This extensive Spanish language reference explains the logic behind more than 3,000 frequently used verb phrases and combinations that make Spanish speech sound native. Each entry includes a definition of the phrase including its register, synonyms, antonyms, complementary expressions, grammatical patterns, and examples of how the combinations are used in easy and difficult structures. Most entries also point out other factors to be taken into account, such as whether an expression is to be used in isolation, after explaining a cause, or if it shouldn't be used at the beginning of a sentence. The book presents generative patterns for combinations based on conceptual metaphors and grammar structures, details families of expressions as separate charts, and contains an index by complement.
Featuring a wide range of varieties of Spanish, this volume includes both peninsular and New World Spanish and draws on both written and spoken corpora. Based on sound research in cognitive linguistics and written entirely in Spanish, this valuable reference will be useful to advanced students of Spanish, teachers of Spanish, translators, and writers.
ABUNDARAbundar en detalles: Ofrecer mucha información. Esta expresión se utiliza en contextos neutros o formales. En forma negativa (no abundar en detalles) se usa para expresar de manera irónica que alguien no quiere ofrecer tanta información como necesitamos.
S: El informe sobre el golpe de estado V: abunda CR: en detalles sobre la intervención de la CIA
El estudio abunda en detalles estadísticos sobre la inmigración, pero no explica ni sus causas ni sus consecuencias.
La testigo reconoció que era amante del acusado, pero no abundó en detalles sobre su relación.
Contraste:Informal: Paquita llegó a casa borracha y con un ojo morado. Explicó a su marido que se había caído y nada más.Formal: La víctima llegó a su casa intoxicada y con señales de abuso físico. Explicó, sin abundar en detalles, que eran resultado de una caída.
Expresiones relacionadas:1. Entrar en detalles (frecuentemente no entrar en detalles): Discutir un tema en profundidad. ‘No entrar’ significa quedarse fuera, por lo tanto, no entrar en detalles significa no explicar ningún detalle, mientras que no abundar en detalles significa hablar poco sobre un tema.
El estudio abunda en detalles estadísticos sobre la inmigración, pero no explica ni sus causas ni sus consecuencias.
*El estudio entra en detalles estadísticos sobre la inmigración, pero no explica ni sus causas ni sus consecuencias.
Hasta ahora hemos tratado el tema de la absorción de este mineral de manera superficial. Ahora entraremos en detalles.
*Hasta ahora hemos tratado el tema de la absorción de este mineral de manera superficial. Ahora abundaremos en detalles.
The Spanish cleric Bartolomé de Las Casas is a key figure in the history of Spain’s conquest of the Americas. Las Casas condemned the torture and murder of natives by the conquistadores in reports to the Spanish royal court and in tracts such as A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1552). For his unrelenting denunciation of the colonialists’ atrocities, Las Casas has been revered as a noble protector of the Indians and as a pioneering anti-imperialist. He has become a larger-than-life figure invoked by generations of anticolonialists in Europe and Latin America.
Separating historical reality from myth, Daniel Castro provides a nuanced, revisionist assessment of the friar’s career, writings, and political activities. Castro argues that Las Casas was very much an imperialist. Intent on converting the Indians to Christianity, the religion of the colonizers, Las Casas simply offered the natives another face of empire: a paternalistic, ecclesiastical imperialism. Castro contends that while the friar was a skilled political manipulator, influential at what was arguably the world’s most powerful sixteenth-century imperial court, his advocacy on behalf of the natives had little impact on their lives. Analyzing Las Casas’s extensive writings, Castro points out that in his many years in the Americas, Las Casas spent very little time among the indigenous people he professed to love, and he made virtually no effort to learn their languages. He saw himself as an emissary from a superior culture with a divine mandate to impose a set of ideas and beliefs on the colonized. He differed from his compatriots primarily in his antipathy to violence as the means for achieving conversion.
The Art of Teaching Spanish explores in-depth the findings of research in second language acquisition (SLA) and other language-related fields and translates those findings into practical pedagogical tools for current—and future—Spanish-language instructors. This volume addresses how theoretical frameworks affect the application of research findings to the teaching of Spanish, how logistical factors affect the way research findings can be applied to teach Spanish, and how findings from Spanish SLA research would be applicable to Spanish second language teaching and represented in Spanish curricula through objectives and goals (as evidenced in pedagogical materials such as textbooks and computer-assisted language learning software).
Top SLA researchers and applied linguists lend their expertise on matters such as foreign language across curriculum programs, testing, online learning, the incorporation of linguistic variation into the classroom, heritage language learners, the teaching of translation, the effects of study abroad and classroom contexts on learning, and other pedagogical issues. Other common themes of The Art of Teaching Spanish include the rejection of the concept of a monolithic language competence, the importance of language as social practice and cultural competence, the psycholinguistic component of SLA, and the need for more cross-fertilization from related fields.
At the Moon's Inn
Andrew Lytle University of Alabama Press, 2009 Library of Congress PS3523.Y88A93 1990 | Dewey Decimal 813.52
At the Moon's Inn, first published in 1941, provides a fictional account of De Soto's famous Spanish expedition to La Florida and through the southeastern United States between 1539 and 1543. The novel begins in Spain in 1538, where De Soto and his chief lieutenants, veterans of the campaigns in South America, pledge themselves to a new enterprise to explore and exploit La Florida. The narrative follows them on their voyage to Cuba, where they rest and obtain additional supplies, then set sail for the area now known as Tampa Bay. Lytle's brilliant historical novel takes the readers with the conquistadores through the hot, humid land, where despite their advantage in military technology they found they must rely on the Indians for food. The author explores the cultural confrontation that seriously weakened the Indians, while the Spaniards' dreams of gold gradually turned to hopes of survival in the hostile environment.
Drawing his facts from the 1939 United States De Soto Commission Report and from the surviving historical chronicles of the expedition, Lytle weaves a fascinating tale that brings to life the history of Spanish efforts to establish a controlling presence in the New World during the first half of the 16th century.
In his introduction, Douglas Jones places At the Moon's Inn within the context of the documentary record, as well as within the framework of its distinguished author's career.
An accessible reader of both popular and largely unavailable writings of Bartolomé de las Casas
With the exception of Christopher Columbus, Bartolomé de las Casas is arguably the most notable figure of the Encounter Age. He is remembered principally as the creator of the Black Legend, as well as the protector of American Indians. He was one of the pioneers of the human rights movement, and a Christian activist who invoked law and Biblical scripture to challenge European colonialism in the great age of the Encounter. He was also one of the first and most thorough chroniclers of the conquest, and a biographer who saved the diary of Columbus’s first voyage for posterity by transcribing it in his History of the Indies before the diary was lost.
Bartolomé de las Casas and the Defense of Amerindian Rights: A Brief History with Documents provides the most wide-ranging and concise anthology of Las Casas’s writings, in translation, ever made available. It contains not only excerpts from his most well-known texts, but also his largely unavailable writings on political philosophy and law, and addresses the underappreciated aspects of his thought. Fifteen of the twenty-six documents are entirely new translations of Las Casas’s writings, a number of them appearing in English for the first time.
This volume focuses on his historical, political, and legal writings that address the deeply conflicted and violent sixteenth-century encounter between Europeans and indigenous peoples of the Americas. It also presents Las Casas as a more comprehensive and systematic philosophical and legal thinker than he is typically given credit for. The introduction by Lawrence A. Clayton and David M. Lantigua places these writings into a synthetic whole, tracing his advocacy for indigenous peoples throughout his career. By considering Las Casas’s ideas, actions, and even regrets in tandem, readers will understand the historical dynamics of Spanish imperialism more acutely within the social-political context of the times.
Publicada inicialmente en 2007, esta Breve historia de la lengua española se ha convertido en la introducción más difundida a una de las lenguas más importantes del mundo por la extensión de su dominio y el número de hablantes. Este libro ofrece al lector un relato conciso que se propone profundizar en la evolución de la lengua desde sus raíces latinas hasta el presente, prestando especial atención a los cambios históricos y culturales que contribuyeron a su evolución y propagación por el mundo.
La Breve historia de la lengua española se concentra en los cambios más importantes de la evolución de la lengua, evitando la jerga académica ininteligible y favoreciendo la claridad en las explicaciones. Por el camino, intenta dar respuesta a muchas de las preguntas que con frecuencia desconciertan a los hablantes nativos y no nativos: ¿Por qué se utiliza tú en algunos lugares y vos en otros? ¿Cómo surgió la pronunciación como fricativa interdental de la zeta castellana? ¿Por qué se dice la mesa pero el agua con un artículo que parece masculino?
David A. Pharies es un experto en el estudio de la historia y evolución del español, que goza de un reconocido prestigio en la escena internacional. Para actualizar esta segunda edición ha revisado en profundidad todos los aspectos de la evolución del español, incluido su desarrollo demográfico. El libro va dirigido a quienes tienen un conocimiento básico del español y desean aprender más sobre sus orígenes. También constituye una base ideal para emprender el estudio de cualquier aspecto de la lingüística histórica española y de la literatura medieval. Entretenida y accesible, la Breve historia de la lengua española es un gran viaje de descubrimiento en una presentación amena y sucinta.
