, and state. He analyzes what kinds of authority should be delegated to these participants in the formulation, administration, and review of the human experimentation process. Alternative proposals, from allowing investigators a completely free hand to imposing centralized governmental control, are examined from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The conceptual framework of Experimentation with Human Beings is designed to facilitate not only the analysis of such concepts as "harm," "benefit," and "informed consent," but also the exploration of the problems raised by man's quest for knowledge and mastery, his willingness to risk human life, and his readiness to delegate authority to professionals and rely on their judgment.

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Feminist Theory in Practice and Process
Edited by Micheline R. Malson, Jean F. O'Barr, Sarah Westphal-Wihl, and Mary Wye
University of Chicago Press, 1989

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Framing Information Literacy (PIL#73) Volume Four
Information Creation as a Process
Janna L. Mattson
American Library Association

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Helping Groups Heal
Leading Groups in the Process of Transformation
Jan Paul Hook
Templeton Press, 2017
Life with others is messy. The bonds we form are often the source that drives us to helping professionals like therapists and pastors in the first place. And yet, it is from these relation­ships that our greatest moments of healing spring. Recogniz­ing the value of relationships, pastors and therapists have been leading small therapeutic groups for years. Yet few lead­ers have a specific, easy-to-follow, and researched framework to structure their groups.
Helping Groups Heal presents “The Healing Cycle,” a grace-based model that facilitates healing and growth in groups. It has been tested with a variety of settings, and can be adapted to nearly any small group, from sex addiction therapy to marriage therapy to Bible studies.
The basic components of “The Healing Cycle” are grace, safety, vulnerability, truth, ownership, and confession. Helping Groups Heal guides the reader through these elements, offering case studies and practical advice from the voices of researchers and practitioners. Each chapter shows how “The Healing Cycle” moves its members to share their truth, own it, and make positive change in their lives. Each step of the process allows participants to move past surface issues and find depth in their understanding of their pain.
Whether you have been leading small groups for years or are about to lead your first session, Helping Groups Heal is an accessible, easy-to-follow guide through “The Healing Cycle” that will give each group member what’s needed to grow, relate, and heal. 

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Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling
Henry Giroux
Temple University Press, 1984
"Giroux is an articulate, sensitive and balanced spokesperson [who] presents a thoughtful analysis of the relationship between knowledge and power and between social context and the school curriculum." --Norman Henchey, Journal of Educational Thought This book lays bare the ideological and political character of the positivist rationality that has been the primary theoretical underpinning of educational research in the United States. These assumptions have expressed themselves in the form and content of curriculum, classroom social relations, classroom cultural artifacts, and the experiences and beliefs of teachers and students. Have existing radical critiques provided the theoretical building blocks for a new theory of pedagogy? The author attempts to move beyond the abstract, negative characteristics of many radical critiques, which are often based on false dualisms that fail to link structure and intentionally, content and process, ideology and hegemony, etc. He also is critical of the over-determined models of socialization and the abstract celebration of subjectivity that underlies much of the false utopianism of many radical perspectives. Professor Giroux begins to lay the theoretical groundwork for developing a radical pedagogy that connects critical theory with the need for social action in the interest of individual freedom and social reconstruction. "...a useful and important contribution to the area of curriculum theory. Giroux has articulated well some of the major tensions in radical educational theory and practice without abandoning the concern to establish a foundation for emancipatory cage." --Walter Feinberg, Journal of Education "Graduate students, as well as their professors, can learn a great deal from studying Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling; furthermore, the excellent system of notes and references at the end of each chapter will introduce the reader into the world of ideas from which Giroux has taken his lessons." --Educational Studies

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Imagining Communities
Historical Reflections on the Process of Community Formation
Edited by Gemma Blok, Vincent Kuitenbrouwer, and Claire Weeda
Amsterdam University Press, 2018
In his groundbreaking Imagined Communities, first published in 1983, Benedict Anderson argued that members of a communityexperience a Ÿdeep, horizontal camaraderie.Œ Despite being strangers, members feel connected in a web of imagined experiences.Yet while Anderson’s insights have been hugely influential, they remain abstract: it is difficult to imagine imagined communities.How do they evolve and how is membership constructed cognitively, socially and culturally? How do individuals and communitiescontribute to group formation through the act of imagining? And what is the glue that holds communities together?Imagining Communities examines actual processes of experiencing the imagined community, exploring its emotive force in a number of case studies. Communal bonding is analysed, offering concrete insights on where and by whom the nation (or social group) is imagined and the role of individuals therein. Offering eleven empirical case studies, ranging from the premodern to the modern age, this volume looks at and beyond the nation and includes regional as well as transnational communities as well.

