Earth is the oldest and most widely used building material in the world today. It's abundant, inexpensive, and energy-efficient. But if you're building with earth, simplicity of material needn't be an excuse for poor planning. Paul Graham McHenry, author of the best-selling Adobe - Build It Yourself, here provides the most complete, accurate, and factual source of technical information on building with earth. Lavishly illustrated with scores of photographs and drawings, Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings spells out details of: - soil selection
- adobe brick manufacturing
- adobe brick wall construction
- rammed earth wall construction
- window and door detailing
- earth wall finishes
- floor and roof structures
- mechanical considerations. Whether you're designing a new building or renovating an existing structure, Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings can show you how to achieve better results.
American Bridge Patents: The First Century (1790-1890), thoroughly illustrated with dozens of photographs and reproductions, presents the findings of a two-decade long study of several thousand pages of patent documents collected from the U.S. Patent Office. The essays in this volume offer readers tremendous insight into the creativity that characterized the evolution of bridge patents during this important and formative period of American engineering history. Of particular interest to the authors is the great variety of innovative and unusual designs that were accommodated by the then ambiguous patent law. Alongside these case studies, authors also address the Patent Office itself, whose processes regarding permissions were reformed in 1836, linking the evolution of patent law to the technology it managed.
This book presents the basic principles of transistor circuit analysis, basic per-stage building blocks, and feedback. The content is restricted to quasi-static (low-frequency) considerations, to emphasize basic topological principles. The reader will be able to analyze and design multi-stage amplifiers with feedback, including calculation and specification of gain, input and output resistances, including the effects of transistor output resistance. Of note is the presentation of feedback analysis, a subject rarely covered by other books, with insights and from angles that will reduce to analysis by inspection for readers. Some circuit transformations outlined within are especially helpful in reducing circuits to simpler forms for analysis. They are usefully applied in considering transistor circuits for which collector-emitter (or drain-source) resistance is not negligible, another often omitted topic which this book details.
The third volume, Analog Circuit Design: Designing High-Performance Amplifiers, applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification. Topics include bandwidth extension, noise and distortion, effects of components, instrumentation and isolation, amplifiers, autocalibration, thermal effects, current-feedback amplifiers, multi-path schemes, feed forward, fT multipliers, buffers, voltage translators, Giulbert gain cells and multipliers.
State-of-the-art analogue integrated circuit design is receiving a tremendous boost from the development and application of current-mode approaches, which are rapidly superseding traditional voltage-mode techniques. This activity is linked to important advances in integrated circuit technologies, such as the 'true' complementary bipolar process; CMOS VLSI technology, which allows realisation of high-performance mixed analogue and digital circuits; and gallium arsenide processing, which has matured to a point where it can be used effectively in high-speed analogue circuit and system design. In this book, all three technologies are represented, with key building blocks, circuit designs and applications. Many very important, but recent, techniques are presented, including switched-current techniques for high-precision filtering and A/D and D/A conversion, current-based amplifying techniques, and neural networks. Translinear principles, current mirrors, and the current conveyor are also covered. This book draws together contributions from the world's most eminent analogue IC designers to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive text devoted to this important and exciting new area of analogue electronics.
Reset control is concerned with how to reset a system when it is disturbed to overcome the inherent limitations of linear feedback control and to improve robustness. It has found applications in many practical systems including flexible mechanical systems, tapespeed control systems and high precision positioning systems.
This book provides an introduction to the theory of reset control, and draws on the authors' own research and others' to explore the application of reset control in a variety of settings, with an emphasis on hard disk drive servo systems.
Topics covered include the motivation and basic concepts of reset control systems; derivation of the describing function of reset systems; how the reset matrix affects the frequency domain property of a system; recent developments on stability analysis of reset control systems; robust stability of reset control systems with uncertainties; reset control systems with discrete-time reset conditions; optimal reset control design under fixed reset time instants; and reset control systems with conic jump sets.
This book is essential reading for researchers, postgraduates and advanced students in control theory, and for research-based engineers who are interested in the theory of hybrid control systems and their engineering applications.
The objective of this book is to introduce students and interested researchers to antenna design and analysis using the popular commercial electromagnetic software FEKO. This book, being tutorial in nature, is primarily intended for students working in the field of antenna analysis and design; however the wealth of hands-on design examples presented in this book along with simulation details, makes it a valuable reference for practicing engineers. The requirement for the readers of this book is to be familiar with the basics of antenna theory; however electrical engineering students taking an introductory course in antenna engineering can also benefit from this book as a supplementary text.
The key strengths of this book are as follows: First, the basics of antenna simulation will be presented in a detailed, understandable, and easy to follow procedure through study of the simplest types of radiators, i.e. dipole and loop antennas, in chapters 2 and 3. This will build the fundamental knowledge a student would need in order to utilize antenna simulation software in general. Second, comparison between theoretical analysis and full-wave simulation results of FEKO are given for a variety of antenna types, which will aid the readers with a better understanding of the theory, approximations and limitations in the theoretical analysis, and solution accuracy. Third, and of paramount importance, is the visualization of the antenna current distribution, radiation patterns, and other radiation characteristics that are made available through full-wave simulations using FEKO. A proper analysis of the radiation characteristics through these visualizations serves as a powerful educational tool to fully understand the radiation behaviour of antennas
Blueprint for Green Affordable Housing is a guide for housing developers, advocates, public agency staff, and the financial community that offers specific guidance on incorporating green building strategies into the design, construction, and operation of affordable housing developments. A completely revised and expanded second edition of the groundbreaking 1999 publication, this new book focuses on topics of specific relevance to affordable housing including:
how green building adds value to affordable housing
the integrated design process
best practices in green design for affordable housing
green operations and maintenance
innovative funding and finance
emerging programs, partnerships, and policies
Edited by national green affordable housing expert Walker Wells and featuring a foreword by Matt Petersen, president and chief executive officer of Global Green USA, the book presents 12 case studies of model developments and projects, including rental, home ownership, special needs, senior, self-help, and co-housing from around the United States. Each case study describes the unique green features of the development, discusses how they were successfully incorporated, considers the project's financing and savings associated with the green measures, and outlines lessons learned.
Blueprint for Green Affordable Housing is the first book of its kind to present information regarding green building that is specifically tailored to the affordable housing development community.
Whether a humble string of planks swaying across a trickling stream or the soaring towers of the Golden Gate Bridge, bridges are one of man’s great engineering feats. Now in Bridge, Peter Bishop provides a comprehensive historical account of their role in the advancement of human culture.
From ancient Roman arches to the rail bridge of Lhasa to the suspension bridge over Niagara Falls, Bishop traverses the full span of the globe to examine numerous incarnations and their diverse architectural styles. The book tackles a wide range of issues, including the design and construction of “mega-spans” such as Hong Kong’s Tsing Ma Bridge; the integral role of bridges in railroad networks; and the social dynamics of class and mobility that surround urban bridges in cities such as New York. Drawing upon sources in art, politics, science, philosophy, and the media, Bishop argues that the cultural meaning of bridges today revolves around the idea of expanding geographical claims, rather than connecting to others, and he explores the implications of that idea for the future. A fascinating and richly illustrated study, Bridge will engage enthusiasts of planning, architecture, and design alike.
Over the past two decades, the arts in America have experienced an unprecedented building boom, with more than sixteen billion dollars directed to the building, expansion, and renovation of museums, theaters, symphony halls, opera houses, and centers for the visual and performing arts. Among the projects that emerged from the boom were many brilliant successes. Others, like the striking addition of the Quadracci Pavilion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, brought international renown but also tens of millions of dollars of off-budget debt while offering scarce additional benefit to the arts and embodying the cultural sector’s worst fears that the arts themselves were being displaced by the big, status-driven architecture projects built to contain them.
With Building for the Arts, Peter Frumkin and Ana Kolendo explore how artistic vision, funding partnerships, and institutional culture work together—or fail to—throughout the process of major cultural construction projects. Drawing on detailed case studies and in-depth interviews at museums and other cultural institutions varying in size and funding arrangements, including the Art Institute of Chicago, Atlanta Opera, and AT&T Performing Arts Center in Dallas, Frumkin and Kolendo analyze the decision-making considerations and challenges and identify four factors whose alignment characterizes the most successful and sustainable of the projects discussed: institutional requirements, capacity of the institution to manage the project while maintaining ongoing operations, community interest and support, and sufficient sources of funding. How and whether these factors are strategically aligned in the design and execution of a building initiative, the authors argue, can lead an organization to either thrive or fail. The book closes with an analysis of specific tactics that can enhance the chances of a project’s success.
A practical guide grounded in the latest scholarship on nonprofit strategy and governance, Building for the Arts will be an invaluable resource for professional arts staff and management, trustees of arts organizations, development professionals, and donors, as well as those who study and seek to understand them.
Gregory Votolato Reaktion Books, 2015 Library of Congress TL145.V827 2015
Whether you drool over their horsepower or decry their emissions, the car is an important and ubiquitous part of nearly all of our lives. And the history of their design and the innovations of their technologies can tell us a lot about how our values and attitudes have changed. In this book, Gregory Votolato shows us how and why the automobile has become—since its rise in the late nineteenth century—at once an object of unparalleled popular desire and a hugely problematic emblem of the modern world.