Since its publication in 2007, A Brief History of the Spanish Language has become the leading introduction to the history of one of the world’s most widely spoken languages. Moving from the language’s Latin roots to its present-day forms, this concise book offers readers insights into the origin and evolution of Spanish, the historical and cultural changes that shaped it, and its spread around the world. A Brief History of the Spanish Language focuses on the most important aspects of the development of the Spanish language, eschewing technical jargon in favor of straightforward explanations. Along the way, it answers many of the common questions that puzzle native and nonnative speakers alike, such as: Why do some regions use tú while others use vos? How did the th sound develop in Castilian? And why is it la mesa but el agua?
David A. Pharies, an internationally recognized expert on the history and development of Spanish, has updated this edition with new research on all aspects of the evolution of Spanish while adding current demographic information as well. This book is perfect for anyone with a basic understanding of Spanish and a desire to further explore its roots. It also provides an ideal foundation for further study in any area of historical Spanish linguistics and early Spanish literature. Both absorbing and accessible, A Brief History of the Spanish Language is a grand journey of discovery in a beautifully compact format.
Spanish is the fourth most widely spoken language in the world and a language of ever-increasing importance in the United States. In what will likely become the introduction to the history of the Spanish language, David Pharies clearly and concisely charts the evolution of Spanish from its Indo-European roots to its present form. An internationally recognized expert on the history and development of this language, Pharies brings to his subject a precise sense of what students of Spanish linguistics need to know.
After introductory chapters on what it means to study the history of a language, the concept of linguistic change, and the nature of language families, Pharies traces the development of Spanish from its Latin roots, all with the minimum amount of technical language possible. In the core sections of the book, readers are treated to an engaging and remarkably succinct presentation of the genealogy and development of the language, including accounts of the structures and peculiarities of Latin, the historical and cultural events that deeply influenced the shaping of the language, the nature of Medieval Spanish, the language myths that have become attached to Spanish, and the development of the language beyond the Iberian Peninsula, especially in the Americas. Focusing on the most important facets of the language’s evolution, this compact work makes the history of Spanish accessible to anyone with a knowledge of Spanish and a readiness to grasp basic linguistic concepts.
Available in both English and Spanish editions, A Brief History of the Spanish Language provides a truly outstanding introduction to the exciting story of one of the world’s great languages.
Since its publication in 2007, A Brief History of the Spanish Language has become the leading introduction to the history of one of the world’s most widely spoken languages. Moving from the language’s Latin roots to its present-day forms, this concise book offers readers insights into the origin and evolution of Spanish, the historical and cultural changes that shaped it, and its spread around the world.
A Brief History of the Spanish Language focuses on the most important aspects of the development of the Spanish language, eschewing technical jargon in favor of straightforward explanations. Along the way, it answers many of the common questions that puzzle native speakers and non-native speakers alike, such as: Why do some regions use tú while others use vos? How did the th sound develop in Castilian? And why is it la mesa but el agua?
David A. Pharies, a world-renowned expert on the history and development of Spanish, has updated this edition with new research on all aspects of the evolution of Spanish and current demographic information. This book is perfect for anyone with a basic understanding of Spanish and a desire to further explore its roots. It also provides an ideal foundation for further study in any area of historical Spanish linguistics and early Spanish literature.
A Brief History of the Spanish Language is a grand journey of discovery, revealing in a beautifully compact format the fascinating story of the language in both Spain and Spanish America.
Guided by myths of golden cities and worldly rewards, policy makers, conquistador leaders, and expeditionary aspirants alike came to the new world in the sixteenth century and left it a changed land. Came Men on Horses follows two conquistadors--Francisco Vázquez de Coronado and Don Juan de Oñate--on their journey across the southwest.
Driven by their search for gold and silver, both Coronado and Oñate committed atrocious acts of violence against the Native Americans, and fell out of favor with the Spanish monarchy. Examining the legacy of these two conquistadors Hoig attempts to balance their brutal acts and selfish motivations with the historical significance and personal sacrifice of their expeditions. Rich human details and superb story-telling make Came Men on Horses a captivating narrative scholars and general readers alike will appreciate.
Published in 1499 and centered on the figure of a bawd and witch, Fernando de Rojas' dark and disturbing Celestina was destined to become the most suppressed classic in Spanish literary history. Routinely ignored in Spanish letters, the book nonetheless echoes through contemporary Spanish and Latin American literature. This is the phenomenon that Celestina's Brood explores. Roberto González Echevarría, one of the most eminent and influential critics of Hispanic literature writing today, uses Rojas' text as his starting point to offer an exploration of modernity in the Hispanic literary tradition, and of the Baroque as an expression of the modern. His analysis of Celestina reveals the relentless probing of the limits of language and morality that mark the work as the beginning of literary modernity in Spanish, and the start of a tradition distinguished by a penchant for the excesses of the Baroque. González Echevarría pursues this tradition and its meaning through the works of major figures such as Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Alejo Carpentier, Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel García Márquez, Nicolás Guillén, and Severo Sarduy, as well as through the works of lesser-known authors. By revealing continuities of the Baroque, Celestina's Brood cuts across conventional distinctions between Spanish and Latin American literary traditions to show their profound and previously unimagined affinity.
Cien años de identidad: Introducción a la literatura latinoamericana del siglo XX [One Hundred Years of Identity: Introduction to Twentieth-Century Latin American Literature] is an advanced Spanish textbook and Latin American literature anthology, guiding students through the critical analysis of fourteen literary and filmic texts published between 1889 and 1995, including works from Jorge Luis Borges, Isabel Allende, and Gabriel García Márquez that represent some of the seminal works of Latin America. The textbook is designed to introduce students to the richness of twentieth-century Latin American literature and culture, while building their skills in textual analysis through an examination of the theme of identity. The featured texts examine the complex and multifaceted topic of identity as the authors and protagonists struggle to understand themselves, determine their relationship to the world and others, and give meaning and significance to their existence. The textbook guides students step-by-step through critical analysis by presenting a range of tools and progressing from simple to more complex exercises and activities throughout the book. It is divided into four units based on various types of identity formation: (1) racial, ethnic, gender and class identity, (2) existential(ist) identity, (3) temporal and spatial identity, (4) political and sexual identity. Serving as both a Latin American literature anthology and an upper-level Spanish textbook, Cien años de identidad aims to hone reading and interpretive strategies, while also improving Spanish vocabulary and comprehension, oral and written communication, and cultural competency.
Features: • Complete unabridged works from these authors: Isabel Allende, Jorge Luis Borges, Rosario Castellanos, Julio Cortázar, Rubén Darío, Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel García Márquez, José Martí, Judith Ortiz Cofer, and Sergio Vodanovic• Complete pedagogy included for the novel El beso de la mujer araña by Manuel Puig and the film Fresa y chocolate by Tomás Gutiérrez Alea and Juan Carlos Tabío, although these two works are not anthologized in the textbook• Additional cultural contexts and author biographies for each text, as well as appropriate glosses and numbered lines for easy reference in class discussions• Four end-of-unit chapters focused on comparative literature strategies that are designed to coach students on how to compare authors and texts across common themes and further improve critical analysis strategies• Seventeen post-reading quizzes or homework assignments as well as a final examination, available to instructors only through the publisher website
California would be a different place today without the imprint of Spanish culture and the legacy of Indian civilization. The colonial Spanish missions that dot the coast and foothills between Sonoma and San Diego are relics of a past that transformed California’s landscape and its people.In a spare and accessible style, Colonial Rosary looks at the complexity of California’s Indian civilization and the social effects of missionary control. While oppressive institutions lasted in California for almost eighty years under the tight reins of royal Spain, the Catholic Church, and the government of Mexico, letters and government documents reveal the missionaries’ genuine concern for the Indian communities they oversaw—for their health, spiritual upbringing, and material needs.With its balanced attention to the variety of sources on the mission period, Colonial Rosary illuminates ongoing debates over the role of the Franciscan missions in the settlement of California.By sharing the missions’ stories of tragedy and triumph, author Alison Lake underlines the importance of preserving these vestiges of California’s prestatehood period. An illustrated tour of the missions as well as a sensitive record of their impact on California history and culture, Colonial Rosary brings the story of the Spanish missions of California alive.
The current image of the Spanish conquest of America and of the conquistadores who carried it out is one of destruction and oppression. One conquistador does not fit that image, however. A life-changing adventure led Cabeza de Vaca to seek a different kind of conquest, one that would be just and humane, true to Spanish religion and law, but one that safeguarded liberty and justice for the Indians of the New World. His use of the skills learned from his experiences with the Indians of North America did not always help him in understanding and managing the Indians of South America, and too many of the Spanish settlers in the Rio de la Plata Province found that his policies threatened their own interests and relations with the Indians. Eventually many of those Spaniards joined a conspiracy that removed him from power and returned him to Spain in chains.
That Cabeza de Vaca was overthrown is not surprising. His ideas and policies opposed the self-interest of most of the first Spaniards who had come to America. What is amazing is that he was able to inspire and hold support among many others in America, who remained loyal to him during his time in prison and after his return to Spain.
The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva is an engaging record of key research by archaeologists, ethnographers, historians, and geographers concerning the first organized European entrance into what is now the American Southwest and northwestern Mexico.
In search of where the expedition went and what peoples it encountered, this volume explores the fertile valleys of Sonora, the basins and ranges of southern Arizona, the Zuni pueblos and the Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico, and the Llano Estacado of the Texas panhandle.