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Improvising Theory
Process and Temporality in Ethnographic Fieldwork
Allaine Cerwonka and Liisa H. Malkki
University of Chicago Press, 2007

Scholars have long recognized that ethnographic method is bound up with the construction of theory in ways that are difficult to teach. The reason, Allaine Cerwonka and Liisa H. Malkki argue, is that ethnographic theorization is essentially improvisatory in nature, conducted in real time and in necessarily unpredictable social situations. In a unique account of, and critical reflection on, the process of theoretical improvisation in ethnographic research, they demonstrate how both objects of analysis, and our ways of knowing and explaining them, are created and discovered in the give and take of real life, in all its unpredictability and immediacy.

Improvising Theory centers on the year-long correspondence between Cerwonka, then a graduate student in political science conducting research in Australia, and her anthropologist mentor, Malkki. Through regular e-mail exchanges, Malkki attempted to teach Cerwonka, then new to the discipline, the basic tools and subtle intuition needed for anthropological fieldwork. The result is a strikingly original dissection of the processual ethics and politics of method in ethnography.


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Managing National Security Policy
The President and the Process
William W. Newmann
University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003
William Newmann examines the ways in which presidents make national security decisions, and explores how those processes evolve over time. He creates a complex portrait of policy making, which may help future presidents design national security decision structures that fit the realities of the office in today's world.

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Migrant Song
Politics and Process in Contemporary Chicano Literature
By Teresa McKenna
University of Texas Press, 1996

Migration and continuity have shaped both the Chicano people and their oral and written literature. In this pathfinding study of Chicano literature, Teresa McKenna specifically explores how these works arise out of social, political, and psychological conflict and how the development of Chicano literature is inextricably embedded in this fact.

McKenna begins by appraising the evolution of Chicano literature from oral forms—including the important role of the corrido in the development of Chicano poetry. In subsequent chapters she examines the works of Richard Rodriguez and Rolando Hinojosa. She also devotes a chapter to the development of the Chicana voice in Chicano literature. Her epilogue considers the parallel development of Chicano literary theory and discusses some possible directions for research.

In McKenna's own words, "I believe that the future of this literature, as that of all literatures by people of color in the United States, rests largely on its being effectively introduced into the curricula at all levels, as well as its entrance into the critical consciousness of literary theory." This book will be an important step in that process.


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Plant Allometry
The Scaling of Form and Process
Karl J. Niklas
University of Chicago Press, 1994
Allometry, the study of the growth rate of an organism's parts in relation to the whole, has produced exciting results in research on animals. Now distinguished plant biologist Karl J. Niklas has written the first book to apply allometry to studies of the evolution, morphology, physiology, and reproduction of plants.

Niklas covers a broad spectrum of plant life, from unicellular algae to towering trees, including fossil as well as extant taxa. He examines the relation between organic size and variations in plant form, metabolism, reproduction, and evolution, and draws on the zoological literature to develop allometric techniques for the peculiar problems of plant height, the relation between body mass and body length, and size-correlated variations in rates of growth. For readers unfamiliar with the basics of allometry, an appendix explains basic statistical methods.

For botanists interested in an original, quantitative approach to plant evolution and function, and for zoologists who want to learn more about the value of allometric techniques for studying evolution, Plant Allometry makes a major contribution to the study of plant life.

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Political Judgment
Structure and Process
Milton Lodge and Kathleen M. McGraw, Editors
University of Michigan Press, 1995
An information processing approach to how citizens make important political decisions

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Politics, Process, and American Trade Policy
Sharyn O'Halloran
University of Michigan Press, 1994
Offers important new insights into how American trade policy is set

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A Novel
Kay Boyle. Edited and with an Introduction by Sandra Spanier
University of Illinois Press, 2006

Three quarters of a century after the manuscript of Kay Boyle’s first novel disappeared, a carbon copy of it was discovered by Sandra Spanier, the preeminent Boyle authority. Set off by Spanier’s substantial introduction, Process is published here for the first time in paperback.