Votolato explores the ways that our love-hate relationship with the car has been intimately connected with car design. He tells the story of the rise of the private passenger car and all the psychological, social, and economic functions it has come to serve beyond mere transportation. Introducing readers to the automotive design process, he traces the lifecycle of the car from the drawing board to the scrapyard, offering insights from key figures in the industry, as well as a careful evaluation of the car’s enormous environmental impact. At the same time, he looks at the many cultures tied into the automobile, from drag racing and customizing to the luxury coachcraft of the classic era. Along the way, he takes us for a ride in some of the most famous cars ever to have had their tires inflated, from the Model T to the Tesla. The result is a top-down, thrilling burn through the history of one of our most beloved—and lamented—inventions.
This book covers theoretical methods for the design of continuous time controllers for linear multivariate systems. It is intended for use by those wishing to build on a first course in control systems, either to expand their knowledge as practising engineers or as postgraduate students doing higher degrees in control engineering.
Based on material used in graduate courses taught by Professor Balasubramanian at the University of New Brunswick, this book brings together state space and frequency domain design methods for linear multivariable systems. It compares their similarities and highlights the advantages or disadvantages of the various approaches for particular applications. Divided into eleven chapters this book covers in some depth: state space design methods, frequency domain methods for multivariable systems, characteristic locus desiqn methods and stochastic control problems.
Roads and parking lots in the United States cover more ground than the entire state of Georgia. And while proponents of sustainable transit often focus on getting people off the roads, they will remain at the heart of our transportation systems for the foreseeable future. In Creating Green Roadways, James and Matthew Sipes demonstrate that roads don’t have to be the enemy of sustainability: they can be designed to minimally impact the environment while improving quality of life.
The authors examine traditional, utilitarian methods of transportation planning that have resulted in a host of negative impacts: from urban sprawl and congestion to loss of community identity and excess air and water pollution. They offer a better approach—one that blends form and function. Creating Green Roadways covers topics including transportation policy, the basics of green road design, including an examination of complete streets, public involvement, road ecology, and the economics of sustainable roads. Case studies from metropolitan, suburban, and rural transportation projects around the country, along with numerous photographs, illustrate what makes a project successful.
The need for this information has never been greater, as more than thirty percent of America’s major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, more than a quarter of the nation’s bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete, and congestion in communities of all sizes has never been worse. Creating Green Roadways offers a practical strategy for rethinking how we design, plan, and maintain our transportation infrastructure.
"Spendidly enthusiastic. . . . Soar's book is indispensable."—Bernard Cornwell
"A fascinating study of a forgotten weapon. . . . For centuries the longbow dominated battle, affecting the fates of nations" - Wall Street Journal
"Bowyers, bowhunters, target archers and students of archery history should all find cause for celebration with Hugh Soar's concise but authoritative text." - Traditional Bowhunter
On a clear July morning in 1346, a small force approached the walls of Caen for battle. The attackers rode to the field on horseback, banners and pennants fluttering in the light breeze. Behind them marched bowmen in tightly ranked units. At the sound of a crisp battle horn, they halted. A twinge of apprehension rippled through the thousands of Norman defenders as they looked down at the opposing army, for precision archery formation had long since disappeared as a military concept in medieval France. Here was not the expected rabble of unrated bucolics cowed by the might of France; confronting them was a quietly determined group of trained soldiers armed not with the familiar arbalest but with a new and strange weapon of great length. The defenders of Caen were about to meet the English war bow and its deadly battle shaft. For the next 100 years, this weapon, the "crooked stick," would command continental battlefields, etching its fearsome reputation at Crécy, Poitiers, Agincourt, and Verneuil, while establishing England as an international power for the first time.
Although the longbow is best known for its deployment during the Hundred Years' War, its origins lie with ancient Saxon seafighters and Welsh craftsmen, while today the bow is a vibrant part of the traditional archery scene. In The Crooked Stick: A History of the Longbow, historian Hugh D. H. Soar pulls together all of these strings, presenting the engaging story of this most charismatic standoff weapon. After a careful consideration of Neolithic bows and arrows, the author describes the bow's use in the medieval hunt and its associated customs. The longbow made its deepest mark in warfare, however, and the author follows the weapon's development and tactical deployment from the hand-bow of William the Conqueror's campaigns to the continental set-piece battles between England and France. Although soldiers reluctantly gave up the longbow for firearms, its recreational use became immensely popular, particularly during the Regency and Victorian periods. In the twentieth century it appeared as if the longbow would disappear into the fog of legend, but a new interest in traditional craft and expertise gained hold, and the pleasure of using this ancient instrument is now firmly part of archery around the world.
Through a remarkable command of manuscript and printed sources and a judicious use of material evidence, including his own important collection of rare longbows, Hugh Soar establishes the deep connections of this bow to England, Scotland, and Wales. Figures in the past like William Wallace, Edward III, and Henry V appear alongside detailed descriptions of bows, strings, arrows, and arrowheads, while the rise of institutions and craftsmen devoted to the longbow are presented to show how knowledge of this weapon was carried forward across the centuries. Today, those in the sport of archery and military historians will find that The Crooked Stick will enhance their own interests in a weapon of legendary status.
In addition to the illustrated text, the book contains appendices detailing the history and design of bracers, tabs and tips, quivers, and arrowheads associated with the longbow.
Analogue filters will always be needed for interfacing between digital systems and the 'real' analogue world. In fact, the high frequency integrated analogue filter has become a key component in achieving ubiquitous communication and computing. In recent years, the renewed interest in analogue, mixed-signal and RF circuits due to the need for system-on-chip design and the market for wireless communications has led to a new peak of research into high frequency integrated analogue filters.
This book brings together the leading researchers in high frequency analogue filters to highlight recent advances and identify promising directions for future development. Coverage includes Gm-C filters, MOSFET-C filters, active-LC filters, logdomain filters, switched-current filters, adaptive analogue filters and on-chip automatic filter tuning. The topical nature of the book and calibre of the authors ensures that this book will be of great interest to the electronics and communications communities worldwide.
In the United States, direct energy use in buildings accounts for 39% of carbon dioxide emissions per year—more than any other sector. Buildings contribute to a changing climate and warming of the earth in ways that will significantly affect future generations. Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are a practical and cost-effective way to reduce our energy needs, employ clean solar and wind technologies, protect the environment, and improve our lives. Interest in ZNE buildings, which produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, has been growing rapidly.
In the Design Professional’s Guide to Zero Net Energy Buildings, Charles Eley draws from over 40 years of his own experience, and interviews with other industry experts, to lay out the principles for achieving ZNE buildings and the issues surrounding their development. Eley emphasizes the importance of building energy use in achieving a sustainable future; describes how building energy use can be minimized through smart design and energy efficiency technologies; and presents practical information on how to incorporate renewable energy technologies to meet the lowered energy needs. The book identifies the building types and climates where meeting the goal will be a challenge and offers solutions for these special cases. It shows the reader, through examples and explanations, that these solutions are viable and cost-effective.
ZNE buildings are practical and cost-effective ways to address climate change without compromising our quality of life. ZNE buildings are an energizing concept and one that is broadly accepted yet, there is little information on what is required to actually meet these goals. This book shows that the goal is feasible and can be practically achieved in most buildings, that our construction industry is up to the challenge, and that we already have the necessary technologies and knowledge.
A worldwide digital and wireless communication revolution has taken place in the last 20 years which has created a high demand in industry for graduates with in-depth expertise in digital transmission techniques and a sound and complete understanding of their core principles. Digital communications: Principles and systems recognises that although digital communications is developing at a fast pace, the core principles remain the same. It therefore concentrates on giving the reader a thorough understanding of core principles and extensive coaching in the solution of practical problems drawn from various application areas. The intention is that after studying the material presented, the student will have a solid foundation free of knowledge gaps, and will be fully equipped to undertake digital communication systems analysis, design and computer simulations, and to deal with specialised applications and follow advances in the technology. Topics covered include:
overview of digital communication
linear and nonlinear channels and systems
sampling of baseband and bandpass signals
quantisation and PCM
source coding and lossless data compression
line codes and modulation
transmission through bandlimited AWGN channels
transmitted digital signals
error control coding
link analysis and design.
Many works on emerging digital transmission techniques are largely confined to academic research papers. This book will give postgraduate students and practicing engineers a sound mastery of the subject.
In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline, and electric cars all competed to become the dominant automotive technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and internal combustion had won. Was the electric car ever a viable competitor? What characteristics of late nineteenth-century American society led to the choice of internal combustion over its steam and electric competitors? And might not other factors, under slightly differing initial conditions, have led to the adoption of one of the other motive powers as the technological standard for the American automobile?
