Why have both Great Britain and the United States been unable to create effective training and work programs for the unemployed? Desmond King contends that the answer lies in the liberal political origins of these programs. Integrating extensive, previously untapped archival and documentary materials with an analysis of the sources of political support for work-welfare programs, King shows that policymakers in both Great Britain and the United States have tried to achieve conflicting goals through these programs.
The goal of work-welfare policy in both countries has been to provide financial aid, training, and placement services for the unemployed. In order to muster support for these programs, however, work-welfare programs had to incorporate liberal requirements that they not interfere with private market forces, and that they prevent the "undeserving" from obtaining benefits. For King, the attempt to integrate these incompatible functions is the defining feature of British and American policies as well as the cause of their failure.
Essential reading for anyone hoping to understand the national controversy about set-asides and other forms of affirmative action.
"I strongly recommend this book to sociologists, political scientists, politicians, and business leaders as an analysis of race relations and economic development." -- Lewis M. Killian, author of Black and White: Reflections of a White
Southern Sociologist This path-breaking study examines the accomplishments and limitations of the set-aside programs that have moved to the center of national political debate about affirmative action in the United States. Balanced yet candid, it focuses on the landmark case of Richmond v. Croson, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the city of Richmond's set-aside program, which required that thirty percent of the money in city construction contracts be awarded to minority firms. The authors describe the politics that gave rise to the set-aside program, investigate its actual operation, explore its effects, and detail responses to it in both black and white communities. They document that, while the program served important political purposes, it produced limited economic benefits for the broader African-American community, and conclude with an examination of the politics of development as an alternative to the set-aside framework that has been central to urban politics.
"This book is recommended for anyone interested in understanding, questioning, articulating, and acting on the basis of their own and others' perspectives on sexism, racism, and affirmative action in American higher education."
While equal opportunity for all candidates is widely recognized as a goal within academia, the implementation of specific procedures to achieve equality has resulted in vehement disputes regarding both the means and ends. To encourage a reexamination of this issue, Cahn asked three prominent American social philosophers--Leslie Pickering Francis, Robert L. Simon, and Lawrence C. Becker--who hold divergent views about affirmative action, to write extended essays presenting their views. Twenty-two other philosophers then respond to these three principal essays. While no consensus is reached, the resulting clash of reasoned judgments will serve to revitalize the issues raised by affirmative action.
Introduction - Steven M. Cahn
1. In Defense of Affirmative Action - Leslie Pickering Francis
2. Affirmative Action and the University: Faculty Appointment and Preferential Treatment - Robert L. Simon
3. Affirmative Action and Faculty Appointments - Lawrence C. Becker
4. What Good Am I? - Laurence Thomas
5. Who "Counts" on Campus? - Ann Hartle
6. Reflections on Affirmative Action in Academia - Robert G. Turnbull
7. The Injustice of Strong Affirmative Action - John Kekes
8. Preferential Treatment Versus Purported Meritocratic Rights - Richard J. Arneson
9. Faculties as Civil Societies: A Misleading Model for Affirmative Action - Jeffrie G. Murphy
10. Facing Facts and Responsibilities - The White Man's Burden and the Burden of Proof - Karen Hanson
11. Affirmative Action: Relevant Knowledge and Relevant Ignorance - Joel J. Kupperman
12. Remarks on Affirmative Action - Andrew Oldenquist
13. Affirmative Action and the Multicultural Ideal - Philip L. Quinn
14. "Affirmative Action" in the Cultural Wars - Frederick A. Olafson
15. Quotas by Any Name: Some Problems of Affirmative Action in Faculty Appointments - Tom L. Beauchamp
16. Are Quotas Sometimes Justified? - James Rachels
17. Proportional Representation of Women and Minorities - Celia Wolf-Devine
18. An Ecological Concept of Diversity - La Verne Shelton
19. Careers Open to Talent - Ellen Frankel Paul
20. Some Sceptical Doubts - Alasdair MacIntyre
21. Affirmative Action and Tenure Decisions - Richard T. De George
22. Affirmative Action and the Awarding of Tenure - Peter J. Markie
23. The Case for Preferential Treatment - James P. Sterba
24. Saying What We Think - Fred Sommers
25. Comments on Compromise and Affirmative Action - Alan H. Goldman
About the Authors
About the Author(s)
Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy and former Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He has published numerous other books, including Morality, Responsibility, and the University (Temple).