A classic bildungsroman, Process tells the story of Kerith Day, who is in search of her own identity and place in the world. A keenly critical observer of the dreary industrial landscape and the beaten-down inhabitants of her native Cincinnati, Ohio, Kerith is determined to discover something better. She places her faith in art and politics and sets off for France, where workers and radicals are on the same side.


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An Improviser's Journey
Mary Scruggs and Michael J. Gellman, with an foreword by Anne Libera
Northwestern University Press, 2007

Process: An Improviser's Journey is an invaluable resource for mastering improv. Author, teacher, and improviser Michael Gellman was given a mission by famed improv coach Del Close: “[T]o create improvised one-act plays of literary quality from scratch.” Already steeped in the world of improvisation, he took it upon himself to do this, in the form of a class for other improvisers in which they would build the skills necessary to execute such a seemingly tall order. Scruggs and Gellman’s book, modeled after Stanislavski’s timeless An Actor Prepares, follows a fictional young actor taking Gellman’s real-life class.

Scruggs and Gellman introduce readers to Geoff, who has just moved to Chicago to pursue acting. He undergoes the standard trials of audition and rejection before he takes the advice of a fellow actor and turns to improv classes at Second City. At first, Geoff thinks improvisation is about laughs and loosening up, but he soon learns that it is a powerful tool as well as an end in itself. Through Geoff’s eyes, the book introduces readers to key tenets of improvisation: concentration, visualization, focus, object work, being in the moment, and the crucial “yes, and.” His experiences with the basics of improvisation do serve to get him a few roles, but his real breakthrough comes when he signs up for an improvised one-act class with Michael Gellman. He and his classmates arrive unprepared for the challenge, but with Gellman’s prompts and advice, they slowly move through process to performance over the course of three seasons in Chicago.  The class culminates with their final project: a completely improvised one-act play performed in front of a live audience.


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Process and Aesthetics
An Outline of Whiteheadian Aesthetics and Beyond
Ondrej Dadejík, Martin Kaplický, Miloš Ševcík, and Vlastimil Zuska
Karolinum Press, 2021
A groundbreaking analysis of Alfred North Whitehead’s thinking on aesthetics.
Though philosopher Alfred North Whitehead did not dedicate any books or articles specifically to aesthetics, aesthetic motifs nonetheless permeate his entire body of work. Despite this, aestheticians have devoted little attention to Whitehead. In this book, four scholars of aesthetics provide another angle from which Whiteheadian aesthetics might be reconstructed. Paying special attention to the notion of aesthetic experience, the authors analyze abstraction versus concreteness, immediacy versus mediation, and aesthetic contextualism versus aesthetic isolationism. The concepts of creativity and rhythm are crucial to their interpretation of Whiteheadian aesthetics. Using these concepts, the book interprets the motif of the processes by which experience is harmonized, the sensation of the quality of the whole, and directedness towards novelty.

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Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology
Investigations into Pre-Columbian Iroquoian Space and Place
Eric Jones
University Press of Colorado, 2017
Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology examines Northern Iroquoian archaeology through various lenses at multiple spatial levels, including individual households, village constructions, relationships between villages in a local region, and relationships between various Iroquoian nations and their territorial homelands. The volume includes scholars and scholarship from both sides of the US-Canadian border, presenting a contextualized analysis of settlement and landscape for a broad range of past Northern Iroquoian societies.
The research in this volume represents a new wave of spatial research­—exploring beyond settlement patterning to the process and the meaning behind spatial arrangement of past communities and people—and describes new approaches being used for better understanding of past Northern Iroquoian societies. Addressing topics ranging from household task-scapes and gender relations to bioarchaeology and social network analysis, Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology demonstrates the vitality of current archaeological research into ancestral Northern Iroquoian societies and its growing contribution to wider debates in North American archaeology.
This cutting-edge research will be of interest to archaeologists globally, as well as academics and graduate students studying Northern Iroquoian societies and cultures, geography, and spatial analysis.
Contributors: Kathleen M. S. Allen, Jennifer A. Birch, William Engelbrecht, Crystal Forrest, John P. Hart, Sandra Katz, Robert H. Pihl, Aleksandra Pradzynski, Erin C. Rodriguez, Dean R. Snow, Ronald F. Williamson, Rob Wojtowicz

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The Process of Education
Revised Edition
Jerome Bruner
Harvard University Press, 1960

In this classic argument for curriculum reform in early education, Jerome Bruner shows that the basic concepts of science and the humanities can be grasped intuitively at a very early age. He argues persuasively that curricula should he designed to foster such early intuitions and then build on them in increasingly formal and abstract ways as education progresses.