The twenty-one contributors to the volume have pursued some of the most significant lines of research in the field in the last fifty years; their techniques range from documentary analysis and recording traditional stories to detailed examination of the landscape and excavation of campsites and Indian towns. With more confidence than ever before, researchers are closing in on the route of the conquistadors.
Like Cortés and Pizarro, Coronado Sought to Conquer a Native American Empire of the Southwest
“Hutchins’s new study on Coronado’s famous expedition to the American Southwest in the 1540s focuses on its military aspects rather than its more familiar expansionist or religious ones. His examination of the weapons and strategies of European armies at the time give the book a refreshingly different emphasis than most prior studies of Coronado’s quest.” —Robert W. Larson, author of Gall: A Lakota Chief
“Hutchins gives a lively accounting of Coronado’s great Southwestern expedition. He expertly focuses on the military details of Coronado’s journey, which oftentimes have been ignored. Based on his extensive review of the military practices of the time, Hutchins offers some especially cogent arguments regarding Coronado’s application of armaments and tactics.” —Jack Ballard, author of Commander and Builder of Western Forts: The Life and Times of Major General Henry C. Merriam
The historic 1540–1542 expedition of Captain-General Francisco Vasquez de Coronado is popularly remembered as a luckless party of exploration which wandered the American Southwest and then blundered onto the central Great Plains of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The expedition, as historian John M. Hutchins relates in Coronado’s Well-Equipped Army: The Spanish Invasion of the American Southwest, was a military force of about 1,500 individuals, made up of Spanish soldiers, Indian warrior allies, and camp followers. Despite the hopes for a peaceful conquest of new lands—including those of a legendary kingdom of Cibola—the expedition was obliged to fight a series of battles with the natives in present-day Sonora, California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The final phase of the invasion was less warlike, as the members of the expedition searched the Great Plains in vain for a wealthy civilization called Quivira.While much has been written about the march of Coronado and his men, this is the first book to address the endeavor as a military campaign of potential conquest like those conducted by other conquistadors. This helps to explain many of the previously misunderstood activities of the expedition. In addition, new light is cast on the non-Spanish participants, including Mexican Indian allies and African retainers, as well as the important roles of women.
In this invited volume, experts in Spanish linguistics who subscribe to the Chomskyian thory of Universal Grammar, along with the editors, approach the general applicability of this model from the perspectives of their subdisciplines: language acquisition, syntax, semantics, phonology, and morphology. Their research points to the verification of the Chomskyian linguistic theory as a general framework for explaining phenomena in language acquistion and use—and, more generally, to the possible development of a model of mind based on linguistic theory. Current Studies in Spanish Linguistics will interest all specialists in Spanish and theoretical linguistics, as well as those interested in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy of mind, and artificial intelligence.
Spanish cuisine is a melting-pot of cultures, flavors, and ingredients: Greek and Roman; Jewish, Moorish, and Middle Eastern. It has been enriched by Spanish climate, geology, and spectacular topography, which have encouraged a variety of regional food traditions and “Cocinas,” such as Basque, Galician, Castilian, Andalusian, and Catalan. It has been shaped by the country’s complex history, as foreign occupations brought religious and cultural influences that determined what people ate and still eat. And it has continually evolved with the arrival of new ideas and foodstuffs from Italy, France, and the Americas, including cocoa, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, and chili peppers. Having become a powerhouse of creativity and innovation in recent decades, Spanish cuisine has placed itself among the best in the world.
This is the first book in English to trace the history of the food of Spain from antiquity to the present day. From the use of pork fat and olive oil to the Spanish passion for eggplants and pomegranates, María José Sevilla skillfully weaves together the history of Spanish cuisine, the circumstances affecting its development and characteristics, and the country’s changing relationship to food and cookery.
Offering an alternative narrative of the conquest of the Incas, Gonzalo Lamana both examines and shifts away from the colonial imprint that still permeates most accounts of the conquest. Lamana focuses on a key moment of transition: the years that bridged the first contact between Spanish conquistadores and Andean peoples in 1531 and the moment, around 1550, when a functioning colonial regime emerged. Using published accounts and array of archival sources, he focuses on questions of subalternization, meaning making, copying, and exotization, which proved crucial to both the Spaniards and the Incas. On the one hand, he re-inserts different epistemologies into the conquest narrative, making central to the plot often-dismissed, discrepant stories such as books that were expected to talk and year-long attacks that could only be launched under a full moon. On the other hand, he questions the dominant image of a clear distinction between Inca and Spaniard, showing instead that on the battlefield as much as in everyday arenas such as conversion, market exchanges, politics, and land tenure, the parties blurred into each other in repeated instances of mimicry.
Lamana’s redefinition of the order of things reveals that, contrary to the conquerors’ accounts, what the Spanairds achieved was a “domination without dominance.” This conclusion undermines common ideas of Spanish (and Western) superiority. It shows that casting order as a by-product of military action rests on a pervasive fallacy: the translation of military superiority into cultural superiority. In constant dialogue with critical thinking from different disciplines and traditions, Lamana illuminates how this new interpretation of the conquest of the Incas revises current understandings of Western colonialism and the emergence of still-current global configurations.
El español en contacto con otras lenguas is the first comprehensive historical, social, and linguistic overview of Spanish in contact with other languages in all of its major contexts—in Spain, the United States, and Latin America. In this significant contribution to the field of Hispanic linguistics, Carol A. Klee and Andrew Lynch explore the historical and social factors that have shaped contact varieties of the Spanish language, synthesizing the principle arguments and theories about language contact, and examining linguistic changes in Spanish phonology, morphology and syntax, and pragmatics.
Individual chapters analyze particular contact situations: in Spain, contact with Basque, Catalan, Valencian, and Galician; in Mexico, Central, and South America, contact with Nahuatl, Maya, Quechua, Aimara, and Guarani; in the Southern Cone, contact with other principle European languages such as Portuguese, Italian, English, German, and Danish; in the United States, contact with English. A separate chapter explores issues of creolization in the Philippines and the Americas and highlights the historical influence of African languages on Spanish, primarily in the Caribbean and Equatorial Guinea.
Written in Spanish, this detailed synthesis of wide-ranging research will be a valuable resource for scholars of Hispanic linguistics, language contact, and sociolinguistics.
Informed by the latest research in the fields of second language acquisition and applied linguistics, El español y la lingüística aplicada responds to the central questions that lie at the heart of learning Spanish as a second or foreign language. What does it mean to know a language? Can technology help second language learners? How does studying abroad promote language acquisition?
Framing chapters in terms of these and other critical areas of inquiry, Robert J. Blake and Eve C. Zyzik examine the linguistic challenges and pitfalls involved in Spanish-language learning and delve into practical implications for students and teachers. Written entirely in Spanish, some chapters focus on specific areas of Spanish grammar that tend to pose difficulty for learners, while others explore broad pedagogical themes related to the concept of proficiency, the nature of input, and the impact of learning context. Each chapter ends with a series of guided questions for reflection and further research.
Designed to address the pre-service training needs of Spanish language professionals, El español y la lingüística aplicada will also be of interest to anyone wishing to develop linguistic expertise in this important world language.
Students of advanced Spanish share a desire to use and understand the language, even as their backgrounds and goals for the language may vary widely. En otras palabras provides advanced learners of Spanish with hands-on manipulation of grammatical, lexical, and cultural detail through the practice of translation (traducción). This challenging and enjoyable textbook—now in its second edition with up-to-date texts on current events, new exercises, and new and expanded instructions—presents students with incisive grammar explanation, relevant lexical information, and a wide variety of translation texts and exercises in order to increase their mastery of the Spanish language.
En otras palabras contains Spanish texts to be translated into English as well as English texts for translation into Spanish. Translating into English requires students to understand every detail of the Spanish text and decide how these details might best be expressed in English. Translating into Spanish requires students to recognize how Spanish structures and words do—and do not—parallel those of English. Both activities provide advanced students of Spanish with an invigorating linguistic workout and serve as an effective introduction to the practice of translation.
Translation is a cultural as well as a linguistic activity; for students, learning how to translate provides invaluable experience of the inseparability of language and culture. En otras palabras addresses the errors made by advanced learners of Spanish while involving students in the pleasurable, problem-solving process of translation. This second edition contains a wide variety of usage-based exercises for both individual and group work. Concise and complete texts feature narrative and description, marketing and publicity materials, medical and legal topics, sports journalism, and internet posts.
En otras palabras is designed for a three-credit semester class; an online Instructor's Manual is provided at no charge to professors who adopt the text in their classrooms.
This rich textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the principal concepts and thematic areas of Spanish pragmatics. It is aimed at advanced students of Spanish—upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students—who need to hone their language skills for contextually sensitive use of the language.
Written entirely in Spanish, with Spanish examples, this volume introduces basic pragmatics, methods of analysis, and new thematic areas such as language and the press and globalization. Theoretical explanations combine with practical exercises in each chapter to help students master the subtleties of language use.
This series is designed to provide a detailed account of one of the major problems in the teaching of a second language—the interference caused by structural differences between the native language of the learner and the foreign language he is studying. The similarities and differences between English and the language being taught are described in two volumes, one on the sound systems and one on the grammatical systems, for some of the foreign languages most in demand in the United States today.
