The widespread use of mobile internet and smart applications has led to an explosive growth in mobile data traffic, which will continue due to the emerging need of connecting people, machines, and applications in an ubiquitous manner through the mobile infrastructure. The efficient and satisfactory operation of all these densely deployed networks hinges on a suitable backhaul and fronthaul provisioning. The research community is working to provide innovative technologies with extensive performance evaluation metrics along with the required standardisation milestones, hardware and components for a fully deployed network by 2020 and beyond.
Technology demands uniformity from human beings who encounter it. People encountering technology, however, differ from one another. Thinkers in the early twentieth century, observing the awful consequences of interactions between humans and machines—death by automobiles or dismemberment by factory machinery, for example—developed the idea of accident proneness: the tendency of a particular person to have more accidents than most people. In tracing this concept from its birth to its disappearance at the end of the twentieth century, Accident Prone offers a unique history of technology focused not on innovations but on their unintended consequences.
Here, John C. Burnham shows that as the machine era progressed, the physical and economic impact of accidents coevolved with the rise of the insurance industry and trends in twentieth-century psychology. After World War I, psychologists determined that some people are more accident prone than others. This designation signaled a shift in social strategy toward minimizing accidents by diverting particular people away from dangerous environments. By the 1960s and 1970s, however, the idea of accident proneness gradually declined, and engineers developed new technologies to protect all people, thereby introducing a hidden, but radical, egalitarianism.
Lying at the intersection of the history of technology, the history of medicine and psychology, and environmental history, Accident Prone is an ambitious intellectual analysis of the birth, growth, and decline of an idea that will interest anyone who wishes to understand how Western societies have grappled with the human costs of modern life.
AC-DC Power System Analysis
Jos Arrillaga The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1998 Library of Congress TK1005.A758 1998 | Dewey Decimal 621.31
With the expansion of HV DC transmission throughout the world, and the increasing numbers of international interconnections, few power systems can continue to escape the effect of this technology in their planning and operation. The primary subject of this book is the incorporation of AC-DC converters and DC transmission in power system analysis. However, the concepts and methods described are also applicable to the FACTS (flexible AC transmission systems) technology.
Acoustic Properties: Radio, Narrative, and the New Neighborhood of the Americas discovers the prehistory of wireless culture. It examines both the coevolution of radio and the novel in Argentina, Cuba, and the United States from the early 1930s to the late 1960s, and the various populist political climates in which the emerging medium of radio became the chosen means to produce the voice of the people.
Based on original archival research in Buenos Aires, Havana, Paris, and the United States, the book develops a literary media theory that understands sound as a transmedial phenomenon and radio as a transnational medium. Analyzing the construction of new social and political relations in the wake of the United States’ 1930s Good Neighbor Policy, Acoustic Properties challenges standard narratives of hemispheric influence through new readings of Richard Wright’s cinematic work in Argentina, Severo Sarduy’s radio plays in France, and novels by John Dos Passos, Manuel Puig, Raymond Chandler, and Carson McCullers. Alongside these writers, the book also explores Che Guevara and Fidel Castro’s Radio Rebelde, FDR’s fireside chats, Félix Caignet’s invention of the radionovela in Cuba, Evita Perón’s populist melodramas in Argentina, Orson Welles’s experimental New Deal radio, Cuban and U.S. “radio wars,” and the 1960s African American activist Robert F. Williams’s proto–black power Radio Free Dixie.
From the doldrums of the Great Depression to the tumult of the Cuban Revolution, Acoustic Properties illuminates how novelists in the radio age converted writing into a practice of listening, transforming realism as they struggled to channel and shape popular power.
Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems aim at improving the quality of life and supporting independent and healthy living of older or impaired people by using a distributed network of sensors and actuators to create a ubiquitous technological layer, able to interact transparently with the users, observing and interpreting their actions and intentions, learning their preferences and adjusting the parameters of the system to improve their quality of life and work. This book provides a comprehensive review of the technologies and applications for AAL.
This book presents the established fundamentals in the area of active sound and vibration control (ASVC) as well as exploring the new and emerging technologies and techniques. There has been a considerable amount of effort devoted to the development and realisation of methodologies for the control of sound and vibration, and this book covers the latest theoretical, algorithmic and practical applications including: noise control in 3D propagation, adaptive algorithms, prediction, processing and tuning, neuro-active control, control of microvibrations, and noise reduction in locomotives and vehicles. Topics discussed include multichannel active noise control, adaptive harmonic control, model-free iterative tuning, model-based control design for active vibration control (AVC), ASVC using neural networks, genetic algorithms for ASVC systems, and active noise control (ANC) around the human head. The authors also discuss active control of microvibrations, vibration control of manipulators, and techniques of real-time processing. This book will be essential reading for electrical, mechanical and control engineers, designers and researchers, interested in noise and vibration control.
Adaptive arrays are a radical departure from conventional thinking in antenna design, offering substantial improvements in performance over fixed pattern antennas in environments that include severe interference and jamming. They achieve this because they are designed to steer nulls automatically at noise sources of unknown or variable direction and generally to modify their beampatterns to optimise performance. Adaptive array processing is applicable in most systems that exploit wave propagation; typical uses being radar, active and passive sonar, radio communication links, and radio monitoring.
Control often follows predictions: predictive control has been highly successful in producing robust and practical solutions in many real-life, real-time applications. Adaptive prediction covers a variety of ways of adding 'intelligence' to predictive control techniques. Many different groups, with widely varying disciplinary backgrounds and approaches, are tackling the same problem from different angles; these groups are sometimes unaware of alternative approaches from other disciplines.
Adaptive Sampling with Mobile WSN develops algorithms for optimal estimation of environmental parametric fields. With a single mobile sensor, several approaches are presented to solve the problem of where to sample next to maximally and simultaneously reduce uncertainty in the field estimate and uncertainty in the localisation of the mobile sensor while respecting the dynamics of the time-varying field and the mobile sensor. A case study of mapping a forest fire is presented. Multiple static and mobile sensors are considered next, and distributed algorithms for adaptive sampling are developed resulting in the Distributed Federated Kalman Filter. However, with multiple resources a possibility of deadlock arises and a matrix-based discrete-event controller is used to implement a deadlock avoidance policy. Deadlock prevention in the presence of shared and routing resources is also considered. Finally, a simultaneous and adaptive localisation strategy is developed to simultaneously localise static and mobile sensors in the WSN in an adaptive manner. Experimental validation of several of these algorithms is discussed throughout the book.
The Criminal Justice Technology Forecasting Group (CJTFG) deliberated on the effects that major technology and social trends could have on criminal justice in the next two to five years and identified potential responses. This report captures the results of the group’s meetings and initiatives, presents the emerging trends and highlights of the group’s discussion, and presents the results of analyses to assess connections between the trends.
This book presents the theory of adjoint sensitivity analysis for high frequency applications through time-domain electromagnetic simulations in MATLAB®. This theory enables the efficient estimation of the sensitivities of an arbitrary response with respect to all parameters in the considered problem. These sensitivities are required in many applications including gradient-based optimization, surrogate-based modeling, statistical analysis, and yield analysis.
Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells have reached a levelized cost of energy that is competitive with all other sources of electricity. The technology has significantly improved in recent years, with laboratory cell efficiencies for cadmium telluride (CdTe), perovskites, and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) each exceeding 22 percent. Both CdTe and CIGS solar panels are now produced at the gigawatt scale. However, there are ongoing challenges, including the continued need to improve performance and stability while reducing cost. Advancing polycrystalline solar cell technology demands an in-depth understanding of efficiency, scaling, and degradation mechanisms, which requires sophisticated characterization methods. These methods will enable researchers and manufacturers to improve future solar modules and systems.
This book provides a unified, practically-oriented treatment to many constrained control paradigms. Recently proposed control strategies are unified in a generalised framework to deal with different kinds of constraints. The book's solutions are based on reference conditioning ideas implemented by means of supervisory loops, and they are complementary to any other control technique used for the main control loop. Although design simplicity is a book priority, the use of well established sliding mode concepts for theoretical analysis make it also rigorous and self-contained.