Bruner’s foundational case for the spiral curriculum has influenced a generation of educators and will continue to be a source of insight into the goals and methods of the educational process.


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The Process of Neurologic Care in Medical Practice
Thomas H. Glick
Harvard University Press, 1984

Most neurology is done by general physicians rather than by neurologists. Still, neurology is perceived by doctors to be one of the most troublesome and difficult medical specialties. Neurologic symptoms are often vague and uncertain, and seemingly insignificant symptoms can reflect frightening disorders.

Thomas Glick, a superb teacher as well as an experienced clinician, has written this book in the belief that errors in handling neurologic cases stem not so much from a failure to command a daunting body of knowledge as from inadequate clinical reasoning. Dr. Glick shows how the skills of the primary-care physician can be applied to the special problems of neurologic history-taking and physical examination. He emphasizes time-saving ways to focus the exam and avoid diagnostic error. The book describes clear procedures for cases that the generalist can handle comfortably and offers guidelines on when (and how) to seek the advice of the consultant neurologist. Case histories, scattered liberally throughout the text, highlight the discussions and give the reader a rich sampling of specific methods of problem solving.

Clinicians who feel skeptical about the effectiveness of neurologic therapy or frustrated by its application will find here a commonsense approach to therapeutic planning. Chapters on ambulatory and chronic neurologic care also convey a positive sense of the broader therapeutic possibilities that exist in neurologic practice. Neurologic residents, senior medical students, psychiatrists, and allied health professionals, as well as primary caregivers, will benefit from the insights contained in this sensitive and articulate book.


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Science as a Process
An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science
David L. Hull
University of Chicago Press, 1990
"Legend is overdue for replacement, and an adequate replacement must attend to the process of science as carefully as Hull has done. I share his vision of a serious account of the social and intellectual dynamics of science that will avoid both the rosy blur of Legend and the facile charms of relativism. . . . Because of [Hull's] deep concern with the ways in which research is actually done, Science as a Process begins an important project in the study of science. It is one of a distinguished series of books, which Hull himself edits."—Philip Kitcher, Nature

"In Science as a Process, [David Hull] argues that the tension between cooperation and competition is exactly what makes science so successful. . . . Hull takes an unusual approach to his subject. He applies the rules of evolution in nature to the evolution of science, arguing that the same kinds of forces responsible for shaping the rise and demise of species also act on the development of scientific ideas."—Natalie Angier, New York Times Book Review

"By far the most professional and thorough case in favour of an evolutionary philosophy of science ever to have been made. It contains excellent short histories of evolutionary biology and of systematics (the science of classifying living things); an important and original account of modern systematic controversy; a counter-attack against the philosophical critics of evolutionary philosophy; social-psychological evidence, collected by Hull himself, to show that science does have the character demanded by his philosophy; and a philosophical analysis of evolution which is general enough to apply to both biological and historical change."—Mark Ridley, Times Literary Supplement

"Hull is primarily interested in how social interactions within the scientific community can help or hinder the process by which new theories and techniques get accepted. . . . The claim that science is a process for selecting out the best new ideas is not a new one, but Hull tells us exactly how scientists go about it, and he is prepared to accept that at least to some extent, the social activities of the scientists promoting a new idea can affect its chances of being accepted."—Peter J. Bowler, Archives of Natural History

"I have been doing philosophy of science now for twenty-five years, and whilst I would never have claimed that I knew everything, I felt that I had a really good handle on the nature of science, Again and again, Hull was able to show me just how incomplete my understanding was. . . . Moreover, [Science as a Process] is one of the most compulsively readable books that I have ever encountered."—Michael Ruse, Biology and Philosophy


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State or Merchant
Political Economy and Political Process in 1740s China
Helen Dunstan
Harvard University Press, 2006

What did it mean to run a large, commercialized agrarian polity according to the best Confucian principles?