Integrating grammar and composition, this comprehensive new edition guides the advanced student through progressively more complex types of writing by organizing the grammar lessons on a functionalist basis around the needs of composition. This innovative approach to teaching Spanish grammar and composition promotes systematic language development and enables students to strengthen their expressive and editing skills in the language in order to write more effectively and more confidently. Refined by years of classroom testing and analysis of the problems students encounter, this bestselling textbook has been substantially rewritten and incorporates current research in composition, pedagogy, second-language acquisition, and linguistics. Expanded self-correcting exercises are also available online, making Gramática para la composición one of the most valuable textbooks available for advanced students of Spanish.
FEATURES: • Focuses on work in six level-appropriate types of composition: description, synopsis, personal narrative, creative narrative, exposition, and argumentation;
• Based on ACTFL guidelines for students progressing from intermediate to advanced levels of proficiency;
• Covers syntax, dictionary skills, problematic word distinctions, and rhetorical features of discourse structure;
• Contains exercises on grammar practice, working with sentences and paragraphs, guided essays, and free composition.
NEW TO THE SECOND EDITION:
• Each lesson has been clearly divided into two distinct parts: Presentación (material that students prepare before class) and Aplicación (the activities they do in class or as homework);
• Prácticas individuales have been expanded and recreated as self-checking exercises that provide immediate feedback and scoring. These prácticas are available for free online at www.gramaticaparalacomposicion.com;
• Images from William Bull's Visual Grammar of Spanish help with distinctions that seem difficult;
• An Instructor's Manual—available for free online—reviews teaching and grading methodology for writing-intensive courses, offers suggestions for syllabus organization and for teaching each lesson, and provides additional exercises and activities. To download this free PDF, visit www.press.georgetown.edu;
• Free website created by authors contains self-checking exercises at www.gramaticaparalacomposicion.com.
Integrating grammar and composition, this new edition of the best-selling textbook guides the advanced student through progressively more complex types of writing by organizing the grammar lessons on a functionalist basis around the needs of composition. This innovative approach to teaching Spanish grammar and composition promotes systematic language development and enables students to strengthen their expressive and editing skills in the language in order to write more effectively and confidently.
Refined by years of classroom testing and analysis of the problems students encounter, this new edition features the following:
• A new, colorful design helps students navigate the book more easily and engages visual learning strategies.
• Readings for the major composition exercises have been updated to stress authentic, connected discourse.
• A fully redesigned companion website.
• The site offers two-thirds more activities than the previous edition.
• Streamlined treatment of points of grammar, including an explanation for more than twelve functions of se with a rule of subject reflexivization.
• The instructor’s manual for Gramática para la composición, tercera edición is available for free on the press’s website. A wonderful resource for instructors, the manual includes details on updates to the new edition, suggested lesson sequences for different course lengths, and a sectional index of the text.
"Roa-de-la-Carrera convincingly shows that Gómara, as well as other historians in the period, cannot easily ignore nor erase the contradictions of the Spanish colonial project."
- Luis Fernando Restrepo, University of Arkansas
“In an eloquent and thorough exegesis, Roa-de-la-Carrera reveals how and why López de Gómara, having written the best of all possible books in exultation of Spanish imperialism, nevertheless failed to convince the readers of his time."
- Susan Schroeder, Tulane University
In Histories of Infamy, Cristián Roa-de-la-Carrera explores Francisco López de Gómara's (1511-ca.1559) attempt to ethically reconcile Spain's civilizing mission with the conquistadors' abuse and exploitation of Native peoples.
The most widely read account of the conquest in its time, Gómara's Historia general de las Indias y Conquista de México rationalized the conquistadors' crimes as unavoidable evils in the task of bringing "civilization" to the New World. Through an elaborate defense of Spanish imperialism, Gómara aimed to convince his readers of the merits of the conquest, regardless of the devastation it had wrought upon Spain's new subjects. Despite his efforts, Gómara's apologist text quickly fell into disrepute and became ammunition for Spain's critics. Evaluating the effectiveness of ideologies of colonization, Roa-de-la-Carrera's analysis will appeal to scholars in colonial studies and readers interested in the history of the Americas.
Por fin disponible en español, Ilegal es el aclamado libro de memorias de José Ángel N., un inmigrante indocumentado que se construyó una vida nueva en Estados Unidos, a donde llegó habiendo cursado la secundaria. N. acogió la educación y de ahí ascendió, de ser aprendiz del inglés como segunda lengua a realizar estudios de posgrado, antes de convertirse en traductor profesional. A pesar de tener un buen trabajo, hubo barreras que lo confinaron a las sombras. La falta de documentación legal le impedía viajar con libertad e incluso comprar una cerveza en un juego de béisbol. A pesar de vivir en un lujoso rascacielos, no puede abrazar completamente el sueño americano. Sin embargo, N. persistió. Esta motivante historia de éxito contradice los estereotipos de los inmigrantes indocumentados a la vez que evidencia cómo la educación puede convertirse en un triunfo ante la adversidad.
José Ángel N. es escritor y traductor. Sus ensayos se han publicado en revistas culturales en México y Estados Unidos. Verónica Murguía es escritora y traductora y radica en México.
Sometimes referred to as the first published manual of guerrilla warfare, Bernardo de Vargas Machuca’s Indian Militia and Description of the Indies is actually the first known manual of counterinsurgency, or anti-guerrilla warfare. Published in Madrid in 1599 by a Spanish-born soldier of fortune with long experience in the Americas, the book is a training manual for conquistadors. The Aztec and Inca Empires had long since fallen by 1599, but Vargas Machuca argued that many more Native American peoples remained to be conquered and converted to Roman Catholicism. What makes his often shrill and self-righteous treatise surprising is his consistent praise of indigenous resistance techniques and medicinal practices.
Containing advice on curing rattlesnake bites with amethysts and making saltpeter for gunpowder from concentrated human urine, The Indian Militia is a manual in four parts, the first of which outlines the ideal qualities of the militia commander. Addressing the organization and outfitting of conquest expeditions, Book Two includes extended discussions of arms and medicine. Book Three covers the proper behavior of soldiers, providing advice on marching through peaceful and bellicose territories, crossing rivers, bivouacking in foul weather, and carrying out night raids and ambushes. Book Four deals with peacemaking, town-founding, and the proper treatment of conquered peoples. Appended to these four sections is a brief geographical description of all of Spanish America, with special emphasis on the indigenous peoples of New Granada (roughly modern-day Colombia), followed by a short guide to the southern coasts and heavens. This first English-language edition of The Indian Militia includes an extensive introduction, a posthumous report on Vargas Machuca’s military service, and a selection from his unpublished attack on the writings of Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas.
The Columbus brothers worked relentlessly for eight years to prepare the voyage Christopher dreamed of: the search for the passage to the Indies, Cipango and the Empire of the Great Khan. Bartolomeo tells the story from the very outset; he is his brother's accomplice and the main witness to the events leading to the Indies Enterprise.
Introducción a la historia de la lengua española es una introducción completa a la historia externa e interna de la lengua española desde sus orígenes indoeuropeos hasta la lengua moderna de más de 400 millones de personas. Los autores escudriñan los cambios fonológicos, morfológicos, sintácticos semánticos y léxicos que caracterizan la evolución de la lengua española desde sus orígenes latinos.
El foco de este libro es el español moderno. Los autores abordan cuestiones tan fundamentales como: ¿De dónde proviene el español? ¿Cómo llegó a ser la lengua que conocemos hoy en día? ¿Cómo se relaciona genética y culturalmente con los demás lenguas romances y a las lenguas no romances? ¿Cuáles son los efectos del bilingüismo en las áreas donde el español coexiste con otras lenguas?
La segunda edición incluye numerosos ejercicios, una sección de preguntas de repaso al final de cada capítulo, y una extensa bibliografía. El libro está actualizado y ampliado en gran medida en el alcance y profundidad; sin embargo, respeta y conserva la estructura y el enfoque pedagógicos de la primera edición para el uso con los estudiantes que no tienen conocimientos previos en la lingüística. En los cursos avanzados y de posgrado, el programa puede incorporar asignaciones adicionales y secciones, incluyendo la opción "Temas y datos adicionales" que acompañan a cada capítulo.
Introducción a la historia de la lengua española is a comprehensive introduction to the internal and external history of the Spanish language from its Indo-European ancestry to the present-day language of over 400 million people. The authors examine the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and lexical changes that characterize the evolution of Spanish from its Latin origins. But Spanish has not evolved in isolation in its spread across Spain and to Africa, the Americas, Asia, and islands of the Pacific Ocean. The foreign, sociological, and political influences that contribute to the uniqueness, diversity, and unity of a world language are essential aspects of the study of its history.
The focus of this book is modern Spanish. The authors address such fundamental questions as: Where does Spanish come from? How did it become the language we know today? How is it related genetically and culturally to other Romance and non-Romance languages? What are the effects of bilingualism in areas where Spanish coexists with other languages?
Introducción a la historia de la lengua española includes numerous exercises, a section of study questions at the end of each chapter, and an extensive bibliography. The second edition is updated and greatly expanded in scope and depth, yet it carefully maintains the structure and pedagogical approach of the first edition for use with students who have no prior background in linguistics. In advanced and graduate-level courses, the syllabus can incorporate additional assignments and sections, including the optional “Temas y datos adicionales” that accompany each chapter.