Capacitors are passive electrical components that store energy in an electric field. Applications include electric power conditioning, signal processing, motor starting, and energy storage. The maximum charge a capacitor can hold largely depends on the dielectric material inside. That material is the enabler for the performance. Ongoing development in fields such as high-power electronics, renewable energy, hybrid electric vehicles and electric aircraft, is posing an urgent need for more advanced electrostatic capacitor technology.
Historically, electromagnetics and complex circuit modelling existed as separate disciplines, each with their own tools, models and even languages. More recently, however, the emergence of very high-speed digital circuits and pressure on the telecommunications market to move towards microwave and millimetre wave bands are increasing the need to find ways to combine the two fields.
With contributions from leading names in the area, this book expands on several aspects of computational electromagnetics and advanced numerical techniques with cutting-edge applications, and proposes guidelines for the optimised design of several contemporary structures. As well as standard techniques, the authors cover many other time-domain schemes, including ADI, polynomial chaos, stochastic methods, enhanced curvilinear implementations and novel GPU/CUDA realisations. For researchers in electromagnetics and related areas.
Within the wide and fascinating field of radar techniques and systems, this book describes in detail a number of areas of research related to system architecture and design, phenomenology, array antennas and signal processing.
Cooperative networks/relaying is a fundamental design approach that has been used to reduce path-loss and fading effects in conventional wireless communication systems. This book describes the use of this approach in new and emerging telecommunications technologies and new application areas.
The term 'advanced robotics' came in the 1980s to describe the application of advanced sensors and new developments in cognitive science and artificial intelligence to the traditional robot. Today, advanced robots have come far beyond the limitations of the crude 'pick-and-place' machines of the 1980s assembly line, and have a vast range of applications in manufacturing, construction and health care, as well as hostile environments such as space, underwater and nuclear applications.
Advanced Signal Processing
D.J. Creasey The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1985 Library of Congress TK5102.5.A33 1985 | Dewey Decimal 621.38043
The IEE in association with the IEEE and IERE organised an international specialist seminar on Advanced Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Communications, in September 1984. The Seminar was held at the University of Warwick and this book contains a collection of the papers presented. Some of the material is of a tutorial nature while some of it represents the latest state-of-the-art. Inevitably, because signal processing is limited by the components available, the subject matter ranges from the individual components and their impact on signal processing, through to the design and assessment of complete systems. The individual contributions come from industry, educational establishments and government research laboratories in the UK and the USA. The order of presentation in the book mainly follows the order in which the papers were presented at the seminar.
This book introduces advanced sparsity-driven models and methods and their applications in radar tasks such as detection, imaging and classification. Compressed sensing (CS) is one of the most active topics in the signal processing area. By exploiting and promoting the sparsity of the signals of interest, CS offers a new framework for reducing data without compromising the performance of signal recovery, or for enhancing resolution without increasing measurements.
Although existing nanometer CMOS technology is expected to remain dominant for the next decade, new non-classical devices are being developed as the potential replacements of silicon CMOS, in order to meet the ever-present demand for faster, smaller, more efficient integrate circuits.
Advances in Bistatic Radar
Nicholas J. Willis The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2007 Library of Congress TK6592.B57A38 2007 | Dewey Decimal 621.3848
Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since the publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented, civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems and leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military AN/FPS-23 Fluttar DEW-Line Gap-filler, and high frequency (HF) bistatic radars developed for missile attack warning. It then documents the recently developed passive bistatic and multistatic radars exploiting commercial broadcast transmitters for military and civilian air surveillance. Next, the section documents scientific bistatic radar systems for planetary exploration, which have exploited data link transmitters over the last forty years; ionospheric measurements, again exploiting commercial broadcast transmitters; and 3-D wind field measurements using a bistatic receiver hitchhiking off doppler weather radars. This last application has been commercialized. The second section starts by documenting the full, unclassified bistatic clutter scattering coefficient data base, along with the theory and analysis supporting its development. The section then details two major clutter-related developments, spotlight bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which can now generate high resolution images using bistatic autofocus and related techniques; and adaptive moving target indication (MTI), which allows cancellation of nonstationary clutter generated by moving (i.e. airborne) platforms through the use of bistatic space-time adaptive processing (STAP).
Body centric wireless networking and communications is an emerging 4G technology for short (1-5 m) and very short (below 1 m) range communications systems, used to connect devices worn on (or in) the body, or between two people in close proximity. It has great potential for applications in healthcare delivery, entertainment, surveillance, and emergency services. This book brings together contributions from a multidisciplinary team of researchers in the field of wireless and mobile communications, signal processing and medical measurements to present the underlying theory, implementation challenges and applications of this exciting new technology.
Advances in Cognitive Systems
Samia Nefti The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010 Library of Congress BF311.A317 2010 | Dewey Decimal 153
This book has been inspired by the portfolio of recent scientific outputs from a range of European and national research initiatives in cognitive science. It presents an overview of recent developments in cognition research and unites the various emerging research strands within a single text as a reference point for progress in the subject. It also provides guidance for new researchers on the breadth of the field and the interconnections between the various research strands identified here.
This book describes some of the developments in Command, Control and Communication (C3) systems. The topics cover the design of large real-time man-machine systems, which are now a vital area of intensive scientific and financial investment. C3 systems are for complex resource management and planning, and although this has a predominantly military connotation, similar systems are now developing in civil sector applications, public utilities and banking.
The International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC) is one of the most influential technical conferences in the field. The 36th edition was held in October 2018 in Niagara Falls, Canada. These proceedings present a broad spectrum of space communications topics from the conference, from the evolution of GEO from traditional area coverage to Ultra High Throughput Satellites (UHTS), the growing number of mega constellations expected to enter service in the next decade, navigation applications such as vehicle autonomy, wideband data backhaul from scientific and remote sensing payloads in LEO, and the extension of the 5G network to near earth, lunar and deep space environments in support of human exploration.
The International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC) is the oldest and one of the most influential technical conferences in the field. The 37th edition was held from 29th October - 1st November 2019 in Okinawa, Japan. These proceedings present a broad spectrum of space communications contributions from the conference, with highlights including high speed optical communications and feeder links, advanced digital payloads, broadband satellite communication architectures and applications.
It is several years since any book has attempted to cover the range of issues in high voltage research and development. The area continues to be full of challenge and scope and this book focuses on developments in experimental methods, theory, modelling and HV technology through the past decade. The coverage includes advances in basic understanding and capability, for instance in earthing, numerical analysis, optical methods, the physics of air breakdown and partial discharge. It also addresses technological developments in key areas such as SF6 insulation systems, polymeric insulators and power cables, ZnO surge arrestors, and pulsed power. The unique blend of reputable contributors and comprehensive subject coverage makes this book an ideal reference source for engineers and researchers in the field for many years to come.
Advances in High-Power Fiber and Diode Laser Engineering provides an overview of recent research trends in fiber and diode lasers and laser systems engineering. In recent years, many new fiber designs and fiber laser system strategies have emerged, targeting the mitigation of different problems which occur when standard optical fibers are used for making high-power lasers. Simultaneously, a lot of attention has been put to increasing the brightness and the output power of laser diodes. Both of these major laser development directions continue to advance at a rapid pace with the sole purpose of achieving higher power while having excellent beam quality.
This book covers recent achievements in the area of advanced analytical and associated numerical methods as applied to various problems arising in all branches of electromagnetics. The unifying theme is the application of advanced or novel mathematical techniques to produce analytical solutions or effective analytical-numerical methods for computational electromagnetics addressing more general problems.
Microwave filters are the basic building blocks of communication systems. These filters, having reliable and scalable filter topologies with and without tunable properties, are capable of controlling different frequency bands as well as their fractional bandwidth to meet different system needs. There have been significant advances in the synthesis and physical realisation of microwave filter networks, and the design and applications for communication systems.