This book is intended as a contribution to both intellectual and political history. It is partly a study of how Confucian-trained officials thought about the grain trade and the state's role in it, particularly the "ever-normal granaries," the stockpiles of grain maintained by every county government as protection against shortages and high prices. The author investigates the scope and limits of belief in market forces among those critical of government intervention, establishing that rudimentary economic arguments for state withdrawal from the grain trade were available by 1750. She then explores challenges, from within the ruling apparatus, to the state's claim that its own stockpiling served the public interest, as well as the factors behind decisions in the mid- and late 1740s to suspend or decrease state purchases of grain.

As a study of Confucian government in action, this book describes a mode of public policy discussion far less dominated by the Confucian scriptures than one might expect. As a contribution to intellectual history, the work offers a detailed view of members of an ostensibly Confucian government pursuing divergent agendas around the question of "state or merchant?"


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Streetcar Suburbs
The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870–1900, Second Edition
Sam Bass Warner Jr.
Harvard University Press, 1978

In the last third of the nineteenth century Boston grew from a crowded merchant town, in which nearly everybody walked to work, to the modern divided metropolis. The street railway created this division of the metropolis into an inner city of commerce and slums and an outer city of commuters’ suburbs. Streetcar Suburbs tells who built the new city, and why, and how.

Included here is a new Introduction that considers the present suburb/city dichotomy and suggests what we can learn from it to assure a livable city of the future.


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Structure and Process in Southeastern Archaeology
Edited by Roy Dickens Jr and H. Trawick Ward
University of Alabama Press, 1985

A Dan Josselyn Memorial Publication

Within the general structure-and-process theme of this compendium, the authors have focused on either intrasite problems (those dealing with the formation and structure of a site, type of site, or type of feature) or intersite problems (those dealing with behavioral organization and process as developed from comparative site data). These papers, from a broad range of specialists, present a comprehensive study of southeastern archaeology.

Section I: Intrasite Structure and Formation Processes

Formation Processes for the Practical Prehistorian: An Example from the Southeast, J. Jefferson Reid

The Form, Function, and Formation of Garbage-filled Pits on Southeastern Aboriginal Sites: An Archaeobotanical Analysis, Roy S. Dickens Jr.

Feature Zones and Feature Fill: More Than Trash, Jack H. Wilson Jr.

Social Implications of Storage and Disposal Patterns, H. Trawick Ward

The Form and Function of South Carolina's Early Woodland Shell Rings, Michael B. Trinkley

A New Way of Looking at Old Holes: Methods for Excavating and Interpreting Timber Structures, Alexander H. Morrison II

Section II: Intersite Comparisons and Regional Chronology

Archaeology and the Archaic Period in the Southern Ridge-and-Valley Province, Jefferson Chapman

Intersite Assemblage Variability in the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley: Exploring Extinct Settlement Systems Through Probabilistic Sampling, R. P. Stephen Davis Jr.

Lithic Scatters in the South Carolina Piedmont, Veletta Canouts and Albert C. Goodyear III

Tradition and Typology: Basic Elements of the Carolina Projectile Point Sequence, Billy L. Oliver

Model and Sequence in the Maryland Archaic, Kit W. Wesler

Spheres of Cultural Interaction across the Coastal Plain of Virginia in the Woodland Period, Keith T. Egloff

Early Hopewellian Ceremonial Encampments in the South Appalachian Highlands, John A. Walthall

Deep Water and High Ground: Seventeenth-Century Settlement Patterns on the Carolina Coast, Stanley South and Michael O. Hartley

Epilogue: Joffre Lanning Coe: The Quiet Giant of Southeastern Archaeology, James B. Griffin


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Doctrine and Process
Donald H. Beskind and Doriane Lambelet Coleman
Duke University Press, 2018
In Torts: Doctrine and Process, Donald H. Beskind and Doriane Lambelet Coleman draw on their experience as academics and practitioners to offer a rigorous first-year course that covers intentional torts, negligence, and strict liability, and that meets the highest intellectual and analytical capabilities of today’s law students. Modeling the sophisticated modern practice setting, the cases and materials are designed primarily for extraction learning: their doctrinal context is clear, but the rules are generally derived from careful reading and analysis. This doctrinal approach frames classroom discussions about topical issues in the law and normative, economic, and theoretical arguments about rule choices and legal strategy. The text is also designed to build students’ legal method skills, including honing their abilities to synthesize disparate material, to develop and distinguish between argument and evidence, and to work at the juncture of the substantive “black letter” law of torts and the rules of civil procedure that govern the litigation process. The principal materials are complemented by “notes and questions” and “problems” based on past exams, together providing the basis for this focused introduction to torts and to the law generally.