Of immense value to linguists, anthropologists, epigraphers, and ethnobotanists
•More than twenty-thousand entries
•In trilingual format with extensive Spanish-Itzaj Maya and English Itzaj indexes
•Includes a grammatical sketch describing morphological and syntactic processes of Itzaj Maya words
•Three appendixes present flora and fauna taxonomy and an overview of body parts
An early Spanish explorer’s account of American Indians.
This volume mines the Pardo documents to reveal a wealth of information pertaining to Pardo’s routes, his encounters and interactions with native peoples, the social, hierarchical, and political structures of the Indians, and clues to the ethnic identities of Indians known previously only through archaeology. The new afterword reveals recent archaeological evidence of Pardo’s Fort San Juan--the earliest site of sustained interaction between Europeans and Indians--demonstrating the accuracy of Hudson’s route reconstructions.
La España que sobrevive
Fernando Diaz-Plaja and William W. Cressey Georgetown University Press, 1997 Library of Congress PC4127.S63D53 1997 | Dewey Decimal 468.6421
Students of Spanish language and culture can now benefit from a text that provides them with an understanding of contemporary Spanish history and society while refining their knowledge of the language and expanding their vocabulary.
La España que sobrevive (originally published in Madrid in 1987) explores the aftermath of the Franco era in Spain. It presents an objective and nonpartisan, yet humorous and affectionate, view of the important aspects of contemporary Spanish history and society. Topics include the transition to democracy; regionalism and nationalism; key players in current affairs; important institutions such as the monarchy, military, and the church; sexual mores; culture; the media; and politicized approaches to Spanish history.
For this edition, William W. Cressey has edited Fernando Díaz-Plaja's text to make it accessible to English-speaking students at an advanced level of Spanish reading skills. Cressey has also added study aids to the book—vocabulary and footnotes, glosses on proper names, questions for discussion, notes on grammar and rhetoric, and exercises. The study aids are gradually phased out, so that the final chapter is presented as stand-alone reading without any supplementary materials.
Cressey's adaptation of Díaz-Plaja's highly respected work provides an alternative to literary sources for foreign language instruction—a new resource for teaching foreign languages across the curriculum and instruction through content. Bridging the gap between the fairly simple intermediate readers and texts written for adult native speakers, this book can serve as either a supplementary or main text in the advanced study of language or history, or in preparation for study abroad. La España que sobrevive is a practical tool for teaching not only the language but also the many facets of modern Spanish culture.
A cross-disciplinary view of an important De Soto chronicle.
Among the early Spanish chroniclers who contributed to popular images of the New World was the Amerindian-Spanish (mestizo) historian and literary writer, El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616). He authored several works, of which La Florida del Inca (1605) stands out as the best because of its unique Amerindian and European perspectives on the De Soto expedition (1539-1543). As the child of an Indian mother and a Spanish father, Garcilaso lived in both worlds--and saw value in each. Hailed throughout Europe for his excellent contemporary Renaissance writing style, his work was characterized as literary art. Garcilaso revealed the emotions, struggles, and conflicts experienced by those who participated in the historic and grandiose adventure in La Florida. Although criticized for some lapses in accuracy in his attempts to paint both the Spaniards and the Amerindians as noble participants in a world-changing event, his work remains the most accessible of all the chronicles.
In this volume, Jonathan Steigman explores El Inca’s rationale and motivations in writing his chronicle. He suggests that El Inca was trying to influence events by influencing discourse; that he sought to create a discourse of tolerance and agrarianism, rather than the dominant European discourse of intolerance, persecution, and lust for wealth. Although El Inca's purposes went well beyond detailing the facts of De Soto’s entrada, his skill as a writer and his dual understanding of the backgrounds of the participants enabled him to paint a more complete picture than most--putting a sympathetic human face on explorers and natives alike.
First published in 1554 and banned by the Inquisition, the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes begat a whole new genre—the picaresque novel. This classic has had enduring popularity as a literary expression of Spanish identity and emotion. Through its daring autobiographical form the reader observes the magnificent, conquering Spain of Charles the Fifth through the inner consciousness of the humble Lazarillo.
This editon includes the annotated Spanish-language text and prologue (with modernized and regularized spelling) , a full vocabulary, and concise footnotes explaining allusions and translating phrases of varying difficulty.
Around 1700 AD the Lacandon Maya took refuge in the forest lowlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and in western Petén, Guatemala. They were never conquered by the Spanish and thus maintained many of their cultural practices well into the twentieth century. Their language belongs to the Yucatecan branch of the Maya language, a branch that is believed to have begun to diversify at least one thousand years ago. Today the Lancandon are split into northern and southern linguistic groups. This dictionary focuses on the southern Lacandon of Lacanjá.
Following the same trilingual format as Hofling’s Mopan Maya-Spanish-English Dictionary, this reference contains pronunciation and grammatical information. It is a hybrid of a root dictionary and one with words in alphabetical order; words can be looked up in these two different ways, making it easy to use for both native and nonnative speakers. It also accommodates Spanish speakers who wish to learn Lacandon, and in the future is likely to be helpful to Lacandon-speaking children, who increasingly use Spanish outside the home, while preserving a record of this indigenous language.
Learning French from Spanish and Spanish from French provides adult English speakers who have learned either Spanish or French as a second language with the tools to learn the other language as a third language. All human languages have some common elements, but certain languages—because of their shared history—have a great deal in common. French and Spanish are ideal candidates for an approach that highlights their differences in the context of their commonalities.
Research in the growing fields of third-language acquisition and multilingualism documents how successful third-language learners intuitively build on the knowledge they acquired while learning a second language. The book takes advantage of the fact that learners with intermediate proficiency in a second language are used to thinking consciously about language, know themselves as language learners, and can capitalize on what they know about one language to understand the other. For students, travelers, and budding multilinguals, the book will accelerate the learning of French or Spanish as a third language.
The Luna Papers, 1559–1561: Volumes 1 & 2
Translated and edited by Herbert Ingram Priestley, foreword by John E. Worth University of Alabama Press, 2010 Library of Congress F314.L93 2010 | Dewey Decimal 975.901
The 1559–1561 expedition of Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano to Florida was at the time of Spain’s most ambitious attempt yet to establish a colonial presence in southeastern North America. In June of 159, eleven ships carrying some five hundred soldiers and one thousand additional colonists, including not just Spaniards but also many of Aztec and African descent, sailed north from Veracruz, Mexico, on their way to the bay known then as Ochuse, and later as Pensacola. Finally arriving in mid-August, the colonists quickly sent word of their arrival back to Mexico and unloaded their supplies over the next five weeks, leaving vital food stores onboard the vessels until suitable warehouses could be constructed in the new settlement. When an unexpected hurricane struck on the night of September 19, 1559, however, seven of ten remaining vessels in Luna’s fleet were destroyed, and the expedition was instantaneously converted from a colonial venture to a mission in need of rescue.
Though ultimately doomed to failure by the hurricane that devastated their fleet and food stores, the Luna expedition nonetheless served as an immediate prelude to the successful establishment of a permanent colonial presence at St. Augustine on Florida’s Atlantic coast in 1565, and prefaced the eventual establishment after 1698 of three successive Spanish presidios at the same Pensacola Bay where Luna’s attempt had been made more than a century before.
This new publication of Herbert Priestley’s The Luna Papers marks the celebration by the modern city of Pensacola, Florida, of the 450th anniversary of Luna’s fateful colony.
Winner of the 2015 A-Asia/ICAS Africa-Asia Book Prize, a global competition, for the best book in English, French, or Portuguese on any topic linking Asia and Africa.
The Magellan Fallacy argues that literature in Spanish from Asia and Africa, though virtually unknown, reimagines the supposed centers and peripheries of the modern world in fundamental ways. Through archival research and comparative readings, The Magellan Fallacy rethinks mainstream mappings of diverse cultures while advocating the creation of a new field of scholarship: global literature in Spanish. As the first attempt to analyze Asian and African literature in Spanish together, and doing so while ranging over all continents, The Magellan Fallacy crosses geopolitical and cultural borders without end. The implications of the book, therefore, extend far beyond the lands formerly ruled by the Spanish empire. The Magellan Fallacy shows that all theories of globalization, including those focused on the Americas and Europe, must be able to account for the varied significances of hispanophone Asia and Africa as well.
An increasing number of U.S. Latinos are seeking to become more proficient in Spanish. The Spanish they may have been exposed to in childhood may not be sufficient when they find themselves as adults in more demanding environments, academic or professional. Heritage language learners appear in a wide spectrum of proficiency, from those who have a low level of speaking abilities, to those who may have a higher degree of bilingualism, but not fluent. Whatever the individual case may be, these heritage speakers of Spanish have different linguistic and pedagogical needs than those students learning Spanish as a second or foreign language.
The members of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese (AATSP) have identified teaching heritage learners as their second greatest area of concern (after proficiency testing). Editors Ana Roca and Cecilia Colombi saw a great need for greater availability and dissemination of scholarly research in applied linguistics and pedagogy that address the development and maintenance of Spanish as a heritage language and the teaching of Spanish to U.S. Hispanic bilingual students in grades K-16. The result is Mi lengua: Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States.
Mi lengua delves into the research, theory, and practice of teaching Spanish as a heritage language in the United States. The editors and contributors examine theoretical considerations in the field of Heritage Language Development (HLD) as well as community and classroom-based research studies at the elementary, secondary, and university levels. Some chapters are written in Spanish and each chapter presents a practical section on pedagogical implications that provides practice-related suggestions for the teaching of Spanish as a heritage language to students from elementary grades to secondary and college and university levels.