David A. Kirsch examines the relationship of technology, society, and environment to choice, policy, and outcome in the history of American transportation. He takes the history of the Electric Vehicle Company as a starting point for a vision of an “alternative” automotive system in which gasoline and electric vehicles would have each been used to supply different kinds of transport services. Kirsch examines both the support—and lack thereof—for electric vehicles by the electric utility industry. Turning to the history of the electric truck, he explores the demise of the idea that different forms of transportation technology might coexist, each in its own distinct sphere of service.
A main argument throughout Kirsch’s book is that technological superiority cannot be determined devoid of social context. In the case of the automobile, technological superiority ultimately was located in the hearts and minds of engineers, consumers and drivers; it was not programmed inexorably into the chemical bonds of a gallon of refined petroleum. Finally, Kirsch connects the historic choice of internal combustion over electricity to current debates about the social and environmental impacts of the automobile, the introduction of new hybrid vehicles, and the continuing evolution of the American transportation system.
Gillian Darley Reaktion Books, 2003 Library of Congress NA6400.D37 2003 | Dewey Decimal 338.65
Despite its long history, the factory has a particular appeal to modern architects, who have often preferred this building type as "authentic" architecture to the grand public buildings and luxury private dwellings of the contemporary city. Many European architects who looked to America for inspiration in the early 20th century were far more excited by the great factories of Detroit than they were by the monuments of New York and Washington, DC.
This book examines the factory in a number of incarnations; as image, as icon, as innovator and as laboratory. It traces the history of the modern factory from the utopian schemes of Robert Owen or Claude Ledoux in the early 19th century, through the great modernist "cathedrals of industry" of Peter Behrens, Albert Kahn and Frank Lloyd Wright, to the post-industrial revival of former factories, such as Renzo Piano’s reconstruction of the Fiat Lingotto factory in Turin, or the landscaped industrial parks created out of former steel mills in the Ruhr area of Germany.
This is the first book in the "Objekt" series, which will examine a wide range of iconic modern objects across many design fields, including architecture, industrial design, graphics and fashion. The books are not intended as exhaustive histories of their subject, but are written as thematic and discursive essays, keeping in mind the broader cultural meanings of objects or buildings as much as their intended functions in the modern period.
Industrial automation is driving the development of robot manipulators in various applications, with much of the research effort focussed on flexible manipulators and their advantages compared to their rigid counterparts. This book reports recent advances and new developments in the analysis and control of these robot manipulators.
After a general overview of flexible manipulators the book introduces a range of modelling and simulation techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, neuro-modelling approaches, and numerical techniques for dynamic characterisation using finite difference and finite element techniques. Control techniques are then discussed, including a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern control methods including neuro and iterative control, and a range of soft-computing control techniques based on fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary and bio-inspired optimisation paradigms. Finally the book presents SCEFMAS, a software environment for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
Flexible Robot Manipulators is essential reading for advanced students of robotics, mechatronics and control engineering and will serve as a source of reference for research in areas of modelling, simulation and control of dynamic flexible structures in general and, specifically, of flexible robotic manipulators.
The ever increasing utilisation of robotic manipulators for various applications in recent years has been motivated by the requirements and demands of industrial automation. Among these, attention is focused more towards flexible manipulators, due to various advantages they offer compared to their rigid counterparts. Flexural dynamics have constituted the main research challenge in modelling and control of such systems; research activities have accordingly concentrated on the development of methodologies to cope with this.
The book reports recent and new developments in modelling, simulation and control of flexible robot manipulators. The material is presented in four distinct components: (i) a range of modelling approaches including classical techniques based on the Lagrange equation formulation, parametric approaches based on linear input/output models using system identification techniques, and neuro-modelling approaches; (ii) numerical modelling/ simulation techniques for dynamic characterisation of flexible manipulators using the finite difference, finite element, symbolic manipulation and customised software techniques; (iii) a range of open-loop and closed-loop control techniques based on classical and modern intelligent control methods including soft-computing and smart structures for flexible manipulators; and (iv) software environments for analysis, design, simulation and control of flexible manipulators.
The book can serve as a teaching resource as well as a reference text for research.
Despite a prolonged slump in the housing market, the demand for residential green building remains strong. More than ever, professionals need reliable information about how to construct or retrofit livable, sustainable, and economical homes. With Fundamentals of Sustainable Dwellings, Avi Friedman provides that resource. While other books on residential green building are often either superficial or overly technical, Friedman gets it just right, delivering an illustrated, accessible guide for architects, developers, home builders, codes officials, and students of architecture and green design.
Friedman charts a new course for residential building—one in which social, cultural, economic, and environmental values are part of every design decision. The book begins with a concise overview of green building principles, covering topics such as sustainable resources and common certification methods. Each following chapter examines a critical aspect of green home construction, from siting to waste management options. Friedman provides basics about energy-efficient windows and heating and cooling systems. And he offers innovative solutions like edible landscaping and green roofs.
Friedman knows that in green building, ideas are only as good as their execution. So in each chapter valuable data is assembled and a contemporary project in which designers strove to achieve sustainability while adhering to real-world constraints is featured. The result is a practical guide for every professional in the burgeoning field of residential green building.
Since opening in 1931, the George Washington Bridge, linking New York and New Jersey, has become the busiest bridge in the world, with 103 million vehicles crossing it in 2016. Many people also consider it the most beautiful bridge in the world, yet remarkably little has been written about this majestic structure.
Intimate and engaging, this revised and expanded edition of Michael Rockland's rich narrative presents perspectives on the GWB, as it is often called, that span history, architecture, engineering, transportation, design, the arts, politics, and even post-9/11 mentalities. This new edition brings new insight since its initial publication in 2008, including a new chapter on the infamous “Bridgegate” Chris Christie-era scandal of 2013, when members of the governor's administration shut down access to the bridge, causing a major traffic jam and scandal and subsequently helping undermine Christie’s candidacy for the US presidency.
Stunning photos, from when the bridge was built in the late 1920s through the present, are a powerful complement to the bridge's history. Rockland covers the competition between the GWB and the Brooklyn Bridge that parallels the rivalry between New Jersey and New York City. Readers will learn about the Swiss immigrant Othmar Ammann, an unsung hero who designed and built the GWB, and how a lack of funding during the Depression dictated the iconic, uncovered steel beams of its towers, which we admire today. There are chapters discussing accidents on the bridge, such as an airplane crash landing in the westbound lanes and the sad story of suicides off its span; the appearance of the bridge in media and the arts; and Rockland's personal adventures on the bridge, including scaling its massive towers on a cable.
Movies, television shows, songs, novels, countless images, and even PlayStation 2 games have aided the GWB in becoming a part of the global popular culture. This tribute will captivate residents living in the shadow of the GWB, the millions who walk, jog, bike, skate, or drive across it, as well as tourists and those who will visit it someday.
Since opening in 1931, the George Washington Bridge, linking New York and New Jersey, has become the busiest bridge in the world, with 108 million vehicles crossing it in 2007. Many people also consider it the most beautiful bridge in the world, yet remarkably little has been written about this majestic structure.
Intimate and engaging, Michael Rockland's rich narrative presents perspectives on the GWB, as it is often called, that span history, architecture, engineering, transportation, design, the arts, politics, and even post-9/11 mentality. Stunning archival photos, from the late 1920s when the bridge was built through the present, are a powerful complement to the bridge's history. Rockland covers the competition between the GWB and the Brooklyn Bridge that parallels the rivalry between New Jersey and New York City. Readers will learn about the Swiss immigrant Othmar Ammann, an unsung hero who designed and built the GWB, and how a lack of funding during the Depression dictated the iconic, uncovered steel beams of its towers, which we admire today. There are chapters discussing accidents on the bridge, such as an airplane crash landing in the westbound lanes and the sad story of suicides off its span; the appearance of the bridge in media and the arts; and Rockland's personal adventures on the bridge, including scaling its massive towers on a cable.
Movies, television shows, songs, novels, countless images, and even PlayStation 2 games have aided the GWB in becoming a part of the global popular culture. This tribute will captivate residents living in the shadow of the GWB, the millions who walk, jog, bike, skate, or drive across it, as well as tourists and those who will visit it some day.
First major book on the George Washington Bridge
Full of amazing facts about the GWB that will surprise even bridge historians
Includes over 30 spectacular illustrations, ranging from archival photographs of the building of the bridge to those that show it draped in an enormous flag after 9/11
Includes personal accounts of the author's adventures on the bridge
The Green Building Revolution
Jerry Yudelson, foreword by S. Richard Fedrizzi Island Press, 2007 Library of Congress TH880.Y634 2008 | Dewey Decimal 720.47
The “green building revolution’’ is happening right now. This book is its chronicle and its manifesto. Written by industry insider Jerry Yudelson, The Green Building Revolution introduces readers to the basics of green building and to the projects and people that are advancing this movement. With interviews and case studies, it does more than simply report on the revolution; it shows readers why and how to start thinking about designing, building, and operating high performance, environmentally aware (LEED-certified) buildings on conventional budgets.