Advances in Power System Modelling, Control and Stability Analysis captures the variety of new methodologies and technologies that are changing the way modern electric power systems are modelled, simulated and operated.
Advances in telemedicine technologies have offered clinicians greater levels of real-time guidance and technical assistance for diagnoses, monitoring, operations or interventions from colleagues based in remote locations. The topic includes the use of videoconferencing, mentorship during surgical procedures, or machine-to-machine communication to process data from one location by programmes running in another.
Unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs) is a collective term used to describe autonomous underwater vehicles, remotely operated vehicles, semi-submersibles, and unmanned surface craft. Considerable interest has been shown in UMVs by the military, civilian and scientific communities due to their ability to undertake designated missions whilst either operating autonomously and/or on co-operation with other types of vehicle. Increasing importance is also being placed on the design and development of such vehicles as they are capable of providing cost effective solutions to a number of littoral, coastal and offshore problems. This book draws attention to the advanced technology which is evolving to meet the challenges being posed in this exciting and growing field of study.
From the first vistas provided by flight in balloons in the eighteenth century to the most recent sensing operations performed by military drones, the history of aerial imagery has marked the transformation of how people perceived their world, better understood their past, and imagined their future. In Aerial Aftermaths Caren Kaplan traces this cultural history, showing how aerial views operate as a form of world-making tied to the times and places of war. Kaplan’s investigation of the aerial arts of war—painting, photography, and digital imaging—range from England's surveys of Scotland following the defeat of the 1746 Jacobite rebellion and early twentieth-century photographic mapping of Iraq to images taken in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Throughout, Kaplan foregrounds aerial imagery's importance to modern visual culture and its ability to enforce colonial power, demonstrating both the destructive force and the potential for political connection that come with viewing from above.
On January 5, 1845, the Prussian cultural minister received a request by a group of six young men to form a new Physical Society in Berlin. In fields from thermodynamics, mechanics, and electromagnetism to animal electricity, ophthalmology, and psychophysics, members of this small but growing group—which soon included Emil Du Bois-Reymond, Ernst Brücke, Werner Siemens, and Hermann von Helmholtz—established leading positions in what only thirty years later had become a new landscape of natural science. How was this possible? How could a bunch of twenty-somethings succeed in seizing the future?
In Aesthetics, Industry, and Science M. Norton Wise answers these questions not simply from a technical perspective of theories and practices but with a broader cultural view of what was happening in Berlin at the time. He emphasizes in particular how rapid industrial development, military modernization, and the neoclassical aesthetics of contemporary art informed the ways in which these young men thought. Wise argues that aesthetic sensibility and material aspiration in this period were intimately linked, and he uses these two themes for a final reappraisal of Helmholtz’s early work. Anyone interested in modern German cultural history, or the history of nineteenth-century German science, will be drawn to this landmark book.
What happens when fossil fuels run out? How do communities and cultures survive?
Central Appalachia and south Wales were built to extract coal, and faced with coal’s decline, both regions have experienced economic depression, labor unrest, and out-migration. After Coal focuses on coalfield residents who chose not to leave, but instead remained in their communities and worked to build a diverse and sustainable economy. It tells the story of four decades of exchange between two mining communities on opposite sides of the Atlantic, and profiles individuals and organizations that are undertaking the critical work of regeneration.
The stories in this book are told through interviews and photographs collected during the making of After Coal, a documentary film produced by the Center for Appalachian Studies at Appalachian State University and directed by Tom Hansell. Considering resonances between Appalachia and Wales in the realms of labor, environment, and movements for social justice, the book approaches the transition from coal as an opportunity for marginalized people around the world to work toward safer and more egalitarian futures.
Imre Szeman West Virginia University Press, 2016 Library of Congress HD9560.5.A44 2016
After Oil explores the social, cultural and political changes needed to make possible a full-scale transition from fossil fuels to new forms of energy. Written collectively by participants in the first After Oil School, After Oil explains why the adoption of renewable, ecologically sustainable energy sources is only the first step of energy transition.
Energy plays a critical role in determining the shape, form and character of our daily existence, which is why a genuine shift in our energy usage demands a wholesale transformation of the petrocultures in which we live. After Oil provides readers with the resources to make this happen.
Focusing on two Arizona towns that had their origins in mining bonanzas—Tombstone and Jerome—historian Eric L. Clements offers a rare study dissecting the process of bust itself—the reasons and manners in which these towns declined as the mining booms ended. Tombstone was the site of one of the great silver bonanzas of the nineteenth century, a boom that started in the late 1870s and was over by 1890. Jerome’s copper deposits were mined for much longer, beginning in the 1880s and enduring until the 1930s. But when the mining booms ended, each town faced its decline in similar ways. The process of decline was more complex than superficial histories have indicated, and Clements discusses the role of labor unions in trying to stave off collapse, the changing demography of decline, the nature and expression of social tensions, the impact on institutions such as churches and schools, and the human responses to continued economic depression. But bust involved more than a steady decline into ghost-town status, Clements discovers: the towns' remaining residents employed numerous strategies to survive and reduce household expenses. In the end, both towns reinvented themselves as late-twentieth-century tourist attractions.
For most of the twentieth century, maps were indispensable. They were how governments understood, managed, and defended their territory, and during the two world wars they were produced by the hundreds of millions. Cartographers and journalists predicted the dawning of a “map-minded age,” where increasingly state-of-the-art maps would become everyday tools. By the century’s end, however, there had been decisive shift in mapping practices, as the dominant methods of land surveying and print publication were increasingly displaced by electronic navigation systems.
In After the Map, William Rankin argues that although this shift did not render traditional maps obsolete, it did radically change our experience of geographic knowledge, from the God’s-eye view of the map to the embedded subjectivity of GPS. Likewise, older concerns with geographic truth and objectivity have been upstaged by a new emphasis on simplicity, reliability, and convenience. After the Map shows how this change in geographic perspective is ultimately a transformation of the nature of territory, both social and political.
As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction.
In 1880, coal was the primary energy source for everything from home heating to industry. Regions where coal was readily available, such as the Ruhr Valley in Germany and western Pennsylvania in the United States, witnessed exponential growth-yet also suffered the greatest damage from coal pollution.
These conditions prompted civic activism in the form of “anti-smoke” campaigns to attack the unsightly physical manifestations of coal burning. This early period witnessed significant cooperation between industrialists, government, and citizens to combat the smoke problem. It was not until the 1960s, when attention shifted from dust and grime to hazardous invisible gases, that cooperation dissipated, and protests took an antagonistic turn.
The Age of Smoke presents an original, comparative history of environmental policy and protest in the United States and Germany. Dividing this history into distinct eras (1880 to World War I, interwar, post-World War II to 1970), Frank Uekoetter compares and contrasts the influence of political, class, and social structures, scientific communities, engineers, industrial lobbies, and environmental groups in each nation. He concludes with a discussion of the environmental revolution, arguing that there were indeed two environmental revolutions in both countries: one societal, where changing values gave urgency to air pollution control, the other institutional, where changes in policies tried to catch up with shifting sentiments.
Focusing on a critical period in environmental history, The Age of Smoke provides a valuable study of policy development in two modern industrial nations, and the rise of civic activism to combat air pollution. As Uekoetter's work reveals, the cooperative approaches developed in an earlier era offer valuable lessons and perhaps the best hope for future progress.
Agrarian Environments questions the dichotomies that have structured earlier analyses of environmental processes in India and offers a new way of looking at the relationship between agrarian transformation and environmental change. The contributors claim that attempts to explain environmental conflicts in terms of the local versus the global, indigenous versus outsiders, women versus men, or the community versus the market or state obscure vital dynamics of mobilization and organization that critically influence thought and policy. Editors Arun Agrawal and K. Sivaramakrishnan claim that rural social change in India cannot be understood without exploring how environmental changes articulate major aspects of agrarian transformations—technological, cultural, and political—in the last two centuries. In order to examine these issues, they have reached beyond the confines of single disciplinary allegiances or methodological loyalties to bring together anthropologists, historians, political scientists, geographers, and environmental scientists who are significantly informed by interdisciplinary research. Drawing on extensive field and archival research, the contributors demonstrate the powerful political implications of blurring the boundaries between dichotomous cultural representations, combine conceptual analyses with specific case studies, and look at why competing powers chose to emphasize particular representations of land use or social relations. By providing a more textured analysis of how categories emerge and change, this work offers the possibility of creating crucial alliances across populations that have historically been assumed to lack mutual goals. Agrarian Environments will be valuable to those in political science, Asian studies, and environmental studies.