With a focus on Spanish modality, this book presents Bohumil Zavadil’s theoretical approach—the first such presentation in English—to this category and, consequently, analyzes its possible application to Spanish. Concentrating on specific areas of the Spanish modal system where two modal meanings combine, Dana Kratochvílová integrates theoretical analyses with corpus-based studies from the InterCorp corpus on the choice of mood and the contextual interpretation of selected constructions. Her approachs verifies that areas where two modal meanings meet are a natural part of the Spanish modal system and that the combination of modal meanings has consequences on mood selection, thus shedding new light on the use of the subjunctive in Spanish.
Smithsonian-Utah Publications in American Indian Languages
Lyle Campbell and Ives Goddard
This is highly valuable dictionary of the Mopan (Mayan) language. In addition to its many entries, it also provides an introductory grammatical description, as well as general dictionary features such as parts of speech, examples, cross-references, variant forms, homophones, and indexes. The book also contains special sections on orthography and pronunciation unique to this important Mayan language, as well as translations into English and Spanish.
The dictionary has the merits well known from other dictionaries of indigenous languages of the Americas, preserving knowledge systems as they are encoded in vocabulary and providing valuable information for numerous fields, including Mayanists, Mesoamericanists, American Indian scholars, anthropologists, historians, linguists, students of Mayan hieroglyphic writing, and members of modern Mayan communities, among others.
This is the second book in the new Smithsonian-Utah Publications in American Indian Languages (SUPAIL) series, a joint venture of the University of Utah Press and the Smithsonian Institution.
Spanish-led entradas—expeditions bent on the exploration and control of new territories—took place throughout the sixteenth century in what is now the southern United States. Although their impact was profound, both locally and globally, detailed analyses of these encounters are notably scarce. Focusing on several major themes—social, economic, political, military, environmental, and demographic—the contributions gathered here explore not only the cultures and peoples involved in these unique engagements but also the wider connections and disparities between these borderlands and the colonial world in general during the first century of Native–European contact in North America. Bringing together research from both the southwestern and southeastern United States, this book offers a comparative synthesis of Native–European contacts and their consequences in both regions. The chapters also engage at different scales of analysis, from locally based research to macro-level evaluations, using documentary, paleoclimatic, and regional archaeological data.
No other volume assembles such a wide variety of archaeological, ethnohistorical, environmental, and biological information to elucidate the experience of Natives and Europeans in the early colonial world of Northern New Spain, and the global implications of entradas during this formative period in borderlands history.
In Nature in the New World (translated 1985),Antonello Gerbiexamines the fascinating reports of the first Europeans to see the Americas. These accounts provided the basis for the images of strange and new flora, fauna, and human creatures that filled European imaginations.
Initial chapters are devoted to the writings of Columbus, Vespucci, Cortés, Verrazzano, and others. The second portion of the book concerns the Historia general y natural de las Indias of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo, a work commissioned by Charles V of Spain in 1532 but not published in its entirety until the 1850s. Antonello Gerbi contends that Oviedo, a Spanish administrator who lived in Santo Domingo, has been unjustly neglected as a historian. Gerbi shows that Oviedo was a major authority on the culture, history, and conquest of the New World.
From the early 1500s to the mid-1700s, the American Southeast was the scene of continuous
tumult as European powers vied for dominance in the region while waging war on Native American communities. Yet even before Hernando de Soto landed his expeditionary
force on the Gulf shores of Florida, Native Americans had created their own “cultures of violence”: sets of ideas about when it was appropriate to use violence and what sorts of violence were appropriate to a given situation.
In New Worlds of Violence, Matthew Jennings offers a persuasive new framework for understanding the European–Native American contact period and the conflicts among indigenous peoples that preceded it. This pioneering approach posits that every group present in the Southeast had its own ideas about the use of violence and that these ideas changed over time as they collided with one another. The book starts with the Mississippian era and continues through the successive Spanish and English invasions of the Native South. Jennings argues that the English conquered the Southeast because they were able to force everyone else to adapt to their culture of violence, which, of course, changed over time as well. By 1740, a peculiarly Anglo-American culture of violence was in place that would profoundly influence the expansion of England’s colonies and the eventual southern United States. While Native and African violence were present in this world, they moved in circles defined by the English.
New Worlds of Violence concludes by pointing out that long-lasting violence bears long-lasting consequences. An important contribution to the growing body of work on the early Southeast, this book will significantly broaden readers’ understanding of America’s violent past.
Matthew Jennings is an assistant professor of history at Macon State College in Macon, Georgia. He is the author of “Violence in a Shattered World” in Mapping the Shatter Zone: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, edited by Robbie Ethridge and Sheri Shuck-Hall. His work has also appeared in The Uniting States, The South Carolina Encyclopedia, A Multicultural History of the United States, and The Encyclopedia of Native American History.
On Captivity is the first translation into English of Del Cautiverio, Manuel Ciges Aparicio’s account of his imprisonment in the notorious La Cabaña fortress in Havana during the Cuban War of Independence (1895–98).
Ciges enlisted in the Spanish army in 1893 at the age of twenty. He served in Africa and then in Cuba, where he opposed Spanish General Valeriano Weyler’s policies in Cuba as well as the war itself. Ciges soon found himself imprisoned and facing execution for treason as punishment for an article critical of Weyler’s conducting of the war that was intercepted by Spanish authorities before it could be published in the pro-Cuban Parisian paper L’Intransigeant.
First published in book form in 1903, Ciges’s account includes detailed observations concerning prison organization, perceptions of political events and personalities of the time, as well as graphic descriptions of the daily life of the men confined in the infamous prison. Ciges is the only one of the so-called Generation of 1898—writers considered to have been deeply marked by el desastre (the loss of the colonies)—who was in Cuba during the war years. His witness to events there, colored by his stance as a freethinker and political skeptic, constitutes a significant historical document. Following his release from prison, Ciges returned to Spain where he resumed his career as an activist journalist and also earned acclaim as a translator and novelist. In time, his political allegiances shifted from socialism to liberal republicanism. He was acting as provincial governor of Avila when he was killed by unidentified assassins on August 4, 1936—eighteen days after the Falangist uprising against the Second Republic.
One of the most profound events in sixteenth-century North America was a ferocious battle between the Spanish army of Hernando de Soto and a larger force of Indian warriors under the leadership of a feared chieftain named Tascalusa. The site of this battle was a small fortified border town within an Indian province known as Mabila. Although the Indians were defeated, the battle was a decisive blow to Spanish plans for the conquest and settlement of what is now the southeastern United States. For in that battle, De Soto’s army lost its baggage, including all proofs of the richness of the land—proofs that would be necessary to attract future colonists. Facing such a severe setback, De Soto led his army once more into the interior of the continent, where he was not to survive. The ragtag remnants of his once-mighty expedition limped into Mexico some three years later, thankful to be alive. The clear message of their ordeal was that this new land, then known as La Florida, could not be easily subjugated.
But where, exactly, did this decisive battle of Mabila take place? The accounts left by the Spanish chroniclers provide clues, but they are vague, so lacking in corroboration that without additional supporting evidence, it is impossible to trace De Soto’s trail on a modern map with any degree of certainty. Within this volume, 17 scholars—specialists in history, folklore, geography, geology, and archaeology—provide a new and encouragingly fresh perspective on the current status of the search for Mabila. Although there is a widespread consensus that the event took place in the southern part of what is now Alabama, the truth is that to this day, nobody knows where Mabila is—neither the contributors to this volume, nor any of the historians and archaeologists, amateur and professional, who have long sought it. One can rightfully say that the lost battle site of Mabila is the predominant historical mystery of the Deep South.
This lively book recounts the explorations of the first generations of Spanish conquistadors and their Native allies. Author William K. Hartmann brings readers along as the explorers probe from Cuba to the Aztec capital of Mexico City, and then northward through the borderlands to New Mexico, the Grand Canyon, southern California, and as far as Kansas. Characters include Hernan Cortés, the conqueror; the Aztec ruler Motezuma; Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, a famous expedition leader; fray Marcos de Niza, an explorer-priest doomed to disgrace; and Viceroy Antonio Mendoza, the king’s representative who tried to keep the explorers under control.
Recounting eyewitness experiences that the Spaniards recorded in letters and memoirs, Hartmann describes ancient lifeways from Mexico to the western United States; Aztec accounts of the conquest; discussions between Aztec priests and Spanish priests about the nature of the universe; Cortés’s lifelong relationship with his famous Native mistress, Malinche (not to mention the mysterious fate of his wife); lost explorers who wandered from Florida to Arizona; and Marcos de Niza’s controversial reports of the “Seven Cities of Cíbola.”
Searching for Golden Empires describes how, even after the conquest of Mexico, Cortés remained a “wildcat” competitor with Coronado in a race to see who could find the “next golden empire,” believed to lie in the north. It is an exciting history of the shared story of the United States and Mexico, unveiling episodes both tragic and uplifting.
The discovery of the New World raised many questions for early modern scientists: What did these lands contain? Where did they lie in relation to Europe? Who lived there, and what were their inhabitants like? Imperial expansion necessitated changes in the way scientific knowledge was gathered, and Spanish cosmographers in particular were charged with turning their observations of the New World into a body of knowledge that could be used for governing the largest empire the world had ever known.