Evolving quietly for more than a decade, the green building movement has found its voice. Its principles of human-centered, environmentally sensitive development have reached a critical mass of architects, engineers, builders, developers, professionals in government, and consumers. Green buildings are showing us how we can have healthier indoor environments that use far less energy and water than conventional buildings do. The federal government, eighteen states, and nearly fifty U.S. cities already require new public buildings to meet “green” standards. According to Yudelson, this is just the beginning.
The Green Building Revolution describes the many “revolutions” that are taking place today: in commercial buildings, schools, universities, public buildings, health care institutions, housing, property management, and neighborhood design. In a clear, highly readable style, Yudelson outlines the broader “journey to sustainability” influenced by the green building revolution and provides a solid business case for accelerating this trend.
Illustrated with more than 50 photos, tables, and charts, and filled with timely information, The Green Building Revolution is the definitive description of a major movement that’s poised to transform our world.
The “green building revolution” is a worldwide movement for energy-efficient, environmentally aware architecture and design. Europe has been in the forefront of green building technology, and Green Building Trends: Europe provides an indispensable overview of these cutting edge ideas and applications.
In order to write this book, well-known U.S. green building expert Jerry Yudelson interviewed a number of Europe’s leading architects and engineers and visited many exemplary projects. With the help of copious photographs and illustrations, Yudelson describes some of the leading contemporary green buildings in Europe, including the new Lufthansa headquarters in Frankfurt, the Norddeutsche Landesbank in Hannover, a new school at University College London, the Beaufort Court Zero-Emissions building, the Merck Serono headquarters in Geneva, and a zero-net-energy, all-glass house in Stuttgart.
In clear, jargon-free prose, Yudelson provides profiles of progress in the journey towards sustainability, describes the current regulatory and business climates, and predicts what the near future may bring. He also provides a primer on new technologies, systems, and regulatory approaches in Western Europe that can be adopted in North America, including building-integrated solar technologies, radiant heating and cooling systems, dynamic façades that provide natural ventilation, innovative methods for combining climate control and water features in larger buildings, zero-netenergy homes built like Thermos bottles, and strict government timetables for achieving zero-carbon buildings.
Green Building Trends: Europe is an essential resource for anyone interested in the latest developments in this rapidly growing field.
Handbook of Vehicle Suspension Control Systems surveys the state-of-the-art in advanced suspension control theory and applications. Topics covered include an overview of intelligent vehicle suspension control systems; intelligence-based vehicle active suspension adaptive control systems; robust active control of an integrated suspension system; an interval type-II fuzzy controller for vehicle active suspension systems; active control for actuator uncertain half-car suspension systems; active suspension control with finite frequency approach; fault-tolerant control for uncertain vehicle suspension systems via fuzzy control approach; h-infinity fuzzy control of suspension systems with actuator saturation; design of sliding mode controllers for semi-active suspension systems with magnetorheological dampers; joint design of controller and parameters for active vehicle suspension; an LMI approach to vibration control of vehicle engine-body systems with time delay; and frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear vehicle suspension systems.
With contributions from an international selection of researchers, Handbook of Vehicle Suspension Control Systems will find a place on the bookshelves of academic researchers and industrial practitioners in control engineering, particularly those working on applications for the automotive industry.
A book for engineers who design and build filters of all types, including lumped element, coaxial, helical, dielectric resonator, stripline and microstrip types. A thorough review of classic and modern filter design techniques, containing extensive practical design information of passband characteristics, topologies and transformations, component effects and matching. An excellent text for the design and construction of microstrip filters.
This book is aimed at both practising and postgraduate engineers who are interested in the particular problems of high-frequency circuit design. It covers network parameters and how to work with them, various approaches to the use of conductors, and it introduces a large number of circuits using active devices (transistors).
It also deals extensively with computer supported problem solving, both with bespoke and off-the-shelf commercial software on PC or mainframe hosts. The problems of compatibility and noise are dealt with practically and in detail. There are chapters on high-frequency conductors, HF circuits with power transistors, unipolar and bipolar transistors in power stages, computer design and optimisation.
In Hitting the Brakes, Ann Johnson illuminates the complex social, historical, and cultural dynamics of engineering design, in which knowledge communities come together to produce new products and knowledge. Using the development of antilock braking systems for passenger cars as a case study, Johnson shows that the path to invention is neither linear nor top-down, but highly complicated and unpredictable. Individuals, corporations, university research centers, and government organizations informally coalesce around a design problem that is continually refined and redefined as paths of development are proposed and discarded, participants come and go, and information circulates within the knowledge community. Detours, dead ends, and failures feed back into the developmental process, so that the end design represents the convergence of multiple, diverse streams of knowledge.
The development of antilock braking systems (ABS) provides an ideal case study for examining the process of engineering design because it presented an array of common difficulties faced by engineers in research and development. ABS did not develop predictably. Research and development took place in both the public and private sectors and involved individuals working in different disciplines, languages, institutions, and corporations. Johnson traces ABS development from its first patents in the 1930s to the successful 1978 market introduction of integrated ABS by Daimler and Bosch. She examines how a knowledge community first formed around understanding the phenomenon of skidding, before it turned its attention to building instruments to measure, model, and prevent cars’ wheels from locking up. While corporations’ accounts of ABS development often present a simple linear story, Hitting the Brakes describes the full social and cognitive complexity and context of engineering design.
Hoover Dam was constructed during one of the most depressed economic climates in American history, in a remote desert canyon where temperatures ranged from single to triple digits. In order to visually document the project, the Bureau of Reclamation assigned employee Ben Glaha to photograph all aspects of the dam's construction. Glaha's photographs were used in press releases, periodicals, books, pamphlets, and slide shows to demonstrate that the dam was structurally sound and that government funds were being used wisely.
Hoover Dam: The Photographs of Ben Glaha is the first detailed examination of Glaha's images of the project, some of which have never before been published. Glaha photographed every aspect of the construction process—from details of how the dam was assembled to the overall progress as the dam rose from the bottom of the dry riverbed. Glaha not only provided the Bureau with the photographs it required, he also employed his own artistic abilities to produce images of the dam that were exhibited in museums and galleries as works of art. Because Glaha was able to create a selection of Hoover Dam photographs worthy of exhibition, he was unique among government documentary photographers.
Art historian Barbara Vilander's text places Glaha's efforts within the historical context of western landscape exploration and development and reveals how his particular qualifications led to his selection as the project photographer. Vilander then examines the many publications and venues in which the Bureau used Glaha's photographs to create support for the project. She also discusses how Glaha was recognized in his own era as an influential artist and teacher, and compares his work with that of other contemporary landscape photographers addressing western water management.
Glaha's Hoover Dam images were widely published, although in accordance with Bureau policy he was not usually given personal credit and therefore his name remains largely unknown. Vilander's book corrects that oversight by giving Glaha the technical and artistic credit he is due within the context of one of the most ambitious projects in American history.
One of the great pleasures of staying in a hotel is spending time in a spotless, neat, and organized space that you don’t have to clean. That doesn’t, however, mean the work disappears—when we’re not looking, someone else is doing it.
With Housekeeping by Design, David Brody introduces us to those people—the housekeepers whose labor keeps the rooms clean and the guests happy. Through unprecedented access to staff at several hotels, Brody shows us just how much work goes on behind the scenes—and how much management goes out of its way to make sure that labor stays hidden. We see the incredible amount of hard physical work that is involved in cleaning and preparing a room, how spaces, furniture, and other objects are designed to facilitate a smooth flow of hidden labor, and, crucially, how that design could be improved for workers and management alike if front-line staff were involved in the design process. After reading this fascinating exposé of the ways hotels work—or don’t for housekeepers—one thing is certain: checking in will never be the same again.
A Leading Expert on Traditional Archery Offers Insight Into How the Longbow Was Drawn from Medieval Sources to Modern Recreations
“Soar’s book [The Crooked Stick] is indispensible.”—Bernard Cornwell, New York Times bestselling author
Relying on more than fifty years’ experience in archery, historian Hugh D. H. Soar reflects on how the longbow was drawn and shot across the centuries through examining the design of the bow and early literature about the bow, combined with his and his colleagues’ applied knowledge using replica bows. No complete medieval longbow has survived, but those found aboard the Tudor warship Mary Rose provide the best archaeological evidence to the possible construction of the medieval bow. Contemporary treatises written about the proper manner of shooting the bow, together with the resurgence in interest and construction of replica bows beginning in the late sixteenth century that form part of the author’s collection provide the basis for this work. How to Shoot the Longbow: A Guide from Historical and Applied Sources is a fascinating and practical look at the use of a legendary invention.
A Man Who Loved the Stars
John A. Brashear University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988 Library of Congress QB36.B85A3 1988 | Dewey Decimal 522.20924
The inspiring story of a man whose avocation as a stargazer and vocation as a millwright led to his development of lenses, mirrors and other astronomical apparatus. John A. Brashear's technological advances were later employed by astronomers in the United States and Europe. Brashear also attracted the friendship and financial support of astronomer Samuel Lagley, railroad magnate William Thaw, Henry Clay Frick, and Andrew Carnegie, who gave him $20,000 for the construction of Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. The inspiring story of a man whose avocation as a stargazer and vocation as a millwright led to his development of lenses, mirrors and other astronomical apparatus. John A. Brashear's technological advances were later employed by astronomers in the United States and Europe. Brashear also attracted the friendship and financial support of astronomer Samuel Lagley, railroad magnate William Thaw, Henry Clay Frick, and Andrew Carnegie, who gave him $20,000 for the construction of Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh.