Contributors. Arun Agrawal, Mark Baker, Molly Chattopadhyaya, Vinay Gidwani, Sumit Guha, Shubhra Gururani, Cecile Jackson, David Ludden, Haripriya Rangan, Paul Robbins, Vasant Saberwal, James C. Scott, K. Sivaramakrishnan, Ajay Skaria, Jennifer Springer, Darren Zook
Agricultural Cooperation was first published in 1957. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.
Much has been written and published on the general subject of agricultural cooperation, but the material has been scattered and hard to find until now. The volume makes available in convenient form a selection of the most significant articles and excerpts from books, magazines, pamphlets, and other publications. It provides a comprehensive view of the development of farmers' cooperatives in the United States and an evaluation of their relation to the present economy.
The 54 articles are by 49 different contributors from various branches of cooperative activity. Among them are professors of agricultural economies, government research experts in agricultural cooperation, officers and members of cooperative organizations, as well as government officials including former Secretary of Agriculture Clinton P. Anderson and Senators Paul H. Douglas and George D. Aiken. J. K. Stern, president of the American Institute of Cooperation, contributes a foreword.
The articles deal significantly with such broad subjects as the economic and social forces that have shaped the development of cooperatives, the place of cooperative organizations in helping to meet the present-day needs of agriculture, and the role of these farmer-owned businesses in the nation's economy.
Weather maps have made our atmosphere visible, understandable, and at least moderately predictable. In Air Apparent Mark Monmonier traces debates among scientists eager to unravel the enigma of storms and global change, explains strategies for mapping the upper atmosphere and forecasting disaster, and discusses efforts to detect and control air pollution. Fascinating in its scope and detail, Air Apparent makes us take a second look at the weather map, an image that has been, and continues to be, central to our daily lives.
"Clever title, rewarding book. Monmonier . . . offers here a basic course in meteorology, which he presents gracefully by means of a history of weather maps." —Scientific American
"Mark Monmonier is onto a winner with Air Apparent. . . . It is good, accessible science and excellent history. . . . Read it." —Fred Pearce, New Scientist
"[Air Apparent] is a superb first reading for any backyard novice of weather . . . but even the veteran forecaster or researcher will find it engaging and, in some cases, enlightening." —Joe Venuti, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
"Monmonier is solid enough in his discussion of geographic and meteorological information to satisfy the experienced weather watcher. But even if this information were not presented in such a lively and engaging manner, it would still hook most any reader who checks the weather map every morning or who sits happily entranced through a full cycle of forecasts on the Weather Channel."—Michael Kennedy, Boston Globe
Supported by 202 equations and 170 illustrations, Airborne Early Warning System Concepts is an invaluable reference tool for a wide audience. It will be a welcome library addition for the engineer, scientist, system integrator, user, designer, or manager with interest in AEW concepts. It is also suitable for students and professors of electrical and system engineering or military science. This comprehensive discussion of airborne early warning (AEW) system concepts encompasses a wide range of issues, including capabilities and limitations, developmental trends and opportunities for improvement. Consisting of contributions from experts in the field, the book is presented at varying levels of complexity, ranging from elementary to advanced. For the generalist, the text provides a fundamental understanding of the status of AEW concepts with the use of only elementary mathematics. For the specialist, there are separate chapters that emphasize key AEW radar issues.
In Aircraft Stories noted sociologist of technoscience John Law tells “stories” about a British attempt to build a military aircraft—the TSR2. The intertwining of these stories demonstrates the ways in which particular technological projects can be understood in a world of complex contexts. Law works to upset the binary between the modernist concept of knowledge, subjects, and objects as having centered and concrete essences and the postmodernist notion that all is fragmented and centerless. The structure and content of Aircraft Stories reflect Law’s contention that knowledge, subjects, and—particularly— objects are “fractionally coherent”: that is, they are drawn together without necessarily being centered. In studying the process of this particular aircraft’s design, construction, and eventual cancellation, Law develops a range of metaphors to describe both its fractional character and the ways its various aspects interact with each other. Offering numerous insights into the way we theorize the working of systems, he explores the overlaps between singularity and multiplicity and reveals rich new meaning in such concepts as oscillation, interference, fractionality, and rhizomatic networks. The methodology and insights of Aircraft Stories will be invaluable to students in science and technology studies and will engage others who are interested in the ways that contemporary paradigms have limited our ability to see objects in their true complexity.
The continuing growth in the size and complexity of VLSI devices requires a parallel development of well-designed, efficient CAD tools. The majority of commercially available tools are based on an algorithmic approach to the problem and there is a continuing research effort aimed at improving these. The sheer complexity of the problem has, however, led to an interest in examining the applicability of expert systems and other knowledge based techniques to certain problems in the area and a number of results are becoming available. The aim of this book is to sample the present state-of-the-art in CAD for VLSI and it covers both newly developed algorithms and applications of techniques from the artificial intelligence community. The editors believe it will prove of interest to all engineers concerned with the design and testing of integrated circuits and systems.
Amidst Mad Cow scares and consumer concerns about how farm animals are bred, fed, and raised, many farmers and homesteaders are rediscovering the traditional practice of pastoral farming. Grasses, clovers, and forbs are the natural diet of cattle, horses, and sheep, and are vital supplements for hogs, chickens, and turkeys. Consumers increasingly seek the health benefits of meat from animals raised in green paddocks instead of in muddy feedlots.
In All Flesh Is Grass: The Pleasures and Promises of Pasture Farming, Gene Logsdon explains that well-managed pastures are nutritious and palatable—virtual salads for livestock. Leafy pastures also hold the soil, foster biodiversity, and create lovely landscapes. Grass farming might be the solution for a stressed agricultural system based on an industrial model and propped up by federal subsidies.
In his clear and conversational style, Logsdon explains historically effective practices and new techniques. His warm, informative profiles of successful grass farmers offer inspiration and ideas. His narrative is enriched by his own experience as a “contrary farmer” on his artisan-scale farm near Upper Sandusky, Ohio.
All Flesh Is Grass will have broad appeal to the sustainable commercial farmer, the home-food producer, and all consumers who care about their food.
All My Friends Live in my Computer combines personal stories, media studies, and interdisciplinary theories to examine case studies from three unique parts of society. From illness narratives among breast cancer patients to political upheaval among Iranian-Americans, this book examines what people do when they go online after they have suffered a trauma. It offers in-depth academic analysis alongside deeply personal stories and case studies to take the reader on a journey through rapidly changing digital/social worlds. When people are traumatized, their worlds stop making sense, and All My Friends Live in My Computer explores how everyday people use social media to try and make a new world for themselves and others who are suffering. Through its attention to personal stories and application of media theory to new contexts, this book highlights how, when given the tools, people will make meaning in creative, novel, and healing ways.
For anyone who has looked at a map of the United States and wondered how Texas and Oklahoma got their Panhandles, or flown over the American heartland and marveled at the vast grid spreading out in all directions below, American Boundaries will yield a welcome treasure trove of insight. The first book to chart the country’s growth using the boundary as a political and cultural focus, Bill Hubbard’s masterly narrative begins by explaining how the original thirteen colonies organized their borders and decided that unsettled lands should be held in trust for the common benefit of the people. Hubbard goes on to show—with the help of photographs, diagrams, and hundreds of maps—how the notion evolved that unsettled land should be divided into rectangles and sold to individual farmers, and how this rectangular survey spread outward from its origins in Ohio, with surveyors drawing straight lines across the face of the continent.