As María M. Portuondo here shows, this cosmographic knowledge had considerable strategic, defensive, and monetary value that royal scientists were charged with safeguarding from foreign and internal enemies. Cosmography was thus a secret science, but despite the limited dissemination of this body of knowledge, royal cosmographers applied alternative epistemologies and new methodologies that changed the discipline, and, in the process, how Europeans understood the natural world.
Winner of the 2016 Sweetland Digital Rhetoric Collaborative Book Prize
Sites of Translation illustrates the intricate rhetorical work that multilingual communicators engage in as they translate information for their communities. Blending ethnographic and empirical methods from multiple disciplines, Laura Gonzales provides methodological examples of how linguistic diversity can be studied in practice, both in and outside the classroom, and provides insights into the rhetorical labor that is often unacknowledged and made invisible in multilingual communication. Sites of Translation is relevant to researchers and teachers of writing as well as technology designers interested in creating systems, pedagogies, and platforms that will be more accessible and useful to multilingual audiences. Gonzales presents multilingual communication as intellectual labor that should be further valued in both academic and professional spaces, and supported by multilingual technologies and pedagogies that center the expertise of linguistically diverse communicators.
This book provides a clear and comprehensive overview of sociolinguistics and the pragmatics of oral communication in Spanish. Drawing on the research of foremost scholars in the field, Carmen Silva-Corvalán covers central concerns of variational sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, language change, and language contact, with special reference to Spanish in the United States.
A thoroughly revised and expanded version of Silva-Corvalán’s 1989 study, Sociolingüística: teoría y análisis, the book includes rigorous quantitative and qualitative analyses, and it documents such ongoing issues as language change in monolingual and bilingual communities, the nature of phonetic and syntactic variation, and modes of data collection and analysis. New topics include pragmatics and discourse analysis, discourse markers, and sociolinguistics and education.
Written in Spanish, Sociolingüística y pragmática del español will be welcomed by students and sociolinguistic researchers, who will find in it the ideal overview of the social aspects of language as well as a wealth of empirical data on Spanish linguistics. Complete with exercises at the end of each chapter and a convenient subject index, the book is appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of Spanish throughout the world.
This thoroughly updated second edition provides a clear and comprehensiveoverview of sociolinguistics and the pragmatics of oral communication in Spanish. While maintaining the same structure as the first edition, it includes revised Ejercicios de Reflexión along with new comprehension checks at the end of each chapter, enhancing its use as a classroom text. Among the significant revisions are more attention to the relation of pragmatics to sociolinguistics, a new section on applied sociolinguistics and the teaching of Spanish as a heritage language, updated information on statistical modeling programs for studying linguistic variables, expanded coverage of the overt versus null pronominal subject variable, a new emphasis on pragmatics in chapter 5, and a new section on Spanglish.
Sonido y sentido lifts the learning of Spanish pronunciation for American English-speaking students to a new level, with support of an accompanying CD. Written in Spanish by a native speaker who is a leading figure in the field of Spanish phonology, this introduction to Spanish phonetics and phonology will improve both the pronunciation and understanding of spoken Spanish by demonstrating the specific ways in which the sound pattern of Spanish differs from English. Notable in that it explains the "why" of pronunciation with specific information on how the sounds of Spanish are organized—it also highlights the most important differences among varieties within the Spanish-speaking world. Together, the book and CD emphasize the sounds and sound combinations that are most problematic for English speakers learning Spanish.
In addition to a clear theoretical analysis of Spanish phonology, Sonido y sentido introduces the fundamental concepts of language, Spanish language, and the teaching and learning of phonetics—Spanish phonetics in particular. Utilizing the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) throughout the text to make for more precise phonetic descriptions, Guitart also discusses the relation between both the physical and psychological aspects of pronunciation.
Sonido y sentido contains exercises, both transcription and pronunciation drills, and each chapter concludes with a section, "Para pensar," which tests comprehension of the concepts presented. Answers to the "Para pensar" exercises appear in a separate appendix. A glossary of technical terms, a subject index, and a basic bibliography of Spanish phonetics and phonology round out this fresh and rewarding contribution to learning the Spanish language.
As doctors' time becomes more limited, communication with patients becomes more important and the need for doctor-patient understanding becomes critical. Here is a book that helps bridge the gap between the professional language of health care providers and that of people whose first language is Spanish.
A staple of southwestern health care for more than twenty years, this dictionary can make a difference in patient care. Now available in a revised edition, it focuses on vocabulary used in health contexts by Spanish-speaking people in order to help patients tell their stories and medical practitioners to understand them. Unlike other bilingual dictionaries that emphasize scientific terms, this one focuses on standard Spanish terms as well as regional expressions peculiar to Mexican Spanish—language encountered in Chicago as easily as in Phoenix.
In the Spanish-to-English section, Spanish terms are followed by English translations and sample sentences to help health care practitioners understand how a patient might use them:
acedías, heartburn, pain in lower esophagus perceived as in the heart. Uno tiene la tendencia a sufrir de acedías después de comer chile. One has a tendency to suffer heartburn after eating chile. (syn: acidez, agruras del estómago)
In the English-to-Spanish section, English words are translated into simple Spanish terms along with English synonyms.
Now available in a revised edition, this handy reference features:
• more than 3,000 entries
• new entries that reflect current health problems and treatments
• inclusion of cognates
• Spanish definitions of English words
• anatomical drawings with bilingual labels
• more material on medicinal plants, including an appendix of poisonous and non-poisonous plants
• lists of food items and kinship terms
This book is an indispensable reference for all health care professionals who see patients of Mexican origin. Combining idiomatic precision with technical accuracy, it can help break down language barriers on either side of the border.
Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700 was first published in 1984. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.
Spanish and Portuguese expansion substantially altered the social, political, and economic contours of the modern world. In his book, Lyle McAlister provides a narrative and interpretive history of the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Spain and Portugal.
McAlister divides this period (and the book) into three parts. First, he describes the formation of Old World societies with particular attention to those features that influenced the directions and forms of overseas expansion. Second, he traces the dynamic processes of conquest and colonization that between 1492 and about 1570 firmly established Spanish and Portuguese dominion in the New World. The third part deals with colonial growth and consolidation down to about 1700. McAlister's main themes are: the post-conquest territorial expansion that established the limits of what later came to be called Latin America, the emergence of distinctively Spanish and Portuguese American societies and economies, the formation of systems of imperial control and exploitation, and the ways in which conflicts between imperial and American interests were reconciled.
This comprehensive history, with its extensive bibliographic essay and attention to historiographic issues, will be a standard reference for students and scholars of the period.
There is growing interest in heritage language learners—individuals who have a personal or familial connection to a nonmajority language. Spanish learners represent the largest segment of this population in the United States.
In this comprehensive volume, experts offer an interdisciplinary overview of research on Spanish as a heritage language in the United States. They also address the central role of education within the field. Contributors offer a wealth of resources for teachers while proposing future directions for scholarship.
This collection is the first to examine the effects of bilingualism and multilingualism on the development of dialectal varieties of Spanish in Africa, America, Asia and Europe. Nineteen essays investigate a variety of complex situations of contact between Spanish and typologically different languages, including Basque, Bantu languages, English, and Quechua. The overall picture that evolves clearly indicates that although influence from the contact languages may lead to different dialects, the core grammar of Spanish remains intact.
Silva-Corvalán's volume makes an important contribution both to sociolinguistics in general, and to Spanish linguistics in particular. The contributors address theoretical and empirical issues that advance our knowledge of what is a possible linguistic change, how languages change, and how changes spread in society in situations of intensive bilingualism and language contact, a situation that appears to be the norm rather than the exception in the world.
Fifteen research linguists discuss the varieties of Spanish spoken in California, Iowa, Indiana, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, and Texas. They variously address language maintenance, syntactic variation, lexicography, language use and language teaching, and include studies on socioeconomic, political, and cultural aspects of language in the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States.
Spanish Phonology offers a comprehensive analysis of a variety of crucial issues in the phonology and morphophonology of various dialects of Spanish including syllable types, syllabification algorithms, syllable repair mechanisms, syllable mergers, nasal assimilation, obstruent vocalization and spirantization, obstruent neutralization, diphthongs and hiatuses, glide formation, onset strengthening, aspiration, rhotics, velarization, plural formation, word classes, and diminutives.
Written from the perspective of optimality theory and with syllabic structure at its core, this volume highlights recent advances in Spanish phonology.
The book includes margin notes to highlight key points and a glossary of constraints. Each chapter includes study questions, lists of the most influential sources for each chapter, and topics for further research. Spanish Phonology is intended as core reading for advanced phonology courses in Spanish linguistics, general linguistics, and related areas such as bilingualism, language variation, language acquisition, and speech and hearing.
This book represents the culmination of a lifetime of research in the spoken Spanish dialects of the Americas by one of the foremost experts in this field. Based on more than sixty years of residence, travel, research, and teaching among Spanish-speaking people, Canfield's study of the phonological phenomena that have created dialects of Spanish in the Americas makes use of historical treatises, contemporary accounts, and the author's own observations. Bibliographies for each area and a main bibliography of some three hundred pertinent books and articles make this book valuable both as a text and as a reference work.