Eastern European prefabricated housing blocks are often vilified as the visible manifestations of everything that was wrong with state socialism. For many inside and outside the region, the uniformity of these buildings became symbols of the dullness and drudgery of everyday life. Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity complicates this common perception. Analyzing the cultural, intellectual, and professional debates surrounding the construction of mass housing in early postwar Czechoslovakia, Zarecor shows that these housing blocks served an essential function in the planned economy and reflected an interwar aesthetic, derived from constructivism and functionalism, that carried forward into the 1950s.
With a focus on prefabricated and standardized housing built from 1945 to 1960, Zarecor offers broad and innovative insights into the country’s transition from capitalism to state socialism. She demonstrates that during this shift, architects and engineers consistently strove to meet the needs of Czechs and Slovaks despite challenging economic conditions, a lack of material resources, and manufacturing and technological limitations. In the process, architects were asked to put aside their individual creative aspirations and transform themselves into technicians and industrial producers. Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity is the first comprehensive history of architectural practice and the emergence of prefabricated housing in the Eastern Bloc. Through discussions of individual architects and projects, as well as building typologies, professional associations, and institutional organization, it opens a rare window into the cultural and economic life of Eastern Europe during the early postwar period.
This book describes the technical design characteristics of the main components that go into forming an artificial hand, whether it is a simple design that does not have a natural appearance, or a more complicated design where there are multiple movements of the fingers and thumb. Mechanical components obviously form the structure of any hand, while there are some lesser known ideas that need to be explored such as how to process a slip signal.
The focus of the book is the design of artificial hands for people, who through trauma or congenitally, only have one or no natural hands, with an emphasis on myolectric hands - powered hands that are controlled by the small electrical signals from residual muscles. An in-depth treatment of mechanisms, sensors, control, and hand assessment is included.
Bringing together decades of research from the University of Southampton - a centre of excellence in this field - this book is essential reading for researchers and advanced students of robotics, prosthetics and mechatronics as well as professional engineers and prosthetists in universities, industry and hospitals who are involved in the design and manufacture of prosthetic hands.
In the history of medicine, hospitals are usually seen as passive reflections of advances in medical knowledge and technology. In Medicine by Design, Annmarie Adams challenges these assumptions, examining how hospital design influenced the development of twentieth-century medicine and demonstrating the importance of these specialized buildings in the history of architecture.
At the center of this work is Montreal’s landmark Royal Victoria Hospital, built in 1893. Drawing on a wide range of visual and textual sources, Adams uses the “Royal Vic”—along with other hospitals built or modified over the next fifty years—to explore critical issues in architecture and medicine: the role of gender and class in both fields, the transformation of patients into consumers, the introduction of new medical concepts and technologies, and the use of domestic architecture and regionally inspired imagery to soften the jarring impact of high-tech medicine.
Identifying the roles played by architects in medical history and those played by patients, doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals in the design of hospitals, Adams also links architectural spaces to everyday hospital activities, from meal preparation to the ways in which patients entered the hospital and awaited treatment.
Methodologically and conceptually innovative, Medicine by Design makes a significant contribution to the histories of both architectural and medical practices in the twentieth century.
Annmarie Adams is William C. Macdonald Professor of Architecture at McGill University and the author of Architecture in the Family Way: Doctors, Houses, and Women, 1870–1900 and coauthor of Designing Women: Gender and the Architectural Profession.
Microwave Horns and Feeds
A.D. Olver The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1994 Library of Congress TK7871.6.M532 1994 | Dewey Decimal 621.381
This book is the first comprehensive treatment of microwave horns and feeds for reflector antennas for use in satellite and terrestrial communications, radar and radio astronomy. The feed for a reflector antenna is a crucial component because the performance of the reflector depends on a good feed to collect or radiate signals.
The book presents the principles and applications of reflector and horn antennas with emphasis on the developments of the last decade. The background theory is included and the analytical techniques are explained. Extensive design data and numerous examples of practical horn and feed antennas are given.
The book is a collaboration between four authors, bringing together an unrivalled knowledge of analytical techniques and experience in designing horns, feeds and reflector antennas. The book should be of value to both the research worker and the designer of practical feeds for reflector antennas.
Segmenting the environment surrounding an autonomous vehicle into coherently moving regions is a vital first step towards intelligent autonomous navigation. Without this temporal information, navigation becomes a simple obstacle avoidance scheme that is inappropriate in highly dynamic environments such as roadways and places where many people congregate.
The book begins by looking at the problem of motion estimation from biological, algorithmic and digital perspectives. It goes on to describe an algorithm that fits with the motion processing model, and hardware and software constraints. This algorithm is based on the optical flow constraint equation and introduces range information to resolve the depth-velocity ambiguity, which is critical for autonomous navigation. Finally, implementation of the algorithm in digital hardware is described in detail, covering both the initial motion processing model and the chosen hardware platforms, and the global functional structure of the system.
Robert M. Neer Harvard University Press, 2013 Library of Congress UG447.65.N44 2013 | Dewey Decimal 355.8245
Napalm was invented on Valentine’s Day 1942 at a secret Harvard war research laboratory. It created an inferno that killed over 87,500 people in Tokyo—more than died in the atomic explosions at Hiroshima or Nagasaki—and went on to incinerate 64 Japanese cities. The Bomb got the press, but napalm did the work. Robert Neer offers the first history.
Extreme poverty, which intensified in India during colonial rule, peaked in the 1920s—after decades of imperialist exploitation, famine, and disease—a time when architects, engineers, and city authorities proposed a new type of housing for India’s urban poor and industrial workers. As Farhan Karim argues, economic scarcity became a central inspiration for architectural modernism in the subcontinent.
As India moved from colonial rule to independence, the Indian government, business entities, international NGOs, and intergovernmental agencies took major initiatives to modernize housing conditions and the domestic environment of the state’s low-income population. Of Greater Dignity than Riches traces multiple international origins of austerity as an essential ingredient of postcolonial development. By prescribing model villages, communities, and ideal houses for the working class, this project of austerity eventually reduced poverty into a stylized architectural representation. In this rich and original study, Karim explains the postwar and postcolonial history of low-cost housing as an intertwined process of global transferences of knowledge, Cold War cultural politics, postcolonial nationalism, and the politics of economic development.
This second edition of the number one guide to oscillator design presents a comprehensive, unified approach to oscillator design that can be used with a wide range of active devices and resonator types. Resonator types covered include: L-C, crystal, SAW, dielectric resonator, coaxial line, stripline and microstrip. This text covers modern CAD synthesis and analysis techniques and is valuable to experienced engineers as well as to those new to oscillator design. The books topics include: Analysis fundamentals, oscillator fundamentals, limiting and starting, biasing, noise, computer simulation and examples and case studies.
Located in the heart of the Kentucky Bluegrass Region, the "Paris Pike" is a scenic, twelve-mile corridor running between Lexington and Paris. Beginning in 1969, the state of Kentucky sought to widen the road in order to improve safety and capacity. Various objections led to a federal court injunction imposed in 1979 that halted the project for more than fifteen years. Over the span of three decades, several consultant studies contributed to the public understanding of the road's significance and set the stage for what has been regarded as the model for context-sensitive road reconstruction in America.
The Paris-Lexington Road focuses on the history of the reconstruction of the Paris Pike (now renamed the "Paris-Lexington Road") to critically review this reconstruction project and illustrate its significance to the profession of landscape architecture. It also situates the role of landscape architects in the history of highway design, and examines the various contemporary challenges and opportunities represented within the Paris Pike project.
As industrial processes have become more automated, there is increasing concern about the performance of the people who control these systems. Human error is increasingly cited as the cause of accidents across many sectors of industry.
This book provides state-of-the-art information on various aspects of human-machine interaction and human-centred issues encountered in the control room setting. Subject coverage includes vigilance and human error in control room situations, analysis and training of control room activities, and control room design including alarm systems.
Based on a successful multi-disciplinary IEE conference and illustrated with useful casestudies, this book is essential reading for all students, engineering professionals and managers interested in human-machine interaction and human performance and ergonomics within the control room setting.
Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.
This book is a concise yet complete treatment of the relationship between mission-level requirements and specific hardware and software requirements and capabilities. Although focusing on surface-based radars, the material is general enough to serve as a useful addition to books currently available for this purpose. It covers all phases of design and development, including the development of initial concepts and overall system requirements, system architecture, hardware and software subsystem requirements, detailed algorithms and system integration and test. This book provides a wealth of information rarely covered in one book. It is unique in that it provides a hands on and how to perspective on applying radar theory to design and analysis. Rather than being a theory and derivations-type, this book is applications-oriented making it different from other published works on this subject.