Mapping how each state came to have its current shape, and how the nation itself formed within its present borders, American Boundaries will provide historians, geographers, and general readers alike with the fascinating story behind those fifty distinctive jigsaw-puzzle pieces that together form the United States.
The book that helped earn Thomas P. Hughes his reputation as one of the foremost historians of technology of our age and a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 1990, American Genesis tells the sweeping story of America's technological revolution. Unlike other histories of technology, which focus on particular inventions like the light bulb or the automobile, American Genesis makes these inventions characters in a broad chronicle, both shaped by and shaping a culture. By weaving scientific and technological advancement into other cultural trends, Hughes demonstrates here the myriad ways in which the two are inexorably linked, and in a new preface, he recounts his earlier missteps in predicting the future of technology and follows its move into the information age.
Winner of the 1996 Dexter Prize from the Society for the History of Technology and a 1996 Choice Outstanding Academic Book
“A splendid history of plastic. The book is authoritative, thorough, interdisciplinary, and intriguing. . . [Meikle] traces the course of plastics from 19th–century celluloid and the fist wholly synthetic bakelite, in 1907, through the proliferation of compounds (vinyls, acrylics, polystyrene, nylon, etc.) and recent ecological concerns. . . .Interested readers of whatever predisposition will likely enjoy this comprehensive and thoughtful treatise.”—Publishers Weekly
“A landmark account. . . . He combines a first–rate technological history with a most impressive cultural analysis of how plastics evolved from a material surrounded by utopian expectations to a material epitomizing inferiority and eventually to a part of everyday life. . . . One of the most significant works ever written in the history of American technology and culture.”
“[A] truly outstanding work . . . here is a work of intellectual strength written with great literary style. . . . This significant work is likely to be widely cited in academic circles, defining the field for a generation of readers. Don’t let it pass you by! An extraordinary contribution, for all levels of readers.”—Choice
“This is real interdisciplinary work, roaming in focus, adaptive in method.”—Journal of American History
“This scholarly and comprehensive work . . . is nontechnical and emphasizes the social and cultural impact of plastics. . . . Highly recommended for anyone with an interest in understanding contemporary society.”—Library Journal
Although they entered the world as pure science fiction, robots are now very much a fact of everyday life. Whether a space-age cyborg, a chess-playing automaton, or simply the smartphone in our pocket, robots have long been a symbol of the fraught and fearful relationship between ourselves and our creations. Though we tend to think of them as products of twentieth-century technology—the word “robot” itself dates to only 1921—as a concept, they have colored US society and culture for far longer, as Dustin A. Abnet shows to dazzling effect in The American Robot.
In tracing the history of the idea of robots in US culture, Abnet draws on intellectual history, religion, literature, film, and television. He explores how robots and their many kin have not only conceptually connected but literally embodied some of the most critical questions in modern culture. He also investigates how the discourse around robots has reinforced social and economic inequalities, as well as fantasies of mass domination—chilling thoughts that the recent increase in job automation has done little to quell. The American Robot argues that the deep history of robots has abetted both the literal replacement of humans by machines and the figurative transformation of humans into machines, connecting advances in technology and capitalism to individual and societal change. Look beneath the fears that fracture our society, Abnet tells us, and you’re likely to find a robot lurking there.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, American cities began to go dark. Hulking new buildings overspread blocks, pollution obscured the skies, and glass and smog screened out the health-giving rays of the sun. Doctors fed anxities about these new conditions with claims about a rising tide of the "diseases of darkness," especially rickets and tuberculosis.
In American Sunshine, Daniel Freund tracks the obsession with sunlight from those bleak days into the twentieth century. Before long, social reformers, medical professionals, scientists, and a growing nudist movement proffered remedies for America’s new dark age. Architects, city planners, and politicians made access to sunlight central to public housing and public health. and entrepreneurs, dairymen, and tourism boosters transformed the pursuit of sunlight and its effects into a commodity. Within this historical context, Freund sheds light on important questions about the commodification of health and nature and makes an original contribution to the histories of cities, consumerism, the environment, and medicine.
Nearly 430 million acres of forests in the United States are privately owned, but the viability, and indeed the very existence, of these forests is increasingly threatened by population growth, sprawling urbanization, and patchwork development. Scientists, policymakers, and community leaders have begun to recognize the vital role of private forests in providing society with essential goods and services, from sustainable timber supplies to clean water. Yet despite the tremendous economic and ecological importance of private forests, information about their status and strategies for their protection have been in short supply.
America's Private Forests addresses that shortcoming, presenting extensive data gathered from diverse sources and offering a concise overview of the current status of privately owned forests in the United States. As well as describing the state of private forests, the book sets forth detailed information on a wide range of approaches to conservation along with an action agenda for implementing those strategies likely to be most effective. The book:
identifies the major threats to private forests in the United States
considers barriers to conservation
outlines the available tools and programs for promoting conservation
presents a "road map" to guide collective efforts for the conservation of private forests and their native biodiversity
Based on extensive research of existing literature as well as interviews and consultation with leading forestry and conservation experts, America's Private Forests is a unique sourcebook that offers a solid basis for discussion of threats to private forests along with an invaluable compendium of potential solutions. It will serve as an invaluable reference for all those working to conserve and steward forest resources, including forest owners and their consultants, conservation organizations, and agency personnel, as well as researchers and students involved with issues of forestry, biodiversity, land use, and conservation.
The headlines about cities celebrating their resurgence—with empty nesters and Millennials alike investing in our urban areas, moving away from car dependence, and demanding walkable, transit-oriented neighborhoods. But, in reality, these changes are taking place in a scattered and piecemeal fashion. While areas of a handful of cities are booming, most US metros continue to follow old patterns of central city decline and suburban sprawl. As demographic shifts change housing markets and climate change ushers in new ways of looking at settlement patterns, pressure for change in urban policy is growing. More and more policy makers are raising questions about the soundness of policies that squander our investment in urban housing, built environment, and infrastructure while continuing to support expansion of sprawling, auto-dependent development. Changing these policies is the central challenge facing US cities and metro regions, and those who manage them or plan their future.
In America’s Urban Future, urban experts Tomalty and Mallach examine US policy in the light of the Canadian experience, and use that experience as a starting point to generate specific policy recommendations. Their recommendations are designed to help the US further its urban revival, build more walkable, energy-efficient communities, and in particular, help land use adapt better to the needs of the aging population. Tomalty and Mallach show how Canada, a country similar to the US in many respects, has fostered healthier urban centers and more energy- and resource-efficient suburban growth. They call for a rethinking of US public policies across those areas and look closely at what may be achievable at federal, state, and local levels in light of both the constraints and opportunities inherent in today’s political systems and economic realities.
This book presents the basic principles of transistor circuit analysis, basic per-stage building blocks, and feedback. The content is restricted to quasi-static (low-frequency) considerations, to emphasize basic topological principles. The reader will be able to analyze and design multi-stage amplifiers with feedback, including calculation and specification of gain, input and output resistances, including the effects of transistor output resistance. Of note is the presentation of feedback analysis, a subject rarely covered by other books, with insights and from angles that will reduce to analysis by inspection for readers. Some circuit transformations outlined within are especially helpful in reducing circuits to simpler forms for analysis. They are usefully applied in considering transistor circuits for which collector-emitter (or drain-source) resistance is not negligible, another often omitted topic which this book details.
This second volume, Analog Circuit Design: Designing Dynamic Circuit Response, builds upon the first volume (Analog Circuit Design: Designing Amplifier Circuits) by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences. Retaining a design-oriented analysis, this volume begins with circuit fundamentals involving capacitance and inductance and lays down the approach using s-domain analysis. Additional concepts and perspectives fill in the blanks left by textbooks in regards to circuit design. It simplifies dynamic circuit analysis by using the graphical methods of reactance plots. Methods of compensating amplifiers, including feedback amplifiers, are kept as simple as possible using reactance plots and s-domain transfer functions that mainly require algebraic skill.