Spanish Second Language Acquisition provides a panoramic overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, the theoretical approaches used in these studies, and the effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. Barbara Lafford and Rafael Salaberry have compiled the first volume to provide a comprehensive critical overview of the research done and data compiled on how adults acquire Spanish as a second language. Major scholars in the field of SLA have contributed chapters having to do with a wide range of "products" (phonology, tense/aspect, subjunctive, clitics, lexicon, discourse/pragmatics) and "processes" (generative, cognitive and sociocultural theories) involved in the acquisition process-concluding with a discussion of the effects of instruction on Spanish interlanguage development.
While being an invaluable reference tool for undergraduate and graduate programs that focus on the acquisition of Spanish as a second language, due to the extraordinary range of the review research on theoretical and methodological issues, this is also an extremely useful volume for second language theoreticians and practitioners involved in all aspects of the pedagogy of other second languages. It is the editors' desire that students, teachers, program administrators and scholars alike will benefit from the insights that the contributors bring to the myriad issues that language professionals confront.
An invaluable text in language and linguistics because it has a unique scope: a one-volume description of the Spanish language and its differences from English, and ranges from pronunciation and grammar to word meaning, language use, and social and dialectical variation. Designed for survey courses in Spanish linguistics with technical concepts explained in context for beginners in the field, Spanish/English Contrasts brings out the ways in which insights into the two languages have evolved as scholars have built on the work and research of others in the field. A bilingual glossary of linguistic terms is provided to facilitate discussion in either language.
This second edition is thoroughly updated to incorporate insights and issues that have come to the fore from the explosion of research in the past twenty-five years in all of the areas covered by the book. It includes an expanded bibliography and index, and adds new exercises for student application and class discussion. Its approach remains broadly based however, in order to accommodate a range of areas and data rather than focusing narrowly on one single theory or research area, and it continues to emphasize implications for language teaching, translation, and other practical applications.
The editors and fourteen other research linguists discuss—in English and in Spanish—the African influence on Caribbean phonology, dominant sociolinguistic attitudes in Puerto Rico, and historico-legal aspects of bilingualism in colonial Hispanic America.
Much recent scholarship has sought to identify the linguistic and social factors that favor the expression or omission of subject pronouns in Spanish. This volume brings together leading experts on the topic of language variation in Spanish to provide a panoramic view of research trends, develop probabilistic models of grammar, and investigate the impact of language contact on pronoun expression.
The book consists of three sections. The first studies the distributional patterns and conditioning forces on subject pronoun expression in four monolingual varieties—Dominican, Colombian, Mexican, and Peninsular—and makes cross-dialectal comparisons. In the second section, experts explore Spanish in contact with English, Maya, Catalan, and Portuguese to determine the extent to which each language influences this syntactic variable. The final section examines the acquisition of variable subject pronoun expression among monolingual and bilingual children as well as adult second language learners.
"[A] superb collection of studies that substantially increases our understanding, not only of variation in subject personal pronouns, but also of variable morphosyntactic processes generally.... clearly relevant to all students and scholars who wish to understand the complexities of linguistic variation and dialect contact." -- Robert Bayley, professor of linguistics, University of California, Davis
"Students and scholars will find that this volume is an essential reference in the field of Spanish language variation. If the study of final /s/ has led Spanish sociophonetics, the study of subject pronouns stars in sociogrammar. This volume presents a 3D analysis of how subject pronouns are used and acquired in Spanish. This comprehensive volume is not only of interest to those concerned with Spanish grammar, but also to anyone interested in pro-drop languages. The vision of Carvalho, Orozco and Shin has harmonized an excellent collective volume." -- Francisco Moreno-Fernández, professor of Hispanic linguistics. University of Alcala (Spain) and Instituto Cervantes at Harvard University.
"If you seek innovative, theoretically and empirically driven research into syntactic variation, open this book and read on. Here a variationist focus on alternating sound and silence, something and nothing, or subject pronouns and nulls generates striking insights into the nature of Spanish and those who speak and learn it." -- Richard Cameron,, University of Illinois at Chicago
Subversions of the American Century: Filipino Literature in Spanish and the Transpacific Transformation of the United States argues that the moment the United States became an overseas colonial power in 1898, American national identity was redefined across a global matrix. The Philippines, which the United States seized at that point from Spain and local revolutionaries, is therefore the birthplace of a new kind of America, one with a planetary reach that was, most profoundly, accompanied by resistance to that reach by local peoples.
Post-1898 Filipino literature in Spanish testifies crucially to this foregrounding fact of American global power, for it is the language of that tradition that speaks directly to the reality of one empire having wrested land from another. Yet this literature is invisible in American Studies programs, Asian Studies programs, Spanish and English departments, and everywhere else. Subversions of the American Century will change that. After Subversions, students and scholars in various American Studies disciplines as well as Asian, Spanish, and Comparative Literature fields will find it necessary to revisit and revamp the basic parameters by which they approach their subjects.
The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary is the most popular dictionary of its kind. Its familiar name is known to millions of general readers, students, educators, and travelers. Improved for greater ease of use, and brought completely up to date, the fifth edition of The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary is now more than ever the perfect resource for both language learners and experienced language users.
With thousands of added entries, the Dictionary builds on the features that have made it the leader in its field for more than fifty years: authority, scope, clarity, and conciseness. And with this edition, the Dictionary brilliantly captures the current core vocabularies of two rapidly changing—and increasingly connected—languages and cultures.
Entirely bilingual, the fifth edition focuses on two contemporary international languages—American English and a basic, worldwide Spanish that draws from both Latin American and Iberian sources.
Designed for a wide range of users, including travelers, businesspeople, students, teachers, and professionals, the new Dictionary is the essential first resource for speakers of both languages—from beginners to those at all other stages. Up to date, just comprehensive enough, and extraordinarily clear and easy to use, the new edition of The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary stands alone. No other dictionary offers so many users so much help—or so much value.
For more than sixty years, The University of Chicago Spanish–English Dictionary has set the standard for concise bilingual dictionaries. Now thoroughly revised to reflect the most current vocabulary and usage in both languages, this dictionary enables users to find the precise equivalents of the words and phrases they seek.
Completely bilingual, the dictionary focuses on two contemporary international languages, American English and a worldwide Spanish rooted in both Latin American and Iberian sources.
The sixth edition has been updated with six thousand new words and meanings selected for their frequency of use, rising popularity, and situational necessity. In order to best represent the dynamic and increasingly connected cultures of three continents, this edition features enhanced coverage of the vocabulary associated with four areas of increasing global importance: medicine, business, digital technology, and sports.
Clear, precise, and easy to use, The University of Chicago Spanish–English Dictionary continues to serve as the essential reference for students, travelers, businesspeople, and everyone interested in building their linguistic proficiency in both Spanish and English.
Thirty-three million people in the United States speak some variety of Spanish, making it the second most used language in the country. Some of these people are recent immigrants from many different countries who have brought with them the linguistic traits of their homelands, while others come from families who have lived in this country for hundreds of years. John M. Lipski traces the importance of the Spanish language in the United States and presents an overview of the major varieties of Spanish that are spoken there.
Varieties of Spanish in the United States provides—in a single volume—useful descriptions of the distinguishing characteristics of the major varieties, from Cuban and Puerto Rican, through Mexican and various Central American strains, to the traditional varieties dating back to the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries found in New Mexico and Louisiana. Each profile includes a concise sketch of the historical background of each Spanish-speaking group; current demographic information; its sociolinguistic configurations; and information about the phonetics, morphology, syntax, lexicon, and each group's interactions with English and other varieties of Spanish. Lipski also outlines the scholarship that documents the variation and richness of these varieties, and he probes the phenomenon popularly known as "Spanglish."
The distillation of an entire academic career spent investigating and promoting the Spanish language in the United States, this valuable reference for teachers, scholars, students, and interested bystanders serves as a testimony to the vitality and legitimacy of the Spanish language in the United States. It is recommended for courses on Spanish in the United States, Spanish dialectology and sociolinguistics, and teaching Spanish to heritage speakers.
In Writing Violence on the Northern Frontier José Rabasa examines the conjunction between writing and violence that defined the sixteenth-century Spanish conquest of the Americas (particularly North America) and in doing so, he reveals why this conjunction remains relevent and influential today. Rabasa elaborates a critique of Spanish legislation that prescribed forms of converting Indians to Christianity and subjecting them to Spanish rule, which was referred to by some as “peaceful conquest.” He argues that the oxymoronic nature of this term demands an oppositional mode of inquiry based on an understanding of violence that expands beyond acts of war to include symbolism, interpretation, legislation, and other speech acts that he refers to as the “force of law.” To advance his argument Rabasa analyzes visual and verbal representations, colonialist programs, and the theories of colonization that informed the historiography of sixteenth-century New Mexico and Florida, which includes the territory from the Pacific coast to Kansas, and from present-day Florida to Tennessee and Arkansas. Using little-known materials from the northern borderlands of Spanish imperial expansion, Rabasa works to complicate notions of violence and their relationship to writing. Understood in juxtaposition with modern texts on postcolonial theory, his description of the dual function of these colonial texts—to represent material acts of violence and to act as violence itself—also emphasizes the lingering effects of this phenomenon in contemporary intellectual work and everyday life. In this way Writing Violence on the Northern Frontier serves not only as an explanation of what colonialist texts do but also instigates new ways of thinking about colonial discourse. This book will interest scholars of colonial studies and early North American history, as well as a broader audience interested in interdisciplinary perspectives on the topic of racial, ethnic, and literary violences.