When you need vital data fast, turn to Radar Essentials. This compact yet comprehensive reference has compiled the most used principles, data, tables, and equations that are used by radar and aerospace system designers on a daily basis. Experts and non-experts alike will find this to be their go-to source for recalling and understanding the fundamentals and employing them in design and performance analysis.
Key features: Discussion of principles, design, and operation including radar functions, types, frequencies, configurations and nomenclature. Characteristics and capabilities of key subsystems including antennas, transmitters, receivers, T/R modules, and signal and data processing. Radar performance evaluation techniques and data including radar cross section, signal-to-noise ratio, target detection, search, radar measurements, and tracking. Discussion and data on the radar environment including atmospheric refraction and losses, rain attenuation, terrain, sea and rain clutter, terrain masking and multipath, ionospheric effects on radar performance, and electronic countermeasures. Radar techniques including waveform design, moving-target indication (MTI), displaced phase-center arrays (DPCA), pulse Doppler operation, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), and target classification, discrimination and identification.
There are few issues more explosive than guns. "Guns don't kill people, people kill people," is an often-heard response to calls for firearm control. But are there ways to make guns safer without placing further restrictions on gun owners? Can guns be engineered to reduce the number and severity of injuries?
This book is about guns and new solutions for addressing problems they create. Trudy Karlson and Stephen Hargarten, two experts in public health and injury control, show readers how guns are products, designed to injure and kill, and how changes in the design, technology, and marketing of firearms can lead to reductions in the number of injuries and fatalities.
Just as innovations in the design and technology of motor vehicles succeeded in creating safer cars, Karlson and Hargarten describe how responsible changes to gun products can reduce the number of serious injuries and fatalities. The injury control perspective illustrates how the characteristics of guns and ammunition are associated with their ability to cause injury and death. It also provides options for how guns can be re-engineered to ensure a greater degree of safety and protection. Reducing Firearm Injury and Death teaches basic facts about guns and gun injuries, and by reframing the problem of firearms as a public health issue, offers hope for saving lives.
Thirty years ago, the best thinking on urban stream management prescribed cement as the solution to flooding and other problems of people and flowing water forced into close proximity. Urban streams were perceived as little more than flood control devices designed to hurry water through cities and neighborhoods with scant thought for aesthetics or ecological considerations. Stream restoration pioneers like hydrologist Ann Riley thought differently. She and other like-minded field scientists imagined that by restoring ecological function, and with careful management, streams and rivers could be a net benefit to cities, instead of a net liability. In the intervening decades, she has spearheaded numerous urban stream restoration projects and put to rest the long-held misconception that degraded urban streams are beyond help.
What has been missing, however, is detailed guidance for restoration practitioners wanting to undertake similar urban stream restoration projects that worked with, rather than against, nature. This book presents the author’s thirty years of practical experience managing long-term stream and river restoration projects in heavily degraded urban environments. Riley provides a level of detail only a hands-on design practitioner would know, including insights on project design, institutional and social context of successful projects, and how to avoid costly and time-consuming mistakes. Early chapters clarify terminology and review strategies and techniques from historical schools of restoration thinking. But the heart of the book comprises the chapters containing nine case studies of long-term stream restoration projects in northern California. Although the stories are local, the principles, methods, and tools are universal, and can be applied in almost any city in the world.
RFIC and MMIC technology provides the core components for many microwave and millimetre-wave communications, radar and sensing systems. Recent years have seen exciting developments, such as circuits operating to over 200 GHz, millimetre-wave micromachined antenna arrays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). At the same time, the rapid growth of wireless communications in the 1 to 6 GHz range has seen a dramatic shift towards advanced silicon technology. It is timely, therefore, to introduce this fully up-to-date second edition of a world-renowned standard text.
With over 1000 references and 350 figures, the book gives an in-depth account of GaAs, InP, Si and SiGe technologies and describes all the key techniques for the design of amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, switches, variable attenuators, phase shifters, integrated antennas and complete monolithic transceivers. It is essential reading as both a tutorial guide for those new to RFIC and MMIC design and as a circuit design handbook for experienced engineers.
Rise of the Modern Hospital is a focused examination of hospital design in the United States from the 1870s through the 1940s. This understudied period witnessed profound changes in hospitals as they shifted from last charitable resorts for the sick poor to premier locations of cutting-edge medical treatment for all classes, and from low-rise decentralized facilities to high-rise centralized structures. Jeanne Kisacky reveals the changing role of the hospital within the city, the competing claims of doctors and architects for expertise in hospital design, and the influence of new medical theories and practices on established traditions. She traces the dilemma designers faced between creating an environment that could function as a therapy in and of itself and an environment that was essentially a tool for the facilitation of increasingly technologically assisted medical procedures. Heavily illustrated with floor plans, drawings, and photographs, this book considers the hospital building as both a cultural artifact, revelatory of external medical and social change, and a cultural determinant, actively shaping what could and did take place within hospitals.
John Ehle University of Tennessee Press, 1998 Library of Congress PS3555.H5R63 1998 | Dewey Decimal 813.54
"In The Road John Ehle's skill as a storyteller brings an early episode of road building in the North Carolina mountains to rich and vivid life. Hardship and humor, suffering and dreams are the balance for survival in a landscape that makes harsh demands on its intruders. Ehle lets us experience this place, people, and past in a fully realized novel."—Wilma Dykeman
"The Road is a strong novel by one of our most distinguished authors. Muscular, vivid, and pungent, it is broad in historical scope and profound in its human sympathies. We welcome its return with warm pleasure."—Fred Chappell
Originally published in 1967, The Road is epic historical fiction at its best. At the novel's center is Weatherby Wright, a railroad builder who launches an ambitious plan to link the highlands of western North Carolina with the East. As a native of the region, Wright knows what his railway will mean to the impoverished settlers. But to accomplish his grand undertaking he must conquer Sow Mountain, "a massive monolith of earth, rock, vegetation and water, an elaborate series of ridges which built on one another to the top."
Wright's struggle to construct the railroad—which requires tall trestles crossing deep ravines and seven tunnels blasted through shale and granite—proves to be much more than an engineering challenge. There is opposition from a child evangelist, who preaches that the railroad is the work of the devil, and there is a serious lack of funds, which forces Wright to use convict labor. How Wright confronts these challenges and how the mountain people respond to the changes the railroad brings to their lives make for powerfully compelling reading.
The Author: A native of Asheville, North Carolina, John Ehle has written seventeen novels and works of nonfiction. His books include The Land Breakers, The Journey of August King, The Winter People, and Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. Among the honors he has received are the Lillian Smith Prize and the Thomas Wolfe Memorial Award.
Ian Grosvenor and Catherine Burke Reaktion Books, 2008
As a specific form of architecture, the school is an amalgam of its function and its history. Though recognizable across cultures, the schoolhouse nevertheless retains the distinctive markings of different nations and eras. School is the first book to examine this institutional building’s modern growth on a global scale.
Ian Grosvenor and Catherine Burke demonstrate how school buildings help organize and manipulate time and space for teachers and students, using methods ranging from bells to lines to lesson plans. They reveal the ways in which schools, by their actual physical situation—surrounded by swathes of green or butting up against other urban structures, in neighborhoods stratified by class or segregated by race—make clear their place in society as fragmented sites of cultural memory and creation.
The authors further consider how new technologies and continuing globalization will inevitably force us to rethink our notions of school—and school buildings. In the twenty-first century, these shifts represent a radically new context for education. School will provide stimulating reading for anyone interested in this extraordinary evolution of architecture and education.
In recent decades, many metropolitan areas in the United States have experienced a decline in the population of urban centers and rapid growth in the suburbs, with new schools being built outside of cities and existing urban schools facing closure. These new schools are increasingly larger and farther from residences; in contrast, urban school facilities are often in closer proximity to homes but are also in dire need of upgrading or modernization. This eye-opening book explores the compelling health and economic rationales for new approaches to school siting, including economic savings to school districts, transportation infrastructure needs, and improved child health. An essential examination of public policy issues associated with school siting, this compiled volume will assist policy makers and help the public understand why it is important for government and school districts to work together on school siting and capital expenditures and how these new outlooks will improve local and regional outcomes.
Poor design and wasted funding characterize today’s American playgrounds. A range of factors—including a litigious culture, overzealous safety guidelines, and an ethos of risk aversion—have created uniform and unimaginative playgrounds. These spaces fail to nurture the development of children or promote playgrounds as an active component in enlivening community space. Solomon’s book demonstrates how to alter the status quo by allying data with design. Recent information from the behavioral sciences indicates that kids need to take risks; experience failure but also have a chance to succeed and master difficult tasks; learn to plan and solve problems; exercise self-control; and develop friendships. Solomon illustrates how architects and landscape architects (most of whom work in Europe and Japan) have already addressed these needs with strong, successful playground designs. These innovative spaces, many of which are more multifunctional and cost effective than traditional playgrounds, are both sustainable and welcoming. Having become vibrant hubs within their neighborhoods, these play sites are models for anyone designing or commissioning an urban area for children and their families. The Science of Play, a clarion call to use playground design to deepen the American commitment to public space, will interest architects, landscape architects, urban policy makers, city managers, local politicians, and parents.
Realizing the century-old dream of a passage to India, the building of the Panama Canal was an engineering feat of colossal dimensions, a construction site filled not only with mud and water but with interpretations, meanings, and social visions. Alexander Missal’s Seaway to the Future unfolds a cultural history of the Panama Canal project, revealed in the texts and images of the era’s policymakers and commentators. Observing its creation, journalists, travel writers, and officials interpreted the Canal and its environs as a perfect society under an efficient, authoritarian management featuring innovations in technology, work, health, and consumption. For their middle-class audience in the United States, the writers depicted a foreign yet familiar place, a showcase for the future—images reinforced in the exhibits of the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition that celebrated the Canal’s completion. Through these depictions, the building of the Panama Canal became a powerful symbol in a broader search for order as Americans looked to the modern age with both anxiety and anticipation.
Like most utopian visions, this one aspired to perfection at the price of exclusion. Overlooking the West Indian laborers who built the Canal, its admirers praised the white elite that supervised and administered it. Inspired by the masculine ideal personified by President Theodore Roosevelt, writers depicted the Canal Zone as an emphatically male enterprise and Chief Engineer George W. Goethals as the emblem of a new type of social leader, the engineer-soldier, the benevolent despot. Examining these and other images of the Panama Canal project, Seaway to the Future shows how they reflected popular attitudes toward an evolving modern world and, no less important, helped shape those perceptions.
Best Books for Regional Special Interests, selected by the American Association of School Librarians, and Best Books for General Audiences, selected by the Public Library Association
“Provide[s] a useful vantage on the world bequeathed to us by the forces that set out to put America astride the globe nearly a century ago.”—Chris Rasmussen, Bookforum
Dominating medieval battlefields for more than two centuries but requiring long and arduous practice to command, the English war bow and its battle shaft are the symbols of the rise of British power in Europe. Despite being crafted for hundreds of years and wielded by generations of archers, no example of the war bow—the military version of the longbow—exists, outside of a single broken limb. Now for the first time, expert craftsmen use all available evidence including applied archaeology to unlock the secrets of the English war bow. Historian Hugh D. H. Soar is joined by Mark Stretton, master blacksmith, and Joseph Gibbs, bowyer, in order to demonstrate how a war bow and its associated arrow heads and shafts may have been constructed and used. In addition to showing the complete manufacture of a bow from tree selection to stringing and how specialized arrowheads were forged and attached to shafts, Secrets of the English War Bow provides information on the actual performance of the war bow, including the bow's effectiveness against various materials and, for the first time, its use against moving targets, since bows were often drawn against mounted soldiers. Armed with this new information, Soar provides an analysis of both successes and failures of the war bow in several important battles. Illustrated in color and black and white, Secrets of the English War Bow provides an invaluable service for those interested in medieval military history, archery, and technology.
Cities are growing at unprecedented rates. Most continue to sprawl into the countryside. Some are only now adopting policies that attempt to control air pollution from vehicles, reduce water pollution from urban runoff, and repair fragmented urban ecosystems. Can good urban design and sound environmental design coincide at a neighborhood level to create healthy communities?
Absolutely, and the strategies presented by Cynthia Girling and Ronald Kellett in Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods illustrate how to weave together contemporary thinking in urban planning with open space planning and urban ecology. Drawing from eighteen case studies, these green neighborhoods are the best examples of how the natural environment can play integral roles in neighborhoods.
Green neighborhoods offer a mix of housing types in order to serve a broad cross-section of people with a finely-grained variety of land uses and services, all close to home. In ecologically sound communities, the urban landscape is a functioning part of the whole ecosystem. Wooded areas, meandering streams, wetlands, and open spaces are planned and engineered to clean the air and the water. Skinnier streets and practical pathways weave into a functional, economical network to provide a range of equally good transportation choices, from walking to mass transit, that move people efficiently and economically.
This book moves beyond identifying problems to demonstrate proven methods and models that solve multiple, complex problems in concert. With innovative ideas and practical advice, Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods is a guide for today's planners, architects, engineers, and developers to better neighborhoods and a more natural metropolis.
This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications, in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions booklet (Small Signal Microwave Amplifier Design: Solutions).
Sprawl is the single most significant and urgent issue in American land use at the turn of the twenty-first century. Efforts to limit and reform sprawl through legislative “Smart Growth” initiatives have been enacted around the country while the neotraditionalist New Urbanism has been embraced by many architects and urban planners. Yet most Americans persist in their desire to live farther and farther away from urban centers, moving to exurbs made up almost entirely of single-family residential houses and stand-alone shopping areas.
Sprawl and Suburbia brings together some of the foremost thinkers in the field to present in-depth diagnosis and critical analysis of the physical and social realities of exurban sprawl. Along with an introduction by Robert Fishman, these essays call for architects, urban planners, and landscape designers to work at mitigating the impact of sprawl on land and resources and improving the residential and commercial built environment as a whole. In place of vast residential exurbs, these writers offer visions of a fresh urbanism—appealing and persuasive models of life at greater density, with greater diversity, and within genuine communities.
With sprawl losing the support of suburban citizens themselves as economic, environmental, and social costs are being paid, Sprawl and Suburbia appears at a moment when design might achieve some critical influence over development—if architects and planners accept the challenge.
Contributors: Mike Davis, Ellen Dunham-Jones, Peter Hall, David Harvey, Jerold S. Kayden, Matthew J. Kiefer, Alex Krieger, Andrew Ross, James S. Russell, Mitchell Schwarzer.
William S. Saunders is editor of Harvard Design Magazine and assistant dean for external relations at the Harvard Design School. He is the author of Modern Architecture: Photographs by Ezra Stoller.
Robert Fishman is professor of architecture and urban planning at the Taubman College of Architecture, University of Michigan. He is author of Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia and editor of The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy.
The switched-current technique is heralding a new era in analogue sampled-data signal processing. Unlike switched-capacitor circuits, switched-current circuits do not require linear floating capacitors or operational amplifiers and they are giving a renewed impetus to mixed-signal VLSI on standard digital technology. Key analogue designers from industry and academia worldwide have contributed to this first, very timely book entirely devoted to switched current analogue signal processing.
The book introduces the basic switched-current technique, reviews the state-of-theart and presents practical chip examples. Numerous application areas are described, ranging from filters and data converters to image processing applications. It also gives a very comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles of switched-current circuits and systems.
The material in this book will be of benefit to students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, and researchers and circuit designers in academia and the electronics industry.
Systems with Small Dissipation
V. B. Braginsky, V. P. Mitrofanov, and V. I. Panov University of Chicago Press, 1985 Library of Congress QC39.B66313 1985 | Dewey Decimal 530.8
Electromagnetic and mechanical oscillators are crucial in such diverse fields as electrical engineering, microwave technology, optical technology, and experimental physics. For example, such oscillators are the key elements in instruments for detecting extremely weak mechanical forces and electromagnetic signals are essential to highly stable standards of time and frequency. The central problem in developing such instruments is to construct oscillators that are as perfectly simple harmonic as possible; the largest obstacle is the oscillator's dissipation and the fluctuating forces associated with it.
This book, first published in Russian in 1981 and updated with new data for this English edition, is a treatise on the sources of dissipation and other defects in mechanical and electromagnetic oscillators and on practical techniques for minimizing such defects. Written by a team of researchers from Moscow State University who are leading experts in the field, the book is a virtual encyclopedia of theoretical formulas, experimental techniques, and practical lore derived from twenty-five years of experience. Intended for the experimenter who wishes to construct near-perfect instrumentation, the book provides information on everything from the role of phonon-phonon scattering as a fundamental source of dissipation to the effectiveness of a thin film of pork fat in reducing the friction between a support wire and a mechanically oscillating sapphire crystal.
The researchers that V. B. Braginsky has led since the mid-1960s are best known in the West for their contributions to the technology of gravitational-wave detection, their experimental search for quarks, their test of the equivalency principle, and their invention of new experimental techniques for high-precision measurement, including "quantum nondemolition movements." Here, for the first time, they provide a thorough overview of the practical knowledge and experimental methods that have earned them a worldwide reputation for ingenuity, talent, and successful technique.
A Tale of Two Bridges is a history of two versions of the San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge: the original bridge built in 1936 and a replacement for the eastern half of the bridge finished in 2013. The 1936 bridge revolutionized transportation in the Bay Area and profoundly influenced settlement patterns in the region. It was also a remarkable feat of engineering. In the 1950s the American Society of Civil Engineers adopted a list of the “Seven Engineering Wonders” of the United States. The 1936 structure was the only bridge on the list, besting even the more famous Golden Gate Bridge. One of its greatest achievements was that it was built on time (in less than three years) and came in under budget. Mikesell explores in fascinating detail how the bridge was designed by a collection of the best-known engineers in the country as well as the heroic story of its construction by largely unskilled laborers from California, joined by highly skilled steel workers.