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Unfinished Show Business
Broadway Musicals as Works-in-Process
Bruce Kirle
Southern Illinois University Press, 2005

In this fresh approach to musical theatre history, Bruce Kirle challenges the commonly understood trajectory of the genre. Drawing on the notion that the world of the author stays fixed while the world of the audience is ever-changing, Kirle suggests that musicals are open, fluid products of the particular cultural moment in which they are performed. Incomplete as printed texts and scores, musicals take on unpredictable lives of their own in the complex transformation from page to stage.

Using lenses borrowed from performance studies, cultural studies, queer studies, and ethnoracial studies, Unfinished Show Business: Broadway Musicals as Works-in-Process argues that musicals are as interesting for the provocative issues they raise about shifting attitudes toward American identity as for their show-stopping song-and-dance numbers and conveniently happy endings. Kirle illustrates how performers such as Ed Wynn, Fanny Brice, and the Marx Brothers used their charismatic personalities and quirkiness to provide insights into the struggle of marginalized ethnoracial groups to assimilate. Using examples from favorites including Oklahoma!, Fiddler on the Roof, A Chorus Line, and Les Misérables, Kirle demonstrates Broadway’s ability to bridge seemingly insoluble tensions in society, from economic and political anxiety surrounding World War II to generational conflict and youth counterculture to corporate America and the “me” generation. Enlivened by a gallery of some of Broadway’s most memorable moments—and some amusing, obscure ones as well—this study will appeal to students, scholars, and lifelong musical theatre enthusiasts.


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Victorian Toronto, 1850 to 1900
Pattern and Process of Growth
Peter G. Goheen
University of Chicago Press, 1970

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When I Came to Die
Process and Prophecy in Thoreau's Vision of Dying
Audrey Raden
University of Massachusetts Press, 2016
Scholars have long considered the elegiac characteristics of Thoreau's work. Yet few have explored how his personal views on death and dying influenced his philosophies and writings. In beautiful prose, Audrey Raden places Thoreau's views of death and dying at the center of his work, contending that it is crucial to consider the specific historical and regional contexts in which he lived—nineteenth-century New England—to fully appreciate his perspectives. To understand death and dying, Thoreau drew on Christian and Eastern traditions, antebellum Northern culture, Transcendentalism, and his personal relationship with nature. He then suffused his writings with these understandings, through what Raden identifies as three key approaches—the sentimental, the heroic, and the mystical.

When I Came to Die suggests that throughout his writings, Thoreau communicated that knowing how to die properly is an art and a lifelong study, a perspective that informed his ideas about politics, nature, and individualism. With this insight, Raden opens a dialogue that will engage both Thoreauvians and those interested in American literature and thought.

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Zouping in Transition
The Process of Reform in Rural North China
Andrew G. Walder
Harvard University Press, 1998

Zouping offers important general lessons for the study of China's rural transformation. The authors in this volume, all participants in a unique field research project undertaken from 1988 to 1992, address questions that are far from simple and about which there is some controversy.

The questions are grouped around two issues. The first is the role of local governments as economic actors. What is this role, how have they played it, and how can we explain their behavior? Have they dominated rural economies through public ownership of industry and local planning, or has the role of local governments diminished with the rise of market transactions and private ownership? The second issue is market reform and inequality. Have rural cadres enjoyed income advantages in the new market environment? Has the provision of such collective services as education and health care declined, leading to new forms of inequality?

The chapters on the role of local government all point to a single conclusion: one cannot explain the rapid development of Zouping without reference to the role of local governments and of local government officials as economic actors. Scholarly writings about the "transitional economies" have often ignored or distorted this aspect of China's reform experience. On the second issue, changes in inequality owing to market reform, the authors present mixed findings but contribute rich new data to the research on this issue.


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