The third volume, Analog Circuit Design: Designing High-Performance Amplifiers, applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification. Topics include bandwidth extension, noise and distortion, effects of components, instrumentation and isolation, amplifiers, autocalibration, thermal effects, current-feedback amplifiers, multi-path schemes, feed forward, fT multipliers, buffers, voltage translators, Giulbert gain cells and multipliers.
The fourth volume in the set, Analog Circuit Design: Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits, builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors. Digitizing (ADCs and DACs) and sampling (including some switched-capacitor) circuits are explained, with theory required for design. Sampling theory is developed from both a frequency and time-domain viewpoint, with emphasis upon application to design.
State-of-the-art analogue integrated circuit design is receiving a tremendous boost from the development and application of current-mode approaches, which are rapidly superseding traditional voltage-mode techniques. This activity is linked to important advances in integrated circuit technologies, such as the 'true' complementary bipolar process; CMOS VLSI technology, which allows realisation of high-performance mixed analogue and digital circuits; and gallium arsenide processing, which has matured to a point where it can be used effectively in high-speed analogue circuit and system design. In this book, all three technologies are represented, with key building blocks, circuit designs and applications. Many very important, but recent, techniques are presented, including switched-current techniques for high-precision filtering and A/D and D/A conversion, current-based amplifying techniques, and neural networks. Translinear principles, current mirrors, and the current conveyor are also covered. This book draws together contributions from the world's most eminent analogue IC designers to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive text devoted to this important and exciting new area of analogue electronics.
One of the many problems facing designers of fibre systems is the basic question of how best to transmit analogue-sourced signals; either on dedicated point-to-point links or as part of mixed-mode traffic on a predominantly digital fibre service network. This book discusses the fundamental principles involved and describes a variety of techniques and applications. The chapters have been contributed by invited researchers with expertise in a range of areas and outline the latest methods and analytical approaches, components and systems.
The inexorable increase in levels of integration of electronic circuits has most often been exploited using digital signals. So much so that design engineers have sought to digitise analogue signals as early as possible in the signal processing chain, and performed digital processing wherever practicable.
As electronics continue to become faster, smaller and more efficient, development and research around clocking signals and circuits has accelerated to keep pace. This book bridges the gap between the classical theory of clocking circuits and recent technological advances, making it a useful guide for newcomers to the field, and offering an opportunity for established researchers to broaden and update their knowledge of current trends.
Reset control is concerned with how to reset a system when it is disturbed to overcome the inherent limitations of linear feedback control and to improve robustness. It has found applications in many practical systems including flexible mechanical systems, tapespeed control systems and high precision positioning systems.
Most antennas are assembled from conducting surfaces and wires. The usual approach to numerical analysis of such structures is to approximate them by small surface or wire elements, with simple current approximation over the elements (the so-called subdomain approach), which requires a large amount of computer storage. This book describes a novel general entire-domain method for the analysis of metallic antennas and scatterers which enables the solution of a very wide class of problems to be obtained using computers of relatively modest capability.
Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest provides a global context for what is happening in the Pacific Northwest, analyzing the remaining ancient forest and the threats to it from atmospheric changes and logging. It shows how human tampering affects an ecosystem, and how the Pacific Northwest could become a model for sustainable forestry worldwide.
Ancient Perspectives encompasses a vast arc of space and time—Western Asia to North Africa and Europe from the third millennium BCE to the fifth century CE—to explore mapmaking and worldviews in the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In each society, maps served as critical economic, political, and personal tools, but there was little consistency in how and why they were made. Much like today, maps in antiquity meant very different things to different people.
Ancient Perspectives presents an ambitious, fresh overview of cartography and its uses. The seven chapters range from broad-based analyses of mapping in Mesopotamia and Egypt to a close focus on Ptolemy’s ideas for drawing a world map based on the theories of his Greek predecessors at Alexandria. The remarkable accuracy of Mesopotamian city-plans is revealed, as is the creation of maps by Romans to support the proud claim that their emperor’s rule was global in its reach. By probing the instruments and techniques of both Greek and Roman surveyors, one chapter seeks to uncover how their extraordinary planning of roads, aqueducts, and tunnels was achieved.
Even though none of these civilizations devised the means to measure time or distance with precision, they still conceptualized their surroundings, natural and man-made, near and far, and felt the urge to record them by inventive means that this absorbing volume reinterprets and compares.
The eighteenth century saw the creation of a number of remarkable mechanical androids: at least ten prominent automata were built between 1735 and 1810 by clockmakers, court mechanics, and other artisans from France, Switzerland, Austria, and the German lands. Designed to perform sophisticated activities such as writing, drawing, or music making, these “Enlightenment automata” have attracted continuous critical attention from the time they were made to the present, often as harbingers of the modern industrial age, an era during which human bodies and souls supposedly became mechanized.
In Androids in the Enlightenment, Adelheid Voskuhl investigates two such automata—both depicting piano-playing women. These automata not only play music, but also move their heads, eyes, and torsos to mimic a sentimental body technique of the eighteenth century: musicians were expected to generate sentiments in themselves while playing, then communicate them to the audience through bodily motions. Voskuhl argues, contrary to much of the subsequent scholarly conversation, that these automata were unique masterpieces that illustrated the sentimental culture of a civil society rather than expressions of anxiety about the mechanization of humans by industrial technology. She demonstrates that only in a later age of industrial factory production did mechanical androids instill the fear that modern selves and societies had become indistinguishable from machines.
Radar interferometers provide a cost-effective radar architecture to achieve enhanced angle accuracy for enhanced target tracking. The objective of this book is to quantify interferometer angle estimation accuracy by developing a general understanding of various radar interferometer architectures and presenting a comprehensive understanding of the effects of radar-based measurement errors on angle-of-arrival estimation. As such this book is primarily directed toward tracking radars but will also discuss imaging applications as well.
Every day, millions of people around the world sit down to a meal that includes meat. This book explores several questions as it examines the use of animals as food: How did the domestication and production of livestock animals emerge and why? How did current modes of raising and slaughtering animals for human consumption develop, and what are their consequences? What can be done to mitigate and even reverse the impacts of animal production? With insight into the historical, cultural, political, legal, and economic processes that shape our use of animals as food, Fitzgerald provides a holistic picture and explicates the connections in the supply chain that are obscured in the current mode of food production. Bridging the distance in animal agriculture between production, processing, consumption, and their associated impacts, this analysis envisions ways of redressing the negative effects of the use of animals as food. It details how consumption levels and practices have changed as the relationship between production, processing, and consumption has shifted. Due to the wide-ranging questions addressed in this book, the author draws on many fields of inquiry, including sociology, (critical) animal studies, history, economics, law, political science, anthropology, criminology, environmental science, geography, philosophy, and animal science.
Long considered "children's entertainment" by audiences and popular media, Hollywood animation has received little serious attention. Eric Smoodin's Animating Culture is the first and only book to thoroughly analyze the animated short film.
Usually running about seven or eight minutes, cartoons were made by major Hollywood studios––such as MGM, Warner Bros., and Disney––and shown at movie theaters along with a newsreel and a feature-length film. Smoodin explores animated shorta and the system that mass-produced them. How were cartoons exhibited in theaters? How did they tell their stories? Who did they tell them to? What did they say about race, class, and gender? How were cartoons related to the feature films they accompanied on the evening's bill of fare? What were the social functions of cartoon stars like Donald Duck and Minnie Mouse?
Smoodin argues that cartoons appealed to a wide audience––not just children––and did indeed contribute to public debate about political matters. He examines issues often ignored in discussions of animated film––issues such as social control in the U.S. army's "Private Snafu" cartoons, and sexuality and race in the "sites" of Betty Boop's body and the cartoon harem. Smoodin's analysis of the multiple discourses embedded in a variety of cartoons reveals the complex and sometimes contradictory ways that animation dealt with class relations, labor, imperialism, and censorship. His discussion of Disney and the Disney Studio's close ties with the U.S. government forces us to rethink the place of the cartoon in political and cultural life. Smoodin reveals the complex relationship between cartoons and the Hollywood studio system, and between cartoons and their audiences.