Contributors: Laurence Thomas, Ann Hartle, Robert G. Turnbull, John Kekes, Richard J. Arneson, Jeffrie G. Murphy, Karen Hanson, Joel J. Kupperman, Andrew Oldenquist, Philip L. Quinn, Frederick A. Olafson, Tom L. Beauchamp, James Rachels, Celia Wolf-Devine, La Verne Shelton, Ellen Frankel Paul, Alasdair MacIntyre, Richard T. De George, Peter J. Markie, James P. Sterba, Fred Sommers, Alan H. Goldman, and the editor.
African American Females: Addressing Challenges and Nurturing the Future illustrates that across education, health, and other areas of social life, opportunities are stratified along gender as well as race lines. The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women intersects with race and class to create multiple levels of disadvantage. This book is one result of a unique forum intended to bring into focus the K–12 and postsecondary schooling issues and challenges affecting African American girls and women. Focusing on the historical antecedents of African American female participation and the contemporary context of access and opportunity for black girls and women, the contributors to this collection pay particular attention to the interaction of gender with race/ethnicity, class, age, and health, with the central aim of encouraging thoughtful reading, critical thinking, and informed conversations about the necessity of exploring the lives of African American females. Additionally, the book frames important implications for recommended changes in policy and practice regarding a number of critical matters presently affecting African American females in schools and communities across the state of Michigan and nationwide.
In 1955 Pan American World Airways began recruiting Japanese American women to work as stewardesses on its Tokyo-bound flights and eventually its round-the-world flights as well. Based in Honolulu, these women were informally known as Pan Am’s “Nisei”—second-generation Japanese Americans—even though not all of them were Japanese American or second-generation. They were ostensibly hired for their Japanese-language skills, but few spoke Japanese fluently. This absorbing account of Pan Am’s “Nisei” stewardess program suggests that the Japanese American (and later other Asian and Asian American) stewardesses were meant to enhance the airline’s image of exotic cosmopolitanism and worldliness. As its corporate archives demonstrate, Pan Am marketed itself as an iconic American company pioneering new frontiers of race, language, and culture. Christine R. Yano juxtaposes the airline’s strategies and practices with the recollections of former “Nisei” flight attendants. In interviews with the author, these women proudly recall their experiences as young women who left home to travel the globe with Pan American World Airways, forging their own cosmopolitan identities in the process. Airborne Dreams is the story of an unusual personnel program implemented by an American corporation intent on expanding and dominating the nascent market for international air travel. That program reflected the Jet Age dreams of global mobility that excited postwar Americans, as well as the inequalities of gender, class, race, and ethnicity that constrained many of them.
As the largest employer of one of the world’s leading economic and geo-political superpowers, the history of the federal government’s workforce is a rich and essential tool for understanding how the “Great Experiment” truly works. The literal face of federal policy, federal employees enjoy a history as rich as the country itself, while reflecting the country’s evolution towards true democracy within a public space. Nowhere is this progression towards democracy more apparent than with its internal race relations. While World War II was a boon to black workers, little is known about the nuanced, ongoing struggles for dignity and respect that black workers endured while working these “good, government jobs.” American Dream Deferredchallenges postwar narratives of government largess for African Americans by illuminating the neglected stories of these unknown black workers.
A penetrating critique of thirty years of antidiscrimination law in the United States, this book explains why equal opportunity and affirmative action policies have failed to improve black employment since the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Farrell Bloch reviews the effects of hiring policies on minority employment and analyzes recruitment practices to reveal why current United States laws fail to address some of the most important obstacles preventing minorities from getting jobs.
Few books have ever made their presence felt on college campuses—and newspaper opinion pages—as quickly and thoroughly as Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa’s 2011 landmark study of undergraduates’ learning, socialization, and study habits, Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. From the moment it was published, one thing was clear: no university could afford to ignore its well-documented and disturbing findings about the failings of undergraduate education.
Now Arum and Roksa are back, and their new book follows the same cohort of undergraduates through the rest of their college careers and out into the working world. Built on interviews and detailed surveys of almost a thousand recent college graduates from a diverse range of colleges and universities, Aspiring Adults Adrift reveals a generation facing a difficult transition to adulthood. Recent graduates report trouble finding decent jobs and developing stable romantic relationships, as well as assuming civic and financial responsibility—yet at the same time, they remain surprisingly hopeful and upbeat about their prospects.
Analyzing these findings in light of students’ performance on standardized tests of general collegiate skills, selectivity of institutions attended, and choice of major, Arum and Roksa not only map out the current state of a generation too often adrift, but enable us to examine the relationship between college experiences and tentative transitions to adulthood. Sure to be widely discussed, Aspiring Adults Adrift will compel us once again to re-examine the aims, approaches, and achievements of higher education.