By contrast, the East Span replacement, which was planned between 1989 and 1998, and built between 1998 and 2013, fell victim to cost overruns in the billions of dollars, was a decade behind schedule, and suffered from structural problems that has made it a perpetual maintenance nightmare.
This is narrative history in its purest form. Mikesell excels at explaining highly technical engineering issues in language that can be understood and appreciated by general readers. Here is the story of two very important bridges, which provides a fair but uncompromising analysis of why one bridge succeeded and the other did not.
Technology Computer Aided Design for Si, SiGe and GaAs Integrated Circuits is the first book that deals with a broad spectrum of process and device design, and modelling issues related to various semiconductor devices. This monograph attempts to bridge the gap between device modelling and process design using TCAD. Many simulation examples for different types of Si-, SiGe-, GaAs- and InP-based heterostructure MOS and bipolar transistors are given and compared with experimental data from state-of-the-art devices. Bringing various aspects of silicon heterostructures into one resource, this book also presents a comprehensive perspective of the emerging field and covers topics ranging from materials to fabrication, devices, modelling and applications.
The monograph is aimed at research and development engineers and scientists who are actively involved in microelectronics technology and device design via Technology CAD. It will also serve as a reference for postgraduate and research students in the field of electrical engineering and solid-state physics, and for TCAD engineers and developers.
Telecommunications Network Modelling, Planning and Design addresses sophisticated modelling techniques from the perspective of the communications industry and covers some of the major issues facing telecommunications network engineers and managers today. Topics covered include network planning for transmission systems, modelling of SDH transport network structures and telecommunications network design and performance modelling, as well as network costs, ROI modelling and QoS in 3G networks. This practical book will prove a valuable resource to network engineers and managers working in today's competitive telecommunications environment.
Drawing on more than four decades of research, Tennessee Log Buildings examines one of the Volunteer State’s most precious—and fast-disappearing—traditions. From the pioneer era through the mid–twentieth century, folk builders in Tennessee used logs to construct cabins, barns, other outbuildings, schools, and churches. In warm, accessible prose that often makes this deeply researched work read like guidebook, John Rehder explores the varied styles and architectural characteristics of these fascinating structures, including their floor plans, the types of timber used, and the different notches that were cut into the logs to secure the structures.
Profusely illustrated with over one hundred images, Tennessee Log Houses traces the evolution of log houses from one-room (or single-pen) dwellings to more elaborate homes of various types, such as saddlebags, Cumberland houses, dogtrots, and two-story I-houses. Rehder discusses the historic settlement patterns and building traditions that led to this variety of house types and identifies their particular occurrences throughout the state by drawing on surveys conducted in forty-two counties by teams working for the Tennessee Historical Commission (THC). Similarly, he explores disparate barn and outbuilding types, including the distinctive cantilever barns that are found predominantly in East Tennessee. Sprinkled throughout the book are engaging anecdotes that convey just what it is like to conduct field research in remote rural areas. Rehder also describes in detail a number of the state’s exceptional log places, among them Wynnewood, an enormous structure in Middle Tennessee which dates back to the early nineteenth century and which suffered severe tornado damage in 2008.
As the author notes, many of the buildings originally identified in the THC investigations have now vanished completely while others are in serious disrepair. Thus, this book not only offers an instructive and delightful look at a key part of Tennessee’s heritage but also makes an eloquent plea for its preservation.
Until his death in 2011, JOHN B. REHDER was a professor of geography at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He first joined the UT faculty in 1967. He was the author of Appalachian Folkways, which won the Pioneer America Society’s Fred B. Kniffen Book Award in 2004, and Delta Sugar: Louisiana’s Vanishing Plantation Landscape, which won the Vernacular Architecture Forum’s 2000 Abbott Lowell Cummings Award.
Katherine C. Epstein Harvard University Press, 2014 Library of Congress V850.E67 2014 | Dewey Decimal 338.476234517
When President Eisenhower referred to the "military-industrial complex" in his 1961 Farewell Address, he summed up in a phrase the merger of government and industry that dominated the Cold War United States. In this bold reappraisal, Katherine Epstein uncovers the origins of the military-industrial complex in the decades preceding World War I, as the United States and Great Britain struggled to perfect a crucial new weapon: the self-propelled torpedo.
Torpedoes threatened to upend the delicate balance among the world's naval powers, they were bought and sold in a global marketplace, and they were cutting-edge industrial technologies. But building them required substantial capital investments and close collaboration among scientists, engineers, businessmen, and naval officers. To address these formidable challenges, the U.S. and British navies created a new procurement paradigm: instead of buying finished armaments from the private sector or developing them from scratch at public expense, they began to invest in private-sector research and development. The inventions emerging from torpedo R&D sparked legal battles over intellectual property rights that reshaped national security law.
Torpedo blends military, legal, and business history with the history of science and technology to recast our understanding of defense contracting and the demands of modern warfare.
This applied engineering reference covers a wide range of wireless communication design techniques; including link budgets, error detection and correction, adaptive and cognitive techniques, and system analysis of receivers and transmitters. Digital modulation and demodulation techniques using phase-shift keyed and frequency hopped spread spectrum systems are addressed. The title includes sections on broadband communications and home networking, satellite communications, and global positioning systems (GPS). Various techniques and designs are evaluated for modulating and sending digital signals, and the book offers an intuitive approach to probability plus jammer reduction methods using various adaptive processes. This title assists readers in gaining a firm understanding of the processes needed to effectively design wireless digital communication systems.
Now in its 3rd edition, this successful book provides an intuitive approach to transceiver design, allowing a broad spectrum of readers to understand the topics clearly. It covers a wide range of data link communication design techniques, including link budgets, dynamic range and system analysis of receivers and transmitters used in data link communications, digital modulation and demodulation techniques of phase-shift keyed and frequency hopped spread spectrum systems using phase diagrams, multipath, gain control, an intuitive approach to probability, jamming reduction method using various adaptive processes, global positioning systems (GPS) data link, and direction-finding and interferometers, plus a section on broadband communications and home networking. Various techniques and designs are evaluated for modulating and sending digital data. Thus readers gain a firm understanding of the processes needed to effectively design wireless data link communication systems.
We are a world of travelers. Technologies have enabled us to connect with others around the world at incredible speed, and now both business and pleasure operate on a global scale. The process of getting from point A to point B is therefore of more interest than ever, and Gregory Votolato here charts the history of that journey in all its complexity and variety.
From limousines to canoes to the Apollo spacecraft, Votolato chronicles the ever-evolving design of vehicles, nautical crafts, and other objects of transportation. Transport Design explores the relationship between mass transportation and the travel experience, probing such issues as design styles, economics, entertainment, and, most importantly, customized comfort. Elements such as nineteenth-century railway sleeping couches or the heated car seats of today, Votolato demonstrates, were among the pioneering technologies that set the precedent for personal home and office furnishings. Ultimately, Transport Design contends that today’s pressures of global commerce and environmental threats demand a radical reappraisal of how and why we travel.
A compelling and readable study, Transport Design is a must-have for transport design scholars, transit buffs, and reluctant commuters alike.
Wideband Amplifier Design
Allen L. Hollister The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2007 Library of Congress TK7871.2.H585 2007 | Dewey Decimal 621.381535
In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a 'gut level' understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model. By including these new elements, the algebraic equations provide surprising accuracy while maintaining simplicity and understanding of the circuit.
While the emphasis is on wide bandwidth (DC to several GHz) amplifiers with good transient response, the techniques presented are also quite useful to people doing classic analog design. For example, the same things that cause certain one-transistor amplifiers to oscillate at 5 GHz can also explain the behavior of an op-amp loaded into a capacitor. The term 'high frequency' is relative. As such, this book is of interest to anyone doing analog design. Both op-amp designers (Integrated Circuit) and op-amp users will find the material useful. Other applications include fast digitizers, analog to digital converters (A/D), and digital to analog converters (D/A), as well as the emerging area of Ultra Wideband (UWB) radio. Narrow bandwidth (classic Radio Frequency (RF) design) is either similar to, or a subset of the techniques presented in this book. As such, classic RF designers will also find the contents of this book useful.
Practical lessons and approaches in radio receiver design for wireless communication systems are the hallmarks of Wireless Receiver Design for Digital Communications, 2nd Edition. Decades of experience 'at the bench' are collected within and the book acts as a virtual replacement for a mentor who teaches basic concepts from a practical perspective and has the war stories that help their 'apprentice' avoid the mistakes of the past.
Readers are led through the fundamental theory in the 'Basics of RF Engineering' chapter and then walked along the path toward applying this knowledge in the design of real world systems.
Wireless Receiver Design for Digital Communications, 2nd Edition is a wireless design reference for students and professional in electrical engineering. It contains extensive chapters on mixers, oscillators, filters, and amplifiers. It details all major components related to receiver design, including cascade interaction, and provides excellent introductions and technical background on basic as well as advanced component characteristics. It is replete with exercises, design examples, illustrations, and proven concepts that help clarify the role of each component within the system design. This second edition is completely updated with modern wireless receiver systems for digital communications.