Anonymity in donor conception hides the truth but anonymity in story-telling helps reveal it.
The Anonymous Us Project is a safety zone for real and honest opinions about reproductive technologies and family fragmentation. We aim to share the experiences of voluntary and involuntary participants in these technologies, while preserving the dignity and privacy for story tellers and their loved ones.
The Anonymous Us Project aims to fill out the conversation on reproductive technologies. The hope is that it will inspire more truth and transparency and help share healthier families and happier people.
The objective of this book is to introduce students and interested researchers to antenna design and analysis using the popular commercial electromagnetic software FEKO. This book, being tutorial in nature, is primarily intended for students working in the field of antenna analysis and design; however the wealth of hands-on design examples presented in this book along with simulation details, makes it a valuable reference for practicing engineers. The requirement for the readers of this book is to be familiar with the basics of antenna theory; however electrical engineering students taking an introductory course in antenna engineering can also benefit from this book as a supplementary text.
Transforming the way we live, work, and engage with our environment, 5G and beyond technologies will provide much higher bandwidth and connectivity to billions of devices. This brings enormous opportunities but of course the widespread deployment of these technologies faces challenges, including the need for reliable connectivity, a diverse range of bandwidths, dynamic spectrum sharing, channel modelling and wave propagation for ultra-dense wireless networks, as well as price pressures. The choice of an antenna system will also be a critical component of all node end devices and will present several design challenges such as size, purpose, shape and placement. In this edited book, the authors bring new approaches for exploiting challenging propagation channels and the development of efficient, cost-effective, scalable, and reliable antenna systems and solutions, as well as future perspectives.
This is a professional level, introductory text on antenna principles, design, analysis, and measurements. It is especially suitable for persons who wish to improve their knowledge of antenna principles, concept design, performance analyses, and measurements. It is not a cookbook-like catalog for antenna design, nor does its understanding require a familiarity with electromagnetic theory, sophisticated mathematics, or complex computer techniques. The 3rd Edition updates and expands the original text by Lamont Blake, which was prepared at the undergraduate engineering, science, or technology level. For providing technical depth at the senior and graduate university levels, additions to the original book include a greatly expanded Chapter 7 on Antennas with Special Properties, a brand new Chapter 8 on Electronically Steered Arrays, and a revised Chapter 9 on Measurements. Also new to this edition are numerous appendices to the updated text.
This is a professional level, introductory text on antenna principles, design, analysis, and measurements. It is especially suitable for persons who wish to improve their knowledge of antenna principles, concept design, performance analyses, and measurements. It is not a cookbook-like catalog for antenna design, nor does its understanding require a familiarity with electromagnetic theory, sophisticated mathematics, or complex computer techniques. The 3rd Edition updates and expands the original text by Lamont Blake, which was prepared at the undergraduate engineering, science, or technology level. For providing technical depth at the senior and graduate university levels, additions to the original book include a greatly expanded Chapter 7 on Antennas with Special Properties, a brand new Chapter 8 on Electronically Steered Arrays, and a revised Chapter 9 on Measurements. Also new to this edition are numerous appendices to the updated text and a CD-ROM with sample computer analyses. Reader knowledge assumes familiarity with basic college physics and mathematics. Computer computations use Mathcad® software, which can be read and used by persons without prior computer programming knowledge. The book is therefore suitable for entry-level as well as the more experienced professionals who desire to expand their understanding of and capabilities for antenna principles, analyses, measurements, and design.
With its infamously packed cars and disciplined commuters, Tokyo’s commuter train network is one of the most complex technical infrastructures on Earth. In An Anthropology of the Machine, Michael Fisch provides a nuanced perspective on how Tokyo’s commuter train network embodies the lived realities of technology in our modern world. Drawing on his fine-grained knowledge of transportation, work, and everyday life in Tokyo, Fisch shows how fitting into a system that operates on the extreme edge of sustainability can take a physical and emotional toll on a community while also creating a collective way of life—one with unique limitations and possibilities.
An Anthropology of the Machine is a creative ethnographic study of the culture, history, and experience of commuting in Tokyo. At the same time, it is a theoretically ambitious attempt to think through our very relationship with technology and our possible ecological futures. Fisch provides an unblinking glimpse into what it might be like to inhabit a future in which more and more of our infrastructure—and the planet itself—will have to operate beyond capacity to accommodate our ever-growing population.
Two powerful techniques for the analysis of aperture antennas are now used. One is based on the convenient Fourier transform relationship between aperture field and far-field radiation pattern. Here this relationship is derived from the plane wave spectrum representation of the aperture fields. In the near field of the aperture, Fourier transforms become Fresnel transforms. Far-field patterns may be predicted from near-field measurements by treating the near field as the aperture plane. In its application this method is basically the Kirchhoff approximation of diffraction theory. It is accurate for the forward fields of large antennas but cannot provide the lateral and back radiation.
In summer 1969, astronauts landed on the moon and hippie hordes descended on Woodstock—two era-defining events that are not entirely coincidental. Neil M. Maher shows how NASA’s celestial aspirations were tethered to terrestrial concerns of the time: the civil rights struggle, the antiwar movement, environmentalism, feminism, and the culture wars.
Snapchat. WhatsApp. Ashley Madison. Fitbit. Tinder. Periscope. How do we make sense of how apps like these-and thousands of others-have embedded themselves into our daily routines, permeating the background of ordinary life and standing at-the-ready to be used on our smartphones and tablets? When we look at any single app, it's hard to imagine how such a small piece of software could be particularly notable. But if we look at a collection of them, we see a bigger picture that reveals how the quotidian activities apps encompass are far from banal: connecting with friends (and strangers and enemies), sharing memories (and personally identifying information), making art (and trash), navigating spaces (and reshaping places in the process). While the sheer number of apps is overwhelming, as are the range of activities they address, each one offers an opportunity for us to seek out meaning in the mundane. Appified is the first scholarly volume to examine individual apps within the wider historical and cultural context of media and cultural studies scholarship, attuned to issues of politics and power, identity and the everyday.
Dimensional analysis is an engineering tool that is widely applied to numerous engineering problems, but has only recently been applied to control theory and problems such as identification and model reduction, robust control, adaptive control, and PID control.
Machine learning explores the study and development of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions and decisions based on data. Applications of machine learning in wireless communications have been receiving a lot of attention, especially in the era of big data and IoT, where data mining and data analysis technologies are effective approaches to solving wireless system evaluation and design issues.
This new book from Richard Klemm, author of the highly successful Principles of Space-time Adaptive Processing (IEE,2002), examines the various applications of space-time adaptive processing including applications in OTH-radar, ground target tracking, STAP in real world clutter environments, jammer cancellation, superresolution, active sonar, seismics and communications. Including contributions from distinguished international authors, the book provides a unique overview of the field of space-time procesing. The book is divided in two parts; the first dealing with the classical adaptive suppression of airbourne and space based radar clutter and the second comprising of miscellaneous applications in other fields such as communications, underwater sound and seismics.
Applied Control Theory
J.R. Leigh The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1987 Library of Congress TJ213.L334 1987 | Dewey Decimal 629.8
'To the surprise of some undergraduates, processes do not carry labels marking their variables nor, alas, are they conveniently classified into linear, nonlinear, stochastic, etc., categories. The ability to come to terms with this situation is a prerequisite for anyone proposing to succeed in an industrial environment.' This quotation from Chapter 1 characterises the viewpoint of the book, which is concerned with the application of control theory to real problems in their industrial context.
Non-metallic materials and composites are now commonplace in modern vehicle construction, and the need to compute scattering and other electromagnetic phenomena in the presence of material structures has led to the development of new simulation techniques.
Bruno Latour has written a unique and wonderful tale of a technological dream gone wrong. As the young engineer and professor follow Aramis' trail--conducting interviews, analyzing documents, assessing the evidence--perspectives keep shifting: the truth is revealed as multilayered, unascertainable, comprising an array of possibilities worthy of Rashomon. The reader is eventually led to see the project from the point of view of Aramis, and along the way gains insight into the relationship between human beings and their technological creations. This charming and profound book, part novel and part sociological study, is Latour at his thought-provoking best.
The latest on the rapidly growing use of innovative archaeological remote sensing for anthropological applications in North America
Updating the highly praised 2006 publication Remote Sensing in Archaeology, edited by Jay K. Johnson, Archaeological Remote Sensing in North America: Innovative Techniques for Anthropological Applications is a must-have volume for today’s archaeologist. Targeted to practitioners of archaeological remote sensing as well as students, this suite of current and exemplary applications adheres to high standards for methodology, processing, presentation, and interpretation.
The use of remote sensing technologies to address academic and applied archaeological and anthropological research problems is growing at a tremendous rate in North America. Fueling this growth are new research paradigms using innovative instrumentation technologies and broader-area data collection methods. Increasingly, investigators pursuing these new approaches are integrating remote sensing data collection with theory-based interpretations to address anthropological questions within larger research programs.
In this indispensable volume, case studies from around the country demonstrate the technically diverse and major remote sensing methods and their integration with relevant technologies, such as geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS), and include various uses of the “big four”: magnetometry, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and electromagnetic induction.
The study explores four major anthropological themes: site structure and community organization; technological transformation and economic change; archaeological landscapes; and earthen mound construction and composition. Concluding commentary from renowned expert Kenneth L. Kvamme overviews the practices, advances, and trends of geophysics and remote sensing in the past decade.
The Archaeology of the Colorado Coalfield War Project has conducted archaeological investigations at the site of the Ludlow Massacre in Ludlow, Colorado, since 1996. With the help of the United Mine Workers of America and funds from the Colorado State Historical Society and the Colorado Endowment for the Humanities, the scholars involved have integrated archaeological finds with archival evidence to show how the everyday experiences of miners and their families shaped the strike and its outcome.The Archaeology of Class War weaves together material culture, documents, oral histories, landscapes, and photographs to reveal aspects of the strike and life in early twentieth-century Colorado coalfields unlike any standard documentary history. Excavations at the site of the massacre and the nearby town of Berwind exposed tent platforms, latrines, trash dumps, and the cellars in which families huddled during the attack. Myriad artifacts—from canning jars to a doll’s head—reveal the details of daily existence and bring the community to life.The Archaeology of Class War will be of interest to archaeologists, historians, and general readers interested in mining and labor history.
Presenting the latest in archaeometallurgical research in a Mesoamerican context, Archaeometallurgy in Mesoamerica brings together up-to-date research from the most notable scholars in the field. These contributors analyze data from a variety of sites, examining current approaches to the study of archaeometallurgy in the region as well as new perspectives on the significance metallurgy and metal objects had in the lives of its ancient peoples.
The chapters are organized following the cyclical nature of metals--beginning with extracting and mining ore, moving to smelting and casting of finished objects, and ending with recycling and deterioration back to the original state once the object is no longer in use. Data obtained from archaeological investigations, ethnohistoric sources, ethnographic studies, along with materials science analyses, are brought to bear on questions related to the integration of metallurgy into local and regional economies, the sacred connotations of copper objects, metallurgy as specialized crafting, and the nature of mining, alloy technology, and metal fabrication.
A richly illustrated, captivating study of army ants, nature’s preeminent social hunters.
A swarm raid is one of nature’s great spectacles. In tropical rainforests around the world, army ants march in groups by the thousands to overwhelm large solitary invertebrates, along with nests of termites, wasps, and other ants. They kill and dismember their prey and carry it back to their nest, where their hungry brood devours it. They are the ultimate social hunters, demonstrating the most fascinating collective behavior.
In Army Ants we see how these insects play a crucial role in promoting and sustaining the biodiversity of tropical ecosystems. The ants help keep prey communities in check while also providing nutrition for other animals. Many species depend on army ants for survival, including a multitude of social parasites, swarm-following birds, and flies. And while their hunting behavior, and the rules that govern it, are clearly impressive, army ants display collective behavior in other ways that are no less dazzling. They build living nests, called bivouacs, using their bodies to protect the queen and larvae. The ants can even construct bridges over open space or obstacles by linking to one another using their feet. These incredible feats happen without central coordination. They are the result of local interactions—self-organization that benefits the society at large.
Through observations, stories, and stunning images, Daniel Kronauer brings these fascinating creatures to life. Army ants may be small, but their collective intelligence and impact on their environment are anything but.
The contributors—Svetlana Alpers, Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., Ulla Ehrensvard, Juergen Schulz, James A. Welu, and David Woodward—examine the historical links between art and cartography from varied perspectives.
An opportunity to impress, Communication is easy isn't it? Well it may seem so, but consider honestly when was the last time you were involved in a breakdown of communications? And how long ago was one such a veritable derailment? For most people and in most organisations this happens regularly.
Darkness has a history and a uniquely modern form. Distinct from night, shadows, and artificial light, “artificial darkness” has been overlooked—until now. In fact, controlled darkness was essential to the rise of photography and cinema, science and spectacle, and a century of advanced art and film. Artificial Darkness is the first book to historicize and theorize this phenomenon and map its applications across a range of media and art forms.
In exploring how artificial darkness shaped modern art, film, and media, Noam M. Elcott addresses seminal and obscure works alongside their sites of production—such as photography darkrooms, film studios, and laboratories—and their sites of reception, including theaters, cinemas, and exhibitions. He argues that artists, scientists, and entertainers like Étienne-Jules Marey, Richard Wagner, Georges Méliès, and Oskar Schlemmer revolutionized not only images but also everything surrounding them: the screen, the darkness, and the experience of bodies and space. At the heart of the book is “the black screen,” a technology of darkness that spawned today’s blue and green screens and has undergirded numerous advanced art and film practices to this day.
Turning familiar art and film narratives on their heads, Artificial Darkness is a revolutionary treatment of an elusive, yet fundamental, aspect of art and media history.
When it was first developed, the cochlear implant was hailed as a "miracle cure" for deafness. That relatively few deaf adults seemed to want it was puzzling. The technology was then modified for use with deaf children, 90 percent of whom have hearing parents. Then, controversy struck as the Deaf community overwhelmingly protested the use of the device and procedure. For them, the cochlear implant was not viewed in the context of medical progress and advances in the physiology of hearing, but instead represented the historic oppression of deaf people and of sign languages.
Part ethnography and part historical study, The Artificial Ear is based on interviews with researchers who were pivotal in the early development and implementation of the new technology. Through an analysis of the scientific and clinical literature, Stuart Blume reconstructs the history of artificial hearing from its conceptual origins in the 1930s, to the first attempt at cochlear implantation in Paris in the 1950s, and to the widespread clinical application of the "bionic ear" since the 1980s.
The urgent need to reduce carbon emissions is leading to growing use of renewable electricity, particularly from wind and photovoltaics. However, the intermittent nature of these power sources presents challenges to power systems, which need to ensure high and consistent power quality. Going forward, power systems also need to be able to respond to changes in loads, for example from EV charging. Neither production nor load changes can be predicted precisely, and so there is a degree of uncertainty or fuzziness. One way to meet these challenges is to use a kind of artificial intelligence - fuzzy logic.
Research in artificial intelligence has developed many techniques and methodologies that can be either adapted or used directly to solve complex power system problems. A variety of such problems are covered in this book including reactive power control, alarm analysis, fault diagnosis, protection systems and load forecasting. Methods such as knowledge-based (expert) systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms are all first introduced and then investigated in terms of their applicability in the power systems field. The book, therefore, serves as both an introduction to the use of artificial intelligence techniques for those from a power systems background and as an overview of the power systems implementation area for those from an artificial intelligence computing or control background. It is structured so that it is suitable for various levels of reader, covering basic principles as well as applications and case studies. The most popular methods and the most fruitful application fields are considered in more detail. The book contains contributions from top international authors and will be an extremely useful text for all those with an interest